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i came across a simple one involving CaCO3. What are the steps for this procedure and how does it chemically work?
To answer this bit of the question, CaCO3 is limestone. It has the ability to react with protons (hydrogen ions) to raise pH according to the reaction:
CaCO3(s) + H+ → CO2(g) + H2O(l) + Ca++(aq)
In effect, the calcium carbonate is soaking up the hydrogen ions that are the "acid" in a solution and thereby raising the pH.
You can see this reaction in action every time you de-scale your kettle with some citric acid.
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