" In a study recently published in The Cryosphere, Dr. Diana Francis, Senior Research Scientist and Head of the Environmental and Geophysical Sciences (ENGEOS) lab from Khalifa University, along with Dr. Kyle Mattingly, Post-doctoral Associate, Rutgers University, Dr. Stef Lhermitte, Assistant Professor, Delft University of Technology; Dr. Marouane Temimi, Associate Professor, Stevens Institute; and Dr. Petra Heil, Senior Research Scientist, Australian Antarctic Division, describes the cause of this calving event, identifying cyclogenesis—the formation of cyclones—as a major factor. The team reported for the first time the formation of polar twin cyclones near Antarctica immediately prior to the event. "
Not the AMOC. This is something unrelated to those streams that are driven by the 'heatpump' inside our oceans Although it's connected too, naturally. Everything connects, from your sandwich to our topsoil, your coke to our water, etc etc etc..
" We have found a strong acceleration in the global mean ocean circulation over the past two decades. The acceleration is deep-reaching and particularly prominent in the global tropical oceans and can be attributed to the planetary intensification of surface winds since the 1990s, as a result of superimposition of a dominant longer-term trend and a relatively small contribution from natural variability.
We compared the global mean wind speeds from CMIP5 historical runs with that from six reanalysis products of wind over the same period (fig. S9). We find that, during their common period 1985–2005, the reanalysis winds show clear and consistent increasing trends, and the ensemble mean of reanalysis winds has an increasing trend of about 0.075 m s−1 decade−1 that is significant above the 99% confidence level. By contrast, the global mean wind speed in the ensemble mean of CMIP5 historical runs shows a very weak trend, about 0.006 m s−1 decade−1, much weaker than the wind trend in reanalysis products. Therefore, trends of TKE in the CMIP5 historical runs are much weaker than the reanalysis products. The reason for the discrepancy between CMIP5 historical run and reanalysis products is not well understood.
However, the ensemble mean of global mean wind speed from the RCP8.5 displays a significant increasing trend in the future, indicating that an increase in greenhouse gas emissions will eventually lead to acceleration of global mean wind and hence global mean ocean circulation "
" "It is critical to understand how fast things are changing," said co-author John Abraham from the University of St. Thomas, in a release. "The key to answering this question is in the oceans — that's where the vast majority of heat ends up. If you want to understand global warming, you have to measure ocean warming."
Expressed another way, the ocean temperature in 2019 was about 0.075 degrees Celsius above the 1981-2010 average. The authors write that to reach this temperature requires adding 228,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 (228 Sextillion) Joules of heat to the oceans.
"The amount of heat we have put in the world's oceans in the past 25 years equals to 3.6 billion Hiroshima atom-bomb explosions," said lead author Lijing Cheng from the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). "This measured ocean warming is irrefutable and is further proof of global warming. There are no reasonable alternatives aside from the human emissions of heat trapping gases to explain this heating." "
" Up to 90 percent of the warming caused by human carbon emissions is absorbed by the world’s oceans, scientists estimate. And researchers increasingly agree that the oceans are warming faster than previously thought.
Multiple studies in the past few years have found that previous estimates from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change may be too low. A new review of the research, published yesterday in Science, concludes that “multiple lines of evidence from four independent groups thus now suggest a stronger observed [ocean heat content] warming.”
Taken together, the research suggests that the oceans are heating up about 40 percent faster than previously estimated by the IPCC. Since the 1950s, studies generally suggest that the oceans have been absorbing at least 10 times as much energy annually, measured in joules, as humans consume worldwide in a year."
" One of the commonly measured trace elements is manganese, which dissolves when oxygen levels become very low. When I studied Baltic Sea cod otoliths in 2009, I wondered why I saw recurrent patterns of elevated manganese in rings deposited during summertime. Realizing one day that the Baltic Sea is one of the world’s largest “dead zones,” I put two and two together and proposed that manganese could be a hypoxia tracer, recording an individual fish’s exposure to low-oxygen waters.
A group of us were able to trace evidence for this hypothesis back to the Stone Age. Further work demonstrated that this tracer was usable in many aquatic ecosystems.
Recently, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences marine ecologist Michele Casini and I used manganese to track Baltic cod hypoxia exposure and combine it with estimates of growth history. We found that compared to healthy cod with little or no hypoxia exposure, fish most heavily exposed to hypoxia were 39% smaller in length by age 3 and weighed 64% less. Weight translates into fish fillets, so this is a serious consequence. "
" Every degree of warming increases the pressure on fish stocks
These findings apply to all fish species, and make it clear why fish are sensitive to heat, especially during the mating season and in their embryonic stage. Accordingly, in a second step the team of researchers analysed to what extent water temperatures in the spawning areas of the species investigated would likely rise due to climate change. For this purpose, they employed new climate scenarios (Shared Socioeconomic Pathways - SSPs), which will also be used in the IPCC's next Assessment Report. "
" However, by INPE's count, deforestation is still pacing behind last year's rate: When measured since the start of the "deforestation year" — which begins August 1 — 4,640 square kilometers of rainforest has been lost, a decline of 15% for the nine-month period.
But the trend reported by INPE is not matched by data from Imazon, a Brazilian organization that independently monitors deforestation. Imazon's data shows eight straight months of rising deforestation: Through the end of March, Imazon puts forest loss as 33% above last year's level. "
" An influential current system in the Atlantic Ocean, which plays a vital role in redistributing heat throughout our planet's climate system, is now moving more slowly than it has in at least 1,600 years. That's the conclusion of a new study published in the journal Nature Geoscience from some of the world's leading experts in this field.
Scientists believe that part of this slowing is directly related to our warming climate, as melting ice alters the balance in northern waters. Its impact may be seen in storms, heat waves and sea-level rise. And it bolsters concerns that if humans are not able to limit warming, the system could eventually reach a tipping point, throwing global climate patterns into disarray. "
" The world’s oceans are rapidly becoming unrecognizable as impacts from human activity strip them of marine life, according to a report published in the journal Current Biology.
In fact, just 13% of the world’s oceans have intact marine ecosystems, while the rest have been plundered and degraded.
The majority of healthy ocean space, meanwhile, exists in the high seas, outside of national marine protected areas. As a result, these sections are vulnerable to being exploited, making the creation of international treaties to protect the oceans all the more urgent, according to the Guardian. The good news is that the United Nations is spearheading an effort to comprehensively protect the high seas later this year. "
" A team of researchers from Weizmann Institute of Sciences, Israel, recently published a study that compared human-made mass – aka anthropogenic mass – with all the living mass, or biomass, on the globe. They revealed that for the first time in human history the former has either surpassed the latter or is close to doing so in coming years.
The Weizmann Institute study estimates that on average, each person on the globe now produces more anthropogenic mass than his or her bodyweight every week. "The finding that anthropogenic mass – human made stuff - now weighs as much as all living things, and the fact that it keeps accumulating rapidly, gives another clear perspective on how humanity is now a major player in shaping the face of the planet," says Professor Ron Milo, whose laboratory conducted this study. "Life on Earth is affected in a major quantitative manner by the actions of humans." "
There is one way to reach infinitely close to 'c', and there our current physics stops. And you don't spend a jot of energy doing it. You will be 'weight less' (ignoring tidal forces) the whole time, being in a 'free fall' following a geodesic.
Passing the event horizon, of a schwarzschild black hole. It will take you 'out' of whatever sort of physics and universe we know.
All of, leaving us with the notion of 'New Tech' and geoengineerings as our only choice. I think I have to congratulate you to that solution, pushing it even further in the future. It will secure your wallet for the current time, with the games breakdown building to catastrophic proportions before crashing. But it should lead to wars before that, so you might not even notice as it crash.
There exist some projects for interstellar flights, but they build on miniaturization and are primarily thought to be used for explorations. You could possibly send some sort of incubator and sperms, maybe, with them to 'populate' some nice 'exoplanet'. That's something ' first and last men ' discuss, although in a even more advanced version as becoming earths last initiative. Then there is interstellar hydrogen but to collect it you need to be at a considerable speed before even starting to collect.
One good thing with relative motion is that it doesn't stop, there's no 'friction' to space, sorry, empty vacuum, that I know of. But the most probable idea might be a combination of solar sails and hydrogen, with 'generation ships' if you want to have it as we we do it today.
Another 'local energy source' coming to exist, and that one do exist. I seem to remember it being tested tested at Lund's university (Sweden) involving a experiment using a rapidly oscillating 'squid' creating 'light' out of 'nowhere'.
I'm not entirely sure if it was Unruh radiation it tested though. Can't seem to find the link. But as a concept it should relate to it anyway. But that one is very tricky as it involves a pair production in where you normally expect a annihilation, very close to Hawking radiation.