1

**New Theories / Are we living in an Episodic Cyclic Cosmology?**

« **on:**21/03/2021 15:33:51 »

**Are we in a Recycled Universe?**

**A new approach to solving "the antimatter problem" in our big bang cosmology opens the gate to the possibility of an Episodic Cyclic Cosmology**

**Introducing Antimatter**

Let us first look at antimatter. Every matter particle has its antimatter partner some neutral particles like photons can be their own antimatter partners . When an antimatter particle meets and interacts with its matter particle the only thing that comes out if the interaction is pure energy in the form of a pair of photons, that is, no massive particles all the mass has been concerted back to energy.

The most familiar particle is the electron. This is a light negatively charged particle. Its antimatter partner is the positron a positively charged particle with exactly the same mass, it also has exactly the opposite spin and one more important feature. The electron is travelling normally through time, depending on its velocity, but the positron is moving

**. This is the result of strict Charge Parity Time (CPT) symmetry. This is the most fundamental and as yet unbroken symmetry in the universe.**

*backwards through time*The reverse process is also possible. When a high energy particle interacts violently with another particle new massive particles can be created. This happens in the earth's atmosphere when high energy cosmic rays produce intense showers of electrons and positrons. it is also the process used to investigate particles using high energy physics experiments like the Large Hadron Collider and its precursor, the Large Electron Positron Collider which produced intense showers of particles and their antiparticles of all types by simply colliding an electron and a positron head on at an extremely high energy. The important factor is that every particle is always created together with its antiparticle.

**The Serious Antimatter problem in Cosmology**

The antimatter problem in our current well accepted "big bang" cosmology is the fact that when energy is converted into matter by particle interactions at high energy, the matter is always created in matter-antimatter particle pairs, that is there are always equal quantities of matter and antimatter created during the initial stages of particle creation from the pure energy of the initial state.

This is usually "explained away" by saying there must be some sort of broken symmetry between matter and antimatter under the initial conditions. However no hint of this exists at the limit of current high energy physics. It is also true in theoretical physics the currently highly precise equations of quantum electrodynamics, which proved the existence of antimatter in the first place back in 1928, tell us that this broken symmetry does not exist.

This symmetry breaking idea is in some way understandable because of the success of Theoretical Physics in explaining the current standard model of particle theory in terms of gauge symmetries and symmetry breaking in the strong and weak interaction fields all the way up to thew most recently discovered Higgs Boson which gives the particles their masses and links togerther the strong and weak interactions with the electromagnetic interaction

**The Two part universe proposed**

In 2020 Neil Turock of the Perimeter Institute in Canada a highly respected area of fundamental theoretical Physics studies suggested that the problem could be solved without breaking the CPT symmetry if, when our big bang expansion of a matter universe happened, at the same time it created a collapsing antimatter universe containing this unwanted antimatter to be bound up in a singularity and hidden from us. That is our expanding universe of matter also contains a collapsing universe of antimatter hidden within itself. It is again useful to note that the converse with an expanding universe of antimatter and a collapsing universe of matter might also be true.

here is a youtube video of the presentation note it is more than one hour long.

**The extension of the concept to form a cyclic cosmology**

Let us look again at this "two part universe" and consider what happens when matter collapses under its self gravity.

Several important facts are known and accepted.

- A great deal of gravitational energy is released. This is the fundamental process that creates new stars by the gravitational collapse of cold matter.
- If this collapse goes beyond clearly defined limits an event horizon forms and the collapsing material is for ever cut off from the universe in which the collapse takes place.
- There is no reason to believe that the physical laws change significantly across the event horizon because even in the most violent black hole creation that of the smallest possible black holes by the symmetrical collapse of a star compressing its neutron star core into a black hole the conditions are much milder than those explored by the LHC which is claimed to explore the physics right down to fractions of a nanosecond after the initiation of the big bang.
- The collapse of material towards the theoretical singularity can release an infinite amount of energy. This is essentially accepted and seldom stated during the description of black hole formation and it is generally assumed but not stated that something would prevent this from happening
- Quantum mechanical interactions including those creating and destroying matter are time symmetrical that is the direction of the arrow of time can be reversed without any change. On this basis a full reverse of the basic arrow of time causality as an event horizon is crossed is plausible.
- This creates the possibility that the gravitational collapse of material in an antimatter universe could in effect create and drive the expansion of a new matter universe at least as large and complex as ours.

I will call this process an

**Episodic Cyclic Cosmology (ECC)**alternatively you could include the concept of the big bang cosmology with in the name by calling it an

**Episodic Cyclic Big Bang Cosmology (ECBBC).**However I personally prefer the former because of its greater simplicity and also because the concept of an explosion in this model is completely denied because the process may take place very quickly but it is one of cooling by the creation of a vast quantity of new matter together with cooling by the expansion of a new universe and avoids the need for arbitrary cosmic inflation processes.

**Looking further at the collapse inside the event horizon of a rotating black hole**

It is known and accepted that inside an event horizon space becomes "time like" and time becomes multidimensional and "space like" a good reference for this is the work of Roger Penrose a good well established reference book is his book "The Road To Reality" tis book also covers several other aspects of this paper.

The probability that a collapsing black hole has absolutely no angular momentum is vanishingly small so all black holes are in fact Kerr black holes. It has been proved that these collapse to form a ring singularity

This is therefore a universe with a single ring dimension of space and three slightly extended dimensions of time during the collapse so it fits the requirement Max Tegmark's chart for a universe with one dimensions of space and three dimensions of time where space and time have been exchanged.

I would now like to quote from a paper published in 1997 by Max Tegmark He is another well respected and innovative thinker in the field of cosmology.

“On the dimensionality of space-time” By Max Tegmark http://space.mit.edu/home/tegmark/dimensions.pdf

Stable Spacetime_dimensionality.jpg (90.24 kB . 600x600 - viewed 942 times)

**Abstract**. Some superstring theories have more than one effective low-energy limit corresponding to classical spacetimes with different dimensionalities. We argue that all but the (3 + 1)-dimensional one might correspond to ‘dead worlds’, devoid of observers, in which case all such ensemble theories would actually predict that we should find ourselves inhabiting a (3 + 1)-dimensional spacetime. With more or less than one time dimension, the partial differential equations of nature would lack the hyperbolicity property that enables observers to make predictions. In a space with more than three dimensions, there can be no traditional atoms and perhaps no stable structures. A space with less than three dimensions allows no gravitational force and may be too simple and barren to contain observers.

**Additional notes**

The "We are here" box in the space time dimensionality diagram shows our normal three dimensions of space and one of time

The chart also shows a second area for a long lived predictable universe. One with three dimensions of Time and one of space! This universe is populated only by what he calls Tachyons.

Now Tachyons are particles that always travel faster than light or backwards in time. This could be seen as another way of describing antimatter. So what we have is an antimatter dominated universe that has a single dimension of space and three complex dimensions of time.

This is a specification of the later stages of a Kerr black hole containing a single dimensional ring singularity space dimension and three complex time dimensions opened up by the gravitational gradients. This would be formed form the collapsing inside a black hole in an antimatter dominated large universe,

**Confirming evidence of this going back nearly one century**

In 1928 the creation and solution of the Dirac equation of the electron and the start of quantum electrodynamics required the existence of antimatter. This equation is the most accurately known and accepted in all of physics. Dirac said that this antimatter universe must be (virtually) fully populated with particles or our matter particles would be continually collapsing into it because of the requirements of Fermi Dirac Statistics. The existence of antimatter in the form of the positron was proved experimentally around the same time.

This is also seen in the mathematics. It has been known for some time that the mathematics of the vast number of possible string theories allows for the concept of tachyons and other so called "ghost" particles that are essentially undetectable and but the possible link with antimatter has not been proposed to my knowledge. This problem has again been largely swept under the carpet.

This gives very clear support going back many years for Neil Turok's proposal for a "balancing" collapsing antimatter universe. hidden in our own universe.

**Where is this collapsing half universe of antimatter?**

True Einsteinian relativity only applies to situations of infinite time and space. Our universe is not infinite in time or space because it started at a particular instant in time (I will call this instant Now!) and our horizons are limited by the velocity of light. We cannot define a location for the instant Now! because this is the origin of our space but we can know our velocity with respect to the cosmic Microwave Background because of its extreme uniformity of temperature and by virtue of the the true velocity of all radiating objects in the universe could in theory be measured.

It follows that the multidimensional aspects of time are locked in this instant Now! in the form of its compactified tiny ring singularity. This instant is totally unobservable because the moment you move away from it, the limited velocity of light hides it from you. This instant that is held in common by every particle within the universe wherever it is and however it is moving.

In effect it contains as much mass (or mass energy) as our whole universe because every matter particle existing at any instant in the universe has its antimatter counterpart in this instant. Conversely the few antimatter particles in our universe have matter particles in the instant

**Now!**There is one interesting exception to this. Most of the neutrinos in our universe are called antineutrinos to balance the weak interaction process so most of the neutrinos in

**Now!**will be neutrinos.

**Interesting Results in other areas if this concept is valid**

Our universe has been measured to contain 5% Normal Matter 27% Dark (gravitational interactions only) matter and 68% Dark energy

Firstly it explains most of the dark energy that must be in the universe because the moment Now! contains 50% of total mass and energy of the universe this leaves around 18% dark energy in our part of the universe.

The possibility of having all particle properties linked via the moment

**Now!**in a common multidimensional time goes a long way towards providing a simple and understandable explanations of some of the mysteries of entanglement an superposition in quantum particles and may even open new doors into quantum computing approaches.

The favoured Symmetries of string theory called E8xE8 also suffer from undetectable "ghost" particles like the Dirac electron quoted earlier they also require large numbers of dimensions

Quantum theory and cyclic processes like waves and orbits are best treated using complex numbers which splits each number into an amplitude and a phase in the repetitive cycle of the orbital or wave the total dimensionality is therefore twice the number of dimensions less on for a uniform real episodic time dimension the three dimensions of space give six complex dimensions and the two free complex dimensions of time in the moment Now! give another four making a total of eleven. The remaining time dimension is the episodic causal and reversible time dimension that is defined by the common moment Now!

This reversal of the effective direction of time as we switch between the matter dominated large universe and the antimatter dominated large universe resolves the thermodynamic and information related problems of cyclic universes.

This recycling matter/antimatter alternate universe model offers the possibility of defining what the cosmological constant is and how it develops over time.

One important factor must not be forgotten whilst the black hole implies a collapse to the limit singularity in a finite time. The Kerr collapse is different. The initial collapse under an inverse square law releases energy at a rate equal to the reciprocal of the radius of the gravitating mass as in the Scwartschild case but as the temperature cools by matter creation and the gradual reduction in particle interactions by the establishment of the ring (or toroidal surface singularity) the dominating dimensionality of the energy release will reduce initially towards a two dimensional gravitational field which releases energy at a logarithmic rate but still tends to infinity in extremis. and finally will reach a limit in the planar approximation of a toroidal surface where the interactions become linear and there is no further release of energy.

By way of additional explanation, the inverse square law of gravity and electrostatic fields is due to them being three dimensional. This is because the energy spreading ion three dimensions is as the area of the surface of a sphere on its radius. That is one less than its number of spatial dimensions. For other cases:-

If we had a true four dimensional space the field would fall off as an inverse cube law

An "infinite" cylindrical field falls of as the inverse first power of the distance

That of an infinite plane is constant.

note particle antiparticle production at high energies will cause the mass to increase and the diameter of the singularity to shrink but will not affect the angular momentum limits of the originating event horizon. This will drive the initial inflationary stage of the new universe. it seems likely that the final size of the ring will approach the Planck dimensions or may even go smaller than that. It may also be associated with the definition of the Planck constant itself.

**A serious request for Peer Review**

I honestly believe that this suggestion could be proved and completely change the direction of a lot of theoretical and practical physics and astronomy and am asknig for someone with a real understanding of the subject to take these fully referenced ideas apart and show me where I am wrong.

There is a great deal more evidence and references to be looked at on my website https://iankimber.org Go through to the main workspace via the "Evolutionary Cosmology" button to see work in progress and contact me directly.

This work represents the first big step in my attempts to prove that like life on earth even our universe has evolved fro simple beginnings in the form of pure energy in the form of what we call the quantum mechanical vacuum trying to find a way to extend itself through time.