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On the Lighter Side => New Theories => Topic started by: RTCPhysics on 11/03/2019 18:53:31

Title: On the Magnetic Structure of the Atom
Post by: RTCPhysics on 11/03/2019 18:53:31
Analytical modelling of the flow of an electric current around a conducting circuit, has shown that it cannot be created by the transmission of negatively charged electrons from an attached generator.

Regardless of their input velocity, the electrons are blocked from their transmission along the wired circuit, by the repelling forces of the valence electrons of the atoms of the wired circuit.

As a consequence, they are reduced to a form of Brownian motion, progressing along the wired circuit at what is known as their drift speed.

This raises the question as to whether the concept of an electric field driving an electric current along a wired circuit, is a valid model of electrodynamics.

However, as none of the electrical and electronic equipment that we have  developed over time has ceased to work, then the problem lies with our understanding of the theory of electrodynamics.

The aim of this article is to develop an alternative concept, that will replace the electric charge.

Part 1. The Electric Charge.
To make the case for a replacement of the electric charge, requires an assessment of its contradictions, when viewed from the perspective of Quantum Mechanics.

The electric charge has never been isolated from its particle, nor has its physical structure been explained.
Rather its existence has been inferred and its functioning as a continuous force, has been arbitrarily defined.

The model of the electric charge that is employed in electrostatics, is that it is a source of kinetic energy which constantly dispatches the energy, in all straight-line directions from its central location of the charged particle.

The magnitude of the electric charge is the same for both the proton and the electron particles, irrespective of their different masses.

The electrostatic electron has two separate states, referred to as positive and negative.

Liked charged particles repel each other whereas unlike particles attract.
The magnitude of the electric charge obeys the squared law, losing its kinetic energy over the straight line distance from the location of its charge.

Conceptually, its influence can reach to infinity.

This concept of an electric charge, breaks two of the fundamental laws of quantum physics.
Simply put: nothing can generate perpetual energy and nothing can reach infinity.

Part 2. The Neutral Atom.
One of the foundation axioms of electrostatics theory, is that an atom is an ‘electrically neutral’ entity.

This concept of atoms being electrically neutral is used to explain why the earth and other planets do not have an ‘electric field’.

Every atom in the Atomic Table of Elements has equal numbers of protons and electrons.

The proton and the electron have exactly the same charge, so it does not matter where the electron is in its orbital band: 1s,2s,2p,3s,3p,3d... it will always experience a reciprocal attraction with every proton in the nucleus, regardless of its dynamic position in its orbital band.
This makes the atom a neutrally charged entity, which is true for every atom in the Table of Elements.

The sharing of valence electrons between individual atoms, will not create a binding force that is able to overcome the electrostatic repulsion of their electrons.

As a consequence, atoms of the same or different atomic number, are unable to join together to create a molecule.

But we know that they do.

Part 3. Electrodynamics.
The problem for the positively charged protons in a nucleus, is that they are repelled away from each other in all directions. Each proton experiences this repelling force from every other proton in the nucleus.

To counteract this dispersing force, another containing force is required that overrides it. This has been called the strong force and the particle that provides the force is called the gluon (pronounced glue-on).
Its range must be restricted to be within the boundaries of the nucleus, thereby maintaining the atom’s neutral status.
Its strength must also increase incrementally with each additional proton that is added to the nucleus to create a new element.

Exactly what this force physically is and what creates it, is unclear, but if the electric charge does not exist, then it has no role to play.

However, the requirement for an alternative force that enables protons and neutrons to bind together, is still a requirement of atomic physics.

The neutron is constructed from a proton, an electron and an anti-neutrino. Their opposite electric charges, act to neutralise each other, making the neutron an electrostatically neutral particle.

But to bind the neutron into the nucleus, requires the strong force to not only apply a force that overcomes the electrostatic repulsion between the protons, but also attract neutrons into the nucleus.

And it must do so, with an exactly matching force, which is able to operate without breeching the boundaries of the nucleus.

Breaking either of these two strict quantum requirements, will result in the exchange of protons between the nuclei of atoms.

But this has not yet been observed.

The electrons in their bands also repel each other, with a cumulative electrostatic force from all the other electrons within the multiple bands located around the nucleus.
Inexplicably, the electrons in their bands do not spread away from each other, but join up in pairs.

This behaviour questions the existence of the electric charge upon electrons.

No equivalent of the strong force is postulated for the electron bands. Instead, the electrons are viewed as being contained in their bands by a centrifugal force generated by their rotational movement around the central nucleus.

But this rotational energy of the electrons must have been generated from some source.
What is also inexplicable, is that the electrostatic principle of superposition, states that every proton in the nucleus, held in place by the strong force, will act to attract each electron out of its band, pulling it out of orbit and into the nucleus.

Although we know that it doesn’t.

However, even without the repelling forces of the electric charges of the protons in the nucleus, a residual quantum force that binds the different particles together, is still a requirement of atomic physics.

Part 4.  Magnetism.
The only alternative attracting force that operates upon the scale of the atom is magnetism.

A magnetic field contains a finite number of magnetic rings and each magnetic ring has a finite circumference. These two characteristics classify the magnetic field as a quantum entity.

With the removal of the electric charge, the structure of the atoms in the Table of Elements remain unchanged, as are the thousands of molecular structures listed in the field of Chemistry.

All that changes is the way that they function under the controlling forces of magnetism.

Traditionally, there are three basic axioms associated with the formation of a magnetic field, namely: magnetic field lines form along circular pathways, magnetic field lines cannot cross each other, magnetic field lines orbit in the same plane, rotating clockwise or anti-clockwise when viewed from opposite directions.

It is these rules that explain why the magnetic field of a bar magnet, creates a spherical field, that rotates both clockwise and anti-clockwise around the bar magnet, both coming together, travelling in the same direction through the axis of the magnet, which binds the field together.

Whereas electrostatics theory relies upon the existence of a positive and a negative charge for attraction and repulsion, the equivalent magnetic forces arise from the attraction and repulsion of rotating magnetic field rings.

Whereas electrostatic forces can cross each other’s path without interference, magnetic field rings cannot.

Two magnetic particles can only attach to each other if they lie in the same plane and their magnetic rings are circling in opposite directions, clockwise and anti-clockwise.

But the circling motion of the magnetic ring, gives all particles a spin-up and spin-down characteristic.

This implies that the magnetic core of all particles are kept apart by their magnetic field rings, which removes the need for a centrifugal force to keep them apart, as is used in the traditional electrodynamic model of the atom.

Part 5. The Magnetic Atom.
The three major particles, the proton, the neutron and the electron can be regarded as purely magnetic, with their core particle having different magnetic field strengths.

It is known that every electron in the atom, behaves like a tiny magnet.

This leads to the first conceptual change.

The electron is constructed from a magnetic core particle that is surrounded by a circling magnetic field ring.

The circling magnetic ring is its self a particle, but its size is of the order of Planck’s constant at 6.626176 x10-34 joules and rotates around its core particle at the speed of light.

This concept of the electron, the proton and the neutron as having a twin particle structure, based upon a core magnetic particle and a second particle circling the core, is fundamental to how magnetism replaces the electric charge and the strong force of the nucleus.

The presence of the magnetic field ring around the proton, is also known to exist and is illustrated by the technology of nuclear magnetic resonance.
Photons of a specific wavelength that match that of the protons in an organic body of matter, cause them to resonate and flip the proton’s field ring over, creating a detailed black and white image, built from proton-photon interactions.

This interaction between the proton and the photon, illustrates the compatibility of the two particles.

Part 6. The Magnetic Photon.
A magnetic field ring rotates at the speed of light, but is stationary relative to the core particle, whereas its rotating magnetic ring, once detached from its magnetic core, travels through space at the speed of light, tracing out a sinusoidal wave pattern.
There is another experiment similar to nuclear resonance which provides evidence of the link between the magnetic field ring and the photon.

This occurs when an electric current is subjected to a rapidly alternating current in a conducting wired circuit.

The sequential growth and decline of the magnetic field rings around the conducting wire, causes the final magnetic ring of the declining field to be replaced by the oppositely rotating ring of the growing magnetic field.

But as these two magnetic rings of the same diameter, cannot cross each other, their meeting causes the established magnetic field ring to be repelled away from the conducting wire.

Here it is observed as a photon from the radio-wave segment of the spectrum of light.

To the three traditional axioms of magnetism must now be added three more axioms.

Magnetic particles all have a dual particle structure, created from a core magnetic particle with a magnetic field ring circling around it.

The circulating magnetic field rings all rotate at the speed of light.

The core particle and it’s ring particle can be separated apart from each other, with the circulating particle being released as a magnetic wave.

Part 7. The Magnetic Wave.
As is observed when photons from a source such as the sun, are incident upon matter, the magnetic wave of the photon is captured by an electron located in the band structure of the atom, just as long as the incident photon’s wavelength, matches the wavelength of the electron within its band in the atom.

This photon capture process, acts to put the electron into an energised state with a second magnetic ring circling its core magnet at the speed of light.
But for an electron that has already released its magnetic ring, the core of the electron particle, is simply changed back into its two particle state.

This two particle structure of atomic particles explains the iconic two slit experiment.

Electrons fired individually or in groups at the two slits, will travel through them, but will be diffracted by their circling magnetic ring, which reach the slit openings first and take their core particle through with them.

This produces a diffraction pattern on the recording screen, provided by the incident core of the electrons.

However, if photon detectors are placed in front of the split screen, but alongside the two slits, then the particle of the circling magnetic ring will be captured by the detectors, leaving the electron core particle to pass through the slits undetected and strike the recording screen, displaying two vertical black lines.

Shut down the detectors and the diffraction pattern returns.
Part 8.  The Hydrogen atom.
Magnetic rings of the same or different circumferences, such as the proton and the electron, can circle upon their magnetic field rings around each other, as long as they are in the same plane and have opposing spin states.

This provides the attracting force between protons in the nucleus, electrons in their bands and between the proton and the electron.
The core particles of the proton and the electron are kept apart by their circling magnetic rings, which cannot cross each other.

In this way, the hydrogen atom is formed from the two magnetic field rings of the proton and the electron, rotating with each other in the same plane, but in opposite spin-up and spin-down states.

This magnetic structure implies that the electrostatic requirement for an energy source that creates the centrifugal force needed to maintain the electron in its orbital 1s band and separated from the protons in the nucleus, is no longer required.

The Hydrogen molecule is formed from two combined hydrogen atoms, that are drawn magnetically together in a stable formation of two protons and two electrons, each paired in a spin-up/spin-down formation within the same plane.

This creates the embryonic structure of the atomic nucleus from the two protons, with the two smaller electrons being magnetically attached around them, forming the 2s band.
The formation of the magnetic nucleus, explains the electrostatic conundrum for how multiple positively charged protons reside together in the nucleus of the atom.

In a similar manner, the electrons magnetically bind together in pairs, but only when they are orientated in the same plane and rotate in a spin-up/spin-down state.
This explains the pairing of electrons within their bands in the atom.

The neutron is constructed from a hydrogen atom and an anti-neutrino. As such, it can be treated as a compound particle, joined together by the magnetic attraction of their opposite spin states and able to link to the hydrogen molecule to form the Helium atom.

Part 9. Conclusions.
Without the positive and negative electric charge, the particles and their anti-particles of the Standard Model, are now differentiated by their magnetic spin-up and spin-down states.

But unlike the concept of positive and negative electric charges, all magnetic particles function with two spin states at the same time.
Each particle can be flipped over from one state to the opposite state, a characteristic that is use by Qubits in quantum computers.

All particles are attracted to each other by magnetic forces acting between them. This replaces the need for the concept of the gluon strong force.

Two protons colliding together in a particle accelerator, are broken up into their three Quarks, but immediately reform into compatible spin-up/spin-down units.

By viewing the Quarks as tiny magnets, each with their magnetic ring, they will be drawn together in the surrounding vacuum, obeying the spin-up/spin-down rule of magnetism.

A further simplification of the Standard Model, arises from the replacement of the protons electric charge by a magnetic force.

The electric charge of the proton, no longer needs to be split into ‘fractional’ amounts, as is currently allocated between its three constituent Quarks.
But perhaps the main benefit comes from simplification.

By having just one attracting force, rather than three, namely: the electrostatic force, the gluon force and the centrifugal force, the Standard Model has reduced complexity and is compatible with Quantum Mechanics theory.
Title: Re: On the Magnetic Structure of the Atom
Post by: Bored chemist on 11/03/2019 19:35:22
However, as none of the electrical and electronic equipment that we have  developed over time has ceased to work, then the problem lies with our understanding of the theory of electrodynamics.
Title: Re: On the Magnetic Structure of the Atom
Post by: RTCPhysics on 30/04/2019 09:20:20
Was that as far as you got?
Title: Re: On the Magnetic Structure of the Atom
Post by: Bored chemist on 30/04/2019 18:40:27
Was that as far as you got?
It was far enough.
Title: Re: On the Magnetic Structure of the Atom
Post by: evan_au on 01/05/2019 11:28:58
Quote from: OP
The sharing of valence electrons between individual atoms, will not create a binding force that is able to overcome the electrostatic repulsion of their electrons.
As a consequence, atoms of the same or different atomic number, are unable to join together to create a molecule.
But we know that they do.
You have demonstrated a contradiction in your theory.
Time to scrap your theory.

In fact, in covalent bonding, the pair of negative electrons do not sit side-by-side, but are spread out in a probability cloud around both atoms; this is balanced by the positive charges on the two nuclei.

As I understand it, there is a slightly increased probability of electrons being found midway between the two positive nuclei.