" More than 1300 Pg of carbon are stored in the permafrost soils (perennially frozen soils) of the Arctic (Hugelius et al., 2014). During the present interglacial period, the Holocene, microbiological activity in partially thawed soils degraded a fraction of the stored organic carbon and released it to the atmosphere. Enhanced warming during the Anthropocene has in recent years accelerated this carbon release (Schuur et al., 2015). Most studies have been focused on the thawing of the terrestrial permafrost (Koven et al., 2015; Kleinen and Brovkin, 2018; Turetsky et al., 2020). Since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) about 3.5×106 km2 (Sayedi et al., 2020) of permafrost soils were submerged by the sea level rising by about 120 m. These submerged permafrost sediments (subsea permafrost, SSPF) now form the major part of the Arctic Shelf. Sayedi et al. (2020) suggest that about 500 Pg of carbon in the form of organic carbon and methane gas may be trapped in the SSPF and become available for microbial decomposition as SSPF thaws. "
" This is the first implementation of SSPF processes in an ESM component. We investigate three extended scenarios from the 6th phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6). In the 21st century only small differences are found among the scenarios, but in the upper-end emission scenario SSP5–8.5 (shared socio-economic pathway), especially in the 22nd century, SSPF ice melting is more than 15 times faster than in the pre-industrial period. In this scenario about 35 % of total SSPF volume and 34 % of SSPF area are lost by the year 3000 due to climatic changes. In the more moderate scenarios, the melting rate maximally exceeds that of pre-industrial times by a factor of 4, and the climate change induced SSPF loss (volume and area) by the year 3000 does not exceed 14 %. Our results suggest that the rate of melting of SSPF ice is related to the length of the local open-water season and thus that the easily observable sea ice concentration may be used as a proxy for the change in SSPF. "
Forget about AD 3000. This is what I find interesting about it.
" Our results suggest that the rate of melting of SSPF ice is related to the length of the local open-water season and thus that the easily observable sea ice concentration may be used as a proxy for the change in SSPF. " "
" A quantitative method of resolving annual precipitation for the past millennia from Tibetan ice cores "
" The results show that the average annual accumulation was 109 mm around 2.5 ka, which is comparable to the Holocene average. The average accumulation was 74 mm at 1.7 ka and 68 mm at 0.8 ka, about 28 % and 34 % lower than the Holocene average.
It reached a high value of 146 mm during 1953–2012 CE, about 42 % higher than the Holocene average. Our estimates are consistent with previous results from tree rings and the TraCE-21 ka transient model simulations. Therefore, the method has the potential to reconstruct continuous high-resolution precipitation records covering millennia or even longer time periods."
" Based on the ERA5 reanalysis, we find that the global area of daily precipitation decreased from 43 to 41% of the global area between 1950 and 2020, whereas the total daily global rainfall increased from 1440 Gt to 1510 Gt per day. However, the estimated 24-hr global precipitation surface area varies when estimated from different reanalyses and the estimates are still uncertain.
To further investigate historical variations in the precipitation surface area, we carried out a wavelet analysis of 24-hr precipitation from the ERA5 reanalysis that indicated how the rainfall patterns have changed over time. Our results suggest that individual precipitation systems over the globe have shrunk in terms of their spatial extent while becoming more intense throughout the period 1950–2020.
Hence, the wavelet results are in line with an acceleration of the rate of the global hydrological cycle, combined with a diminishing global area of rainfall."
If we use the 'radio' silence we find cosmologically, as a indication of the success rate of such species. Meaning that we don't find any signals, they have to be exceptionally rare in this universe. Those that saw the faults in our type of behaviors and successfully avoided a species extinction.
small farms are not 'profitable' in the same manner as those extensive farms. And it all gears up to a increasing inequality with some idiots thinking that they now can 'own' our earth, while the rest of us doesn't.
you're pretty stupid, aren't you? Agreeing to this game.
You might wonder what this is about. It's about the game, and profits, centralization and inequality as a golden standard. Mono farming, intensive farming, industrial farming and artificial fertilizers, pesticides. In short an excuse for 'business as usual' while pretending that this behavior is part of a 'New Tech' that will save humanity from starvation.
" The CSOs also accuse Lowder et al. of discounting or ignoring recent FAO and other reports which found that peasant farms produce more food and more nutritious food per hectare than large farms. "