Your spaceship could never reach the speed of C because doing so would take infinite energy, however lets say the spaceship was travelling 100km's per hour less than the speed of light. To an observer inside the spaceship, would it seem the light was only travelling 100km's an hour? No. In fact, it would still travel at C as far as they could tell. This is because at speeds close to the speed of light time itself is warped, so a clock in the ship will run much slower than one stationary relative to the ship. So to the stationary observer, an hour after they have turned the lights on, the light will seem 100 kilometres ahead. But to the people in the spaceship, when they have measured the light is 100km's ahead, it will only have taken the tiniest fraction of a second to them, not one hour. So time itself changes in order to keep the speed of light constant, it seems.
You may feel the earths rotation as you were rising in a lift (if the lift was fast enough) from the bottom to the top of the building, because you would be gaining rotational speed as you rose. But as sophiecentaur said, once at the top you are not accelerating, so you will not feel it. Just as you don't feel it right now, even though you are travelling at about 1600km's an hour relative to the centre of the earth (if you were near the equator). And the earth itself is travelling about 107232 km's per hour around the sun.
And you don't need to be at geostationary orbit to experience weightlessness, any orbit will do. geostationary orbit just refers to the height a satellite needs to be to stay directly above 1 point on the earths surface while it is orbiting. (because at lower heights the satellite needs to move faster to stay in orbit)
If you take pedantically the definition that a diuretic is something that increases urine production, then yes, water is a diuretic. However in a healthy body drinking water will obviously never cause you to become dehydrated.
And i didn't mean to drink it while its boiling hot turnipsock, you would obviously let it cool down first
Perpetual motion is possible, but not perpetual energy. Newton's first law of motion states "An object will stay at rest or continue at a constant velocity unless acted upon by an external unbalanced force". A comet speeding through space for example, will move perpetually (unless acted on by another force, like crashing into a star). If you could hypothetically make your compass and magnets arrangement completely frictionless with no resistance in any of the mechanisms, then yes the needle could spin forever. however, you could not generate power from this, because to do so you would have to induce a resistance on the motion.
And yes, although hard to balance, permanent levitation should be achievable, but it would be very hard. (like trying to balance a pencil on its point). If the magnetic fields that oppose gravity exactly cancel it out, there will be a net movement of 0.
No, alcohol is a diuretic. (Something that causes dehydration) If it was very light beer instead of wine there might have been a net gain of hydration, but for something like wine which is generally 10 percent alcohol or more, I would definitely say drinking it in an already dehydrated state would not help your chance of survival. It would be like trying to drink seawater. Don't know how to calculate how long you would have to leave the wine open to evaporate the alcohol, but it would depend on the surface area of the wine exposed to the air, the temperature and the amount of air flow on the surface. So if you could make a small fire to boil the wine, this would accelerate your cause significantly.