Naked Science Forum

On the Lighter Side => New Theories => Topic started by: RTCPhysics on 14/03/2021 14:16:49

Title: On The Structure of Matter
Post by: RTCPhysics on 14/03/2021 14:16:49
                        THE STRUCTURE OF MATTER

INTRODUCTION.

The remarkable experimentation of recent years, such as: the discovery  that  colliding galaxies create gravitational  waves, the discovery of the existence of the Higgs boson, the recognition of the apparent magnetic behaviour of electrons and the discovery of quarks by accelerators such as the Large Hadron Collider, are all remarkable steps forward in our knowledge of physics theory.

The aim of this article is to explain how the discovery of the quark has changed our understanding of the structure of matter.

But what this requires is to review the classic concepts of electric, magnetic and electro-magnetic forces, replacing them with a single force, called Kinetic Energy.

However, what is true is that we do not know what the energy of a force actually is, only the way it operates.

This includes the forces of positive and negative electric charges, magnetism, the weak force of radioactive decay and the recently identified, strong force called gluon, which acts to bind protons and neutrons together within the nucleus of atoms.

But this knowledge of the gluon force, clashes with the classical electrostatics theory of  a ‘positive charge’, which is  also considered to be resident upon the protons in the nucleus.

Whereas the positive electric charges act to repel the protons out of their nucleus, the gluons bind the protons together to form the nucleus of the atom. This has taken over the title of the strong force.


However, these two variants of the nuclear force have very different structures, in that the strong gluon force is restricted to the boundary of the proton, whereas the positive electric charge follows Coulomb’s Law, repelling protons in all directions reaching to infinity.

But this duplication of opposing forces upon the protons within the nucleus, also occurs within the electrons as they orbit the atom’s nucleus.


Whereas the negative charge upon the electron repels other electrons, its  Coulomb force which exactly matches that of the proton in the atom’s nucleus, creates  the attracting force between them, which enables the electron to maintain its orbit around the nucleus.

However, what also has become known is that electrons behave like little magnets, able to attract each other together.

This confirms Gilbert N Lewis’s observation, that  the electrons in atoms reside together in pairs, which requires the presence of an attracting force between the electrons pairs in their orbital shells.

But this attracting force between electron pairs, competes with the  repelling Coulomb force of the electron’s  charge, which also act between them, as they orbits together around the nucleus of the atom.

This duplication of competing forces upon both the protons in the nucleus and the  electrons in their orbital shells, leads to the conclusion that the classical positive and negative charges of the protons and electrons within atoms is an obsolete concept.

However, acceptance of the removal of the classical concept of positive and negative electric charges, not only prevents the orbits of the electrons, but creates the problem of defining what the attracting force is, between the short range gluon force of the proton and the short range attracting force that binds electrons into pairs.


KINETIC ENERGY RINGS
The best concept that we have to create the atom by a single force is referring to this force as ‘kinetic energy’, which leads to a review of the forces within the structure of the atom.

But it is the quantum concept of spin, as spin-up and spin-down, which is  resident upon particles such as the proton, the electron and the neutrino, which gives each of them, a fixed amount of angular momentum defined as  +½ and -½.

The reason why the angular momentum of spin, is said to be in halves, is because whatever the force of angular momentum is upon a particle, its  spin is half  clockwise(+) and  half anti-clockwise (-) , being always  in equal amounts.

This spin gives the atom its ability of attraction and repulsion between the proton and the electron of the hydrogen atom.


A conceptual change that needs to be made is that the half spin on the proton, electron and neutrino is actually a ring of kinetic energy, that individually rotates around the proton, the electron and the neutrino at the speed of light and can never be slowed down.

This meets three known characteristics of the proton, the electron and neutrino.
Firstly, this concept of a force being a ring of kinetic energy, conforms to the basic law of physics, that energy can never be created or destroyed, only captured and released.

Both the proton’s and the electron’s rings, have a constant magnitude of force.

But because the electron’s ring is a smaller spin diameter than the proton, its energy appears to be slightly greater than the proton by the increased number of rotations it achieves over the same interval of time.

Secondly, the ring  itself is created by the presence of a particle of kinetic energy that individually circles the proton, the electron and the neutrino, at the speed of light.

But the outcome of the spin-up and spin-down force of kinetic energy rings between particles of matter, such as the proton and the electron of the hydrogen atom, is that they have the same binding force as that which has been experimentally measured, when separating apart the rings of the proton and the electron of the hydrogen atom.

As this particle has kinetic energy, its spin is clockwise upon one side and anti-clockwise upon the other side of its ring.

This gives the rings their states of spin-up and spin-down.


Two particles with the same direction of spin, deflect each other, whereas two particles with opposite spin, attract each other.

This applies to the proton and electron in the hydrogen atom, whose rings are  spin-up on the proton and spin-down upon the electron.

But as the rings of kinetic energy are unable to cross each other, this attraction  or deflection between two particles, only occurs when their rings of kinetic energy lie in horizontal planes above each other or adjacent to each other in the same plane, bringing the edges of their opposite spins into contact.

These rings of perpetual energy and an ability to attract and deflect other particles gives kinetic energy rings the status of a fermion, able to attach a proton and an electron together, thereby replacing the classic concept of positive and negative electric charges.

Thirdly, the ring of kinetic energy, when released from its particle, travels through space at the speed of light, with its integral spin converting the ring into a wave motion.

This wave function of the kinetic energy ring, also arises when the rings around  electrons are released into a conducting wired circuit, creating the current of kinetic energy down the wire at the speed of light.

The presence of kinetic energy rings also explains de Broglie’s theory that all particles have a wave motion associated with their movement.

This replacement of the concept of a positive charge upon the proton and a negative charge upon the electron  of the hydrogen atom, by the spin-up and spin-down force of kinetic energy rings, is a fundamental change to the theory of the structure of matter.

ROLE OF THE QUARKS.

The discovery of quarks from the experimental work of the Large Hadron Collider, has changed our understanding of the structure of the proton and neutron particles.

What is now known about  the structure of the proton and the neutron, is that they are formed from the main two quarks of the six different types discovered, which are called the Up-quark and the Down-quark.

Three of the Up and Down quarks are sequenced together into an Up-Down-Up format for the proton and the opposite sequence of Down-Up-Down for the neutron.

All three quarks are bound together by a strong force called the gluon.

But the quarks have been found to only be a small proportion of a proton’s and a neutron’s atomic mass, the rest of the mass is derived from the presence of the gluons.

Hence the term ’’strong force’’, which was classically defined as providing an attracting force between protons in the nucleus of an atom, in order to counter the repelling Coulomb force between them, has now been reallocated to the gluon force.

But this exchange of the positive Coulomb force for the Gluon force of the quarks, removes its capability of attracting the negative charge of the electrons, breaking the electron’s hold upon their orbits around the protons in the nucleus.

However, the three Up and Down quarks of  both the proton and the  neutron in the nucleus of the atom, raises the question of whether the gluon force is actually caused by the presence of kinetic energy rings around each of the three  quarks

This  gives each quark in the proton and neutron, an increased diameter from their rings of kinetic energy, but also gives them an attracting force from the proton’s spin-up-spin-down-spin-up and the neutron’s spin-down-spin-up-spin-down, which together form the boundary of the nucleus.

But despite the opposite sequence of their quarks, the three quarks and the gluon force are exactly the same for the proton and the neutron.

The only difference between the proton and the neutron, is that the neutron has a marginally greater mass than the proton.

But the difference in mass between the neutron and the proton, must  have an explanation.

Observations of neutron decay, which occur outside of the atom’s nucleus, show that the neutron is constructed from a proton, an electron and a neutrino.

But the removal of the concept of ‘positive’ and ‘negative’ electric charges upon the proton and electron of the hydrogen atom, also removes the concept of the ‘neutrality’ of the neutron.

This is fundamental, as it replaces the classic force of positive and negative electric charges within the neutron, with the spin-up and spin-down rings of kinetic energy, that operate around the proton, electron and neutrino particles.

These three are the particles that create the Table of Elements and consequently, the complete structure of matter.



STRUCTURE OF MATTER

Whereas the proton and electron of the Hydrogen atom are a two particle unit with kinetic energy rings of spin up and spin down, the neutron particle, with its electron, proton and neutrino particles, also attached  by spin-up, spin-down and spin-up, link their spins together with hydrogen, thereby  creating the standard five-particle unit of matter.

This attachment of the two particle unit of hydrogen to the three particle unit of the neutron, creates the Deuterium atom, which becomes the first element in the Table of Elements.

But the standard five-particle-unit, also has an anti-five particle unit, which has reverse spins.

This provides the means of stacking the two five particle units together as  pairs, creating the Helium atom.

It is this attachment of the anti-five particle unit, that gives Helium its four protons and four electrons, having the two electrons of Deuterium and the two electrons from the attached anti-spin five particle unit.

Because we also have five fingers upon our hands, it is easy to visualise this structure of matter between two elements.

To achieve this, place the ends of your two little fingers and both thumbs together. These provide the two pairs of electrons, attached together by their horizontal spin-up and spin-down states.

The three central fingers of each hand, again attached together by their horizontal spin-up and spin-down states, represent the proton, neutrino and proton.

Bend all three central fingers of each hand vertically down and press the knuckles lightly together to form their individual pairs, again attached together by their horizontal spin-up and spin-down states.

This  central pair of three fingers of the two five particle unit: proton, neutrino and another proton, forms the nucleus of the atom.

Now you have a representative model of the Helium atom, but recollect that all ten particles are attached horizontally together by their spin-up and spin-down rings of kinetic energy, which keep them apart by the diameters between neighbouring rings.

To create the next element of matter, which is called Lithium, requires the attachment of a second standard five particle unit.   

This process of adding two five particle units together, one being a standard spin up sequence and the other being an anti-spin down sequence, adds two more elements to the atom's structure.

The two external electrons are still horizontally attached to their protons in the nucleus, but being located externally from the nucleus by the diameter of the proton's ring, the electrons become located  along the exterior of its element, one in spin-up and the other in spin-down states.

This attachment of a five particle unit to the anti-five particle unit of two elements, is the start of a column of elements, beginning with Deuterium and Helium, then Lithium and Beryllium, which continues to Plutonium at the top of the natural Periodic Table of Elements. 

As the nucleus of the Elements of atoms is located within the centre of the column, reaching from the bottom to the top of the Table, it makes every electron have the same distance from its nucleus.

Further, as the electrons are located upon the exterior of the Column of Elements, they have opposite spin-up and spin-down states and form pairs together.

However, every electron of its element, having no electric charge or electron orbit around its nucleus, have exactly the same energy.

The unnecessary requirement of electron orbits with their different capacities and energy levels, becomes simplified by the spin-up and spin-down ring of kinetics energy.   
The interaction between the atom’s in two columns of elements, occurs when the electrons in opposite spin-up and spin down states, are attracted together.

This binding together of the atoms, occurs without the necessity of electrons being transferred from one atom to another atom.
Two columns of elements of the same height bind together, but are inert, whereas columns of different heights are active dependent upon their difference in height.   

But if the atom’s stacks are of different heights, then the deflecting force between their opposing spin-up or spin-down states along the two stack, creates an interaction from collapse to an explosion of protons, electrons, neutrinos and rings of kinetic energy. 

THE SIX PARTICLE UNIT.




Although hydrogen is the first atom to exist in the universe, it is the presence of the neutrino particle that has created the formation of matter.

However,  it has always been known that some atoms have more neutrons than protons, which increase their mass above their sequence of protons and neutrons.

For example, uranium whose atomic number is 92, has 92 proton, 92 neutrons and 92 electrons.


But its  atomic mass is 238, which, ignoring the electrons which are very lightweight, implies that the mass of its protons and neutrons at 184 is increase by the attachment of 54 more neutrons.

Atomic mass becomes more relevant, as it is evident that the neutron is the main component in the structure of atoms, rather than the addition of hydrogen atoms, which in classic atomic theory, attaches its proton to the nucleus and its electron into an orbit within the concept of a shell.

Although gravity is not a problem, collisions by fast moving particles of the solar wind are a threat to the heavier atoms of matter, as is experienced by radio-activity and neutron decay.

But in these heavier elements, an isotope form, which places a second neutrino alongside of the first neutrino in the five particle unit of the elements.

This converts the five particle unit into a six particle unit, which is  formed from the attachment of two neutrons, one spin-up and the other spin-down,  thereby replacing  the hydrogen atom with the neutron.

This explains the attachment of multiple neutrons upon the atoms column of Elements, as they increase in numbers towards the top of the Table. 

It also explains why the collision of ringed particles from the solar wind upon the column of elements, can detach a five particle unit with its attached six  particle unit, giving rise to the Alpha particles and electrons that are observed being expelled from an Element within the region of heavier atoms.

As a consequence, the model of the five and six particle units, stacked together into columns of elements, form all the elements in  the structure of matter.
But the discovery of the Up and Down Quark and the gluon force has replace the positive and negative charges and with it Neil Bohr’s formula for the maximum number of electrons orbiting within each shell.

The consequence of this discovery of the Up and Down Quarks, has led to this revision of the atom’s structure into particle units and provided a changed model of the structure of matter, which encompasses the quark particles and their gluon force.

Finally, the four forces of positive and negative charge, the strong force and the weak force have been replaced and unified by the force of Kinetic Energy Rings.
Title: Re: On The Structure of Matter
Post by: Kryptid on 14/03/2021 17:24:17
Electric charge is not an obsolete concept. It works just fine as is.
Title: Re: On The Structure of Matter
Post by: RTCPhysics on 14/03/2021 17:56:07
     THE STRUCTURE OF MATTER

INTRODUCTION.

The remarkable experimentation of recent years, such as: the discovery  that  colliding galaxies create gravitational  waves, the discovery of the existence of the Higgs boson, the recognition of the apparent magnetic behaviour of electrons and the discovery of quarks by accelerators such as the Large Hadron Collider, are all remarkable steps forward in our knowledge of physics theory.

The aim of this article is to explain how the discovery of the quark has changed our understanding of the structure of matter.

But what this requires is to review the classic concepts of electric, magnetic and electro-magnetic forces, replacing them with a single force, called Kinetic Energy.

However, what is true is that we do not know what the energy of a force actually is, only the way it operates.

This includes the forces of positive and negative electric charges, magnetism, the weak force of radioactive decay and the recently identified, strong force called gluon, which acts to bind protons and neutrons together within the nucleus of atoms.

But this knowledge of the gluon force, clashes with the classical electrostatics theory of  a ‘positive charge’, which is  also considered to be resident upon the protons in the nucleus.

Whereas the positive electric charges act to repel the protons out of their nucleus, the gluons bind the protons together to form the nucleus of the atom. This has taken over the title of the strong force.

However, these two variants of the nuclear force have very different structures, in that the strong gluon force is restricted to the boundary of the proton, whereas the positive electric charge follows Coulomb’s Law, repelling protons in all directions reaching to infinity.

But this duplication of opposing forces upon the protons within the nucleus, also occurs within the electrons as they orbit the atom’s nucleus.

Whereas the negative charge upon the electron repels other electrons, its  Coulomb force which exactly matches that of the proton in the atom’s nucleus, creates  the attracting force between them, which enables the electron to maintain its orbit around the nucleus.

However, what also has become known is that electrons behave like little magnets, able to attract each other together.

This confirms Gilbert N Lewis’s observation, that  the electrons in atoms reside together in pairs, which requires the presence of an attracting force between the electrons pairs in their orbital shells.

But this attracting force between electron pairs, competes with the  repelling Coulomb force of the electron’s  charge, which also act between them, as they orbits together around the nucleus of the atom.

This duplication of competing forces upon both the protons in the nucleus and the  electrons in their orbital shells, leads to the conclusion that the classical positive and negative charges of the protons and electrons within atoms is an obsolete concept.

However, acceptance of the removal of the classical concept of positive and negative electric charges, not only prevents the orbits of the electrons, but creates the problem of defining what the attracting force is, between the short range gluon force of the proton and the short range attracting force that binds electrons into pairs.

KINETIC ENERGY RINGS

The best concept that we have to create the atom by a single force is referring to this force as ‘kinetic energy’, which leads to a review of the forces within the structure of the atom.

But it is the quantum concept of spin, as spin-up and spin-down, which is  resident upon particles such as the proton, the electron and the neutrino, which gives each of them, a fixed amount of angular momentum defined as  +½ and -½.

The reason why the angular momentum of spin, is said to be in halves, is because whatever the force of angular momentum is upon a particle, its  spin is half  clockwise(+) and  half anti-clockwise (-) , being always  in equal amounts.

This spin gives the atom its ability of attraction and repulsion between the proton and the electron of the hydrogen atom.

A conceptual change that needs to be made is that the half spin on the proton, electron and neutrino is actually a ring of kinetic energy, that individually rotates around the proton, the electron and the neutrino at the speed of light and can never be slowed down.

This meets three known characteristics of the proton, the electron and neutrino.

Firstly, this concept of a force being a ring of kinetic energy, conforms to the basic law of physics, that energy can never be created or destroyed, only captured and released.

Both the proton’s and the electron’s rings, have a constant magnitude of force.

But because the electron’s ring is a smaller spin diameter than the proton, its energy appears to be slightly greater than the proton by the increased number of rotations it achieves over the same interval of time.

Secondly, the ring  itself is created by the presence of a particle of kinetic energy that individually circles the proton, the electron and the neutrino, at the speed of light.

But the outcome of the spin-up and spin-down force of kinetic energy rings between particles of matter, such as the proton and the electron of the hydrogen atom, is that they have the same binding force as that which has been experimentally measured, when separating apart the rings of the proton and the electron of the hydrogen atom.

As this particle has kinetic energy, its spin is clockwise upon one side and anti-clockwise upon the other side of its ring.

This gives the rings their states of spin-up and spin-down.

Two particles with the same direction of spin, deflect each other, whereas two particles with opposite spin, attract each other.

This applies to the proton and electron in the hydrogen atom, whose rings are  spin-up on the proton and spin-down upon the electron.

But as the rings of kinetic energy are unable to cross each other, this attraction  or deflection between two particles, only occurs when their rings of kinetic energy lie in horizontal planes above each other or adjacent to each other in the same plane, bringing the edges of their opposite spins into contact.

These rings of perpetual energy and an ability to attract and deflect other particles gives kinetic energy rings the status of a fermion, able to attach a proton and an electron together, thereby replacing the classic concept of positive and negative electric charges.

Thirdly, the ring of kinetic energy, when released from its particle, travels through space at the speed of light, with its integral spin converting the ring into a wave motion.

This wave function of the kinetic energy ring, also arises when the rings around  electrons are released into a conducting wired circuit, creating the current of kinetic energy down the wire at the speed of light.

The presence of kinetic energy rings also explains de Broglie’s theory that all particles have a wave motion associated with their movement.

This replacement of the concept of a positive charge upon the proton and a negative charge upon the electron  of the hydrogen atom, by the spin-up and spin-down force of kinetic energy rings, is a fundamental change to the theory of the structure of matter.

ROLE OF THE QUARKS.

The discovery of quarks from the experimental work of the Large Hadron Collider, has changed our understanding of the structure of the proton and neutron particles.

What is now known about  the structure of the proton and the neutron, is that they are formed from the main two quarks of the six different types discovered, which are called the Up-quark and the Down-quark.

Three of the Up and Down quarks are sequenced together into an Up-Down-Up format for the proton and the opposite sequence of Down-Up-Down for the neutron.

All three quarks are bound together by a strong force called the gluon.

But the quarks have been found to only be a small proportion of a proton’s and a neutron’s atomic mass, the rest of the mass is derived from the presence of the gluons.

Hence the term ’’strong force’’, which was classically defined as providing an attracting force between protons in the nucleus of an atom, in order to counter the repelling Coulomb force between them, has now been reallocated to the gluon force.

But this exchange of the positive Coulomb force for the Gluon force of the quarks, removes its capability of attracting the negative charge of the electrons, breaking the electron’s hold upon their orbits around the protons in the nucleus.

However, the three Up and Down quarks of  both the proton and the  neutron in the nucleus of the atom, raises the question of whether the gluon force is actually caused by the presence of kinetic energy rings around each of the three  quarks

This  gives each quark in the proton and neutron, an increased diameter from their rings of kinetic energy, but also gives them an attracting force from the proton’s spin-up-spin-down-spin-up and the neutron’s spin-down-spin-up-spin-down, which together form the boundary of the nucleus.

But despite the opposite sequence of their quarks, the three quarks and the gluon force are exactly the same for the proton and the neutron.

The only difference between the proton and the neutron, is that the neutron has a marginally greater mass than the proton.

But the difference in mass between the neutron and the proton, must  have an explanation.

Observations of neutron decay, which occur outside of the atom’s nucleus, show that the neutron is constructed from a proton, an electron and a neutrino.

But the removal of the concept of ‘positive’ and ‘negative’ electric charges upon the proton and electron of the hydrogen atom, also removes the concept of the ‘neutrality’ of the neutron.

This is fundamental, as it replaces the classic force of positive and negative electric charges within the neutron, with the spin-up and spin-down rings of kinetic energy, that operate around the proton, electron and neutrino particles.

These three are the particles that create the Table of Elements and consequently, the complete structure of matter.

STRUCTURE OF MATTER

Whereas the proton and electron of the Hydrogen atom are a two particle unit with kinetic energy rings of spin up and spin down, the neutron particle, with its electron, proton and neutrino particles, also attached  by spin-up, spin-down and spin-up, link their spins together with hydrogen, thereby  creating the standard five-particle unit of matter.

This attachment of the two particle unit of hydrogen to the three particle unit of the neutron, creates the Deuterium atom, which becomes the first element in the Table of Elements.

But the standard five-particle-unit, also has an anti-five particle unit, which has reverse spins.

This provides the means of stacking the two five particle units together as  pairs, creating the Helium atom.

It is this attachment of the anti-five particle unit, that gives Helium its four protons and four electrons, having the two electrons of Deuterium and the two electrons from the attached anti-spin five particle unit.

Because we also have five fingers upon our hands, it is easy to visualise this structure of matter between two elements.

To achieve this, place the ends of your two little fingers and both thumbs together. These provide the two pairs of electrons, attached together by their horizontal spin-up and spin-down states.

The three central fingers of each hand, again attached together by their horizontal spin-up and spin-down states, represent the proton, neutrino and proton.

Bend all three central fingers of each hand vertically down and press the knuckles lightly together to form their individual pairs, again attached together by their horizontal spin-up and spin-down states.

This  central pair of three fingers of the two five particle unit: proton, neutrino and another proton, forms the nucleus of the atom.

Now you have a representative model of the Helium atom, but recollect that all ten particles are attached horizontally together by their spin-up and spin-down rings of kinetic energy, which keep them apart by the diameters between neighbouring rings.

To create the next element of matter, which is called Lithium, requires the attachment of a second standard five particle unit.   

This process of adding two five particle units together, one being a standard spin up sequence and the other being an anti-spin down sequence, adds two more elements to the atom's structure.

The two external electrons are still horizontally attached to their protons in the nucleus, but being located externally from the nucleus by the diameter of the proton's ring, the electrons become located  along the exterior of its element, one in spin-up and the other in spin-down states.

This attachment of a five particle unit to the anti-five particle unit of two elements, is the start of a column of elements, beginning with Deuterium and Helium, then Lithium and Beryllium, which continues to Plutonium at the top of the natural Periodic Table of Elements.

As the nucleus of the Elements of atoms is located within the centre of the column, reaching from the bottom to the top of the Table, it makes every electron have the same distance from its nucleus.

Further, as the electrons are located upon the exterior of the Column of Elements, they have opposite spin-up and spin-down states and form pairs together.

However, every electron of its element, having no electric charge or electron orbit around its nucleus, have exactly the same energy.

The unnecessary requirement of electron orbits with their different capacities and energy levels, becomes simplified by the spin-up and spin-down ring of kinetics energy.   

The interaction between the atom’s in two columns of elements, occurs when the electrons in opposite spin-up and spin down states, are attracted together.

This binding together of the atoms, occurs without the necessity of electrons being transferred from one atom to another atom.

Two columns of elements of the same height bind together, but are inert, whereas columns of different heights are active dependent upon their difference in height.   

But if the atom’s stacks are of different heights, then the deflecting force between their opposing spin-up or spin-down states along the two stack, creates an interaction from collapse to an explosion of protons, electrons, neutrinos and rings of kinetic energy.

THE SIX PARTICLE UNIT.

Although hydrogen is the first atom to exist in the universe, it is the presence of the neutrino particle that has created the formation of matter.

However,  it has always been known that some atoms have more neutrons than protons, which increase their mass above their sequence of protons and neutrons.

For example, uranium whose atomic number is 92, has 92 proton, 92 neutrons and 92 electrons.

But its  atomic mass is 238, which, ignoring the electrons which are very lightweight, implies that the mass of its protons and neutrons at 184 is increase by the attachment of 54 more neutrons.

Atomic mass becomes more relevant, as it is evident that the neutron is the main component in the structure of atoms, rather than the addition of hydrogen atoms, which in classic atomic theory, attaches its proton to the nucleus and its electron into an orbit within the concept of a shell.

Although gravity is not a problem, collisions by fast moving particles of the solar wind are a threat to the heavier atoms of matter, as is experienced by radio-activity and neutron decay.

But in these heavier elements, an isotope form, which places a second neutrino alongside of the first neutrino in the five particle unit of the elements.

This converts the five particle unit into a six particle unit, which is  formed from the attachment of two neutrons, one spin-up and the other spin-down,  thereby replacing  the hydrogen atom with the neutron.

This explains the attachment of multiple neutrons upon the atoms column of Elements, as they increase in numbers towards the top of the Table.

It also explains why the collision of ringed particles from the solar wind upon the column of elements, can detach a five particle unit with its attached six  particle unit, giving rise to the Alpha particles and electrons that are observed being expelled from an Element within the region of heavier atoms.

As a consequence, the model of the five and six particle units, stacked together into columns of elements, form all the elements in  the structure of matter.

But the discovery of the Up and Down Quark and the gluon force has replace the positive and negative charges and with it Neil Bohr’s formula for the maximum number of electrons orbiting within each shell.

The consequence of this discovery of the Up and Down Quarks, has led to this revision of the atom’s structure into particle units and provided a changed model of the structure of matter, which encompasses the quark particles and their gluon force.

Finally, the four forces of positive and negative charge, the strong force and the weak force have been replaced and unified by the force of Kinetic Energy Rings.
Title: Re: On The Structure of Matter
Post by: Bored chemist on 14/03/2021 19:33:43
Did you know that there's a subject called science which looks a bit like what you wrote, but science includes observations and logic.
You might like to look into it.
Title: Re: On The Structure of Matter
Post by: RTCPhysics on 21/03/2021 08:23:31
The concept of charge is obsolete for two simple reasons.
Firstly, its charge must generate perpetual energy.
Secondly, its energy must be extinguished at infinity.
Both break the prime law of Physics that energy can neither be created nor destroyed.   
Title: Re: On The Structure of Matter
Post by: RTCPhysics on 21/03/2021 08:43:34
Looks like you metamorphosed from a bored chemist to a bored physicist.   
Title: Re: On The Structure of Matter
Post by: Bored chemist on 21/03/2021 10:33:30
Firstly, its charge must generate perpetual energy.
Not really.
I think you have muddled two concepts.
An electron in space has an electric field, and that field has energy.
And that energy is perpetual.

But it is not "perpetual energy" in the sense that is banned by the laws of physics.

It is like the difference between a perpetual bottle of beer which is always full, even when you drink from it, and an ordinary bottle of beer which is "perpetual" until you drink from it.
Title: Re: On The Structure of Matter
Post by: Kryptid on 21/03/2021 14:11:06
Firstly, its charge must generate perpetual energy.

How do you figure?

Secondly, its energy must be extinguished at infinity.

How does that make it obsolete?

Both break the prime law of Physics that energy can neither be created nor destroyed.   

No, they don't. Charge doesn't change the total amount of energy in the Universe. It neither creates nor destroys energy.
Title: Re: On The Structure of Matter
Post by: RTCPhysics on 23/03/2021 17:58:28
Thanks for your opinions. You both believe in the concept of charge and I don't. It is clear that we are not going to agree.  QED
Title: Re: On The Structure of Matter
Post by: Bored chemist on 23/03/2021 18:57:23
You both believe in the concept of charge and I don't.
There is evidence that charge is real.

So what you are saying is that you have abandoned science. You are, of course, entitled to do that.
But it does mean that you won't get much sympathy on a science site.
Title: Re: On The Structure of Matter
Post by: Kryptid on 23/03/2021 21:07:15
You both believe in the concept of charge and I don't

No. I accept the reality of charge. No belief needed. You might as well tell me that I "believe" in water.
Title: Re: On The Structure of Matter
Post by: talanum1 on 07/04/2021 12:26:18
A conceptual change that needs to be made is that the half spin on the proton, electron and neutrino is actually a ring of kinetic energy, that individually rotates around the proton, the electron and the neutrino at the speed of light and can never be slowed down.

Kinetic Energy is a property of particles. Stating that a ring of Kinetic Energy exist is taking the concept too far.
Title: Re: On The Structure of Matter
Post by: Bored chemist on 07/04/2021 12:31:01
But what this requires is to review the classic concepts of electric, magnetic and electro-magnetic forces, replacing them with a single force, called Kinetic Energy.
Wrong units.
Title: Re: On The Structure of Matter
Post by: puppypower on 18/04/2021 12:54:53
Spin will create a centrifugal force. The spin of particles, such electrons, should also imply that the electron generates a centrifugal force, that pushes the particle inside out, in the opposite direction of the attractive force vector. What is the source of this opposing force vector?

If we have two opposite charges or even two masses attracting at distance; d, inertia will resist motion induced by the force. This resistance to motion will create tension in the particle, or a force vector, in the opposite direction of the attractive force; action and reaction. This tension vector has the same vector direction as the centrifugal force from the spin; radial direction opposite the attractive force.

One might ask is the spin of the electron connected to the sum of its tension, created by all possible sources of attraction, near and far,  integrated into spin. Charge acts up to infinity and some form of charge will surround all individual electrons, in all directions, all the way to infinity. Spin may integrate the single particle tension.

Spin also creates kinetic energy. This is maximized at the surface at the particle's equator. It is minimized on a line from north to south pole; assumes spins on the north-south pole axis. We can integrate this kinetic energy distribution of points, to get a bulk particle spin kinetic energy.

In the case of electrons, 1/2 spin is connected to the equators or zones of maximum spin point kinetic energy, for the electron. A 1/4 spin electron would imply a zero spin kinetic energy electron pole, interacting with the maximum kinetic energy spin equator. This is not very common. It appears the electron has to reinforce the maximum kinetic energy spin zone to be stable; 1/2 spin, since the source of spin has to be accommodated, and will not go away. It may also have to do with charge being 1 and not fractional, with the maximum kinetic energy equator connected to a full charge.

The hypothetical fractional spin states from equator to pole; <1/2 but >0, that is not connected to charge, appears to have another source. My guess is gravity; inertia. This odd fraction spin zone; ,<1/2, may be why dark energy from gravity is hard to see in the lab.These spin states appear when the electron quantum flips between 1/2 spins. Anything else implies fractional charge.

If we take two spherical masses and spin them, unlike the electron, they can interact at the entire range from 1/2 spin to zero spin. Mass does not have the same limit as charge. We can have the equator of one mass interact with the pole of another; 1/4 spin. This can create procession in one, while the other will lose momentum.

The main point was the extra kinetic energy in the electron spin, outside of 1/2 spin; quantum flips, still has potential via gravity. The unification of mass and charge in the single particle electron may be connected via these quantum gap spin states.
Title: Re: On The Structure of Matter
Post by: Bored chemist on 18/04/2021 13:07:06
Spin will create a centrifugal force. The spin of particles, such electrons, should also imply that the electron generates a centrifugal force
It's not a real spin.
Imagine for a moment that you actually learned some science...
That would have saved you writing all that nonsense.
Title: Re: On The Structure of Matter
Post by: wdb2021 on 30/04/2021 09:34:31
Content is fine. The gravitational force produced by the waves is interesting.
Title: Re: On The Structure of Matter
Post by: Dave Lev on 30/04/2021 15:58:00
Thanks RTCPhysics

I like your explanation.
There is a key element in your message.
It is the gluons:

All three quarks are bound together by a strong force called the gluon.
But the quarks have been found to only be a small proportion of a proton’s and a neutron’s atomic mass, the rest of the mass is derived from the presence of the gluons.

The gluons contributes more than 99% to the total proton mass.
So, how that Gluons could be created?
I claim that the Gluons can ONLY be created by Electromagnetic force.
Therefore, without real strong EM force there is no way to generate any proton.
Hence, Protons and Atoms could ONLY be created under Ultra high EM force.
Title: Re: On The Structure of Matter
Post by: Bored chemist on 30/04/2021 17:11:59
I claim that the Gluons can ONLY be created by Electromagnetic force.
And, as usual, your claim is unsupported, and wrong.
Title: Re: On The Structure of Matter
Post by: Dave Lev on 30/04/2021 19:24:03
I claim that the Gluons can ONLY be created by Electromagnetic force.
And, as usual, your claim is unsupported, and wrong.
As expected, you don't have a basic clue how matter is created and how the spiral galaxy really works
Title: Re: On The Structure of Matter
Post by: Kryptid on 30/04/2021 20:51:27
As expected, you don't have a basic clue how matter is created and how the spiral galaxy really works

Don't drag that stuff in here. Keep it in your own thread.
Title: Re: On The Structure of Matter
Post by: CrazyScientist on 30/04/2021 22:12:58
Everything is information...
Title: Re: On The Structure of Matter
Post by: Bored chemist on 30/04/2021 22:15:36
Everything is information...
No.
Title: Re: On The Structure of Matter
Post by: CrazyScientist on 30/04/2021 22:20:44
Everything is information...
No.
Yes. Information about physical realitty is distributed in space and everything what  ever happens is the exchange of that information.
Title: Re: On The Structure of Matter
Post by: Bored chemist on 01/05/2021 12:38:48
What is the information "about"?
Title: Re: On The Structure of Matter
Post by: CrazyScientist on 02/05/2021 09:01:27
What is the information "about"?
About all the properties of physical reality - e.g about the objects made of  matter