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Macroscopically, the ideal gas law states that, for an ideal gas, the product of pressure p and volume V is proportional to the product of amount of substance n and absolute temperature T: pV=nRT,where R is the molar gas constant (8.31446261815324 J⋅K−1⋅mol−1).[3] Introducing the Boltzmann constant as the gas constant per molecule[4] k = R/NA transforms the ideal gas law into an alternative form: pV=NkT,where N is the number of molecules of gas.