« on: 09/03/2022 13:54:44 »
Therefore you need to throw dice to account for the mystery of naked DNA being active.NoWhat you said was correct;Well, I guess that makes one of us.Water is unique in that has two hydrogen bonding donors and two hydrogen bonding acceptors.Not really; ethylene glycol has them too.
Water has two hydrogen bonding donors and two hydrogen bonding acceptors but no extra electron releasing groups; -CH. Ethylene glycol is not a good solvent for life. Hydrogen bonding forms between hydrogen and highly electronegative atoms like oxygen and nitrogen. The electron releasing groups of ethylene glycol modify the affective electronegativity of its oxygen. A difference appears compared to water.
If you look at water, it has two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom; H2O. Oxygen is unique in that it can form oxide, allowing the oxygen to hold two more electrons than it has nuclear protons. This imbalance in the ratio of positive to negative charge tells us that electrostatic considerations, alone, cannot explain oxygen and oxide, since, on paper, oxide has too many electrons to balance charge, yet oxide is very stable. We need to add something else to tell the whole story of oxygen, and all the other highly electronegative atoms.
The two extra electrons of oxide would be stable if they were attracted to oxygen, not by electrostatic means, but by magnetic mean. An electron in motion creates a magnetic field. This is the second half of the EM force, with oxygen making more use of magnetism. Oxygen is why the hydrogen bonding of water shows both polar; electrostatic and covalent; magnetic attributes. The affect does not come from the hydrogen, even if the hydrogen bond is named after it; unintentional misdirect. Hydrogen can accommodate the electrons of oxygen as is needed. When hydrogen share between two water molecules the two oxygen are tweaking their ratios of electrostatic and magnetic affects at difference positions, with the hydrogen making this easier.
The binary nature of hydrogen bonding water is led by a donor affect; oxygen. Ethylene glycol can form hydrogen bonds, but it has a different binary switch ratio; polar to covalent, then does water, due to the electron releasing groups ,of ethylene glycol, attached to the oxygen. This makes it unlikely to be as good a solvent for life. The information signals have less bandwidth.
Hydrogen is the primary material of the universe, based on mass. What makes most of the hydrogen of the universe unique is that, conceptually, isolated hydrogen proton has never been used and abused by the nuclear forces; irreversible way. To become deuterium, tritium or part of any higher atom from helium on up, hydrogen protons needs to interact via the nuclear forces. But as an isolated proton, it is still virgin to this, and has only been influenced by gravity and the EM forces, as a first approximation. Any affects; enthalpy and entropy changes, associated with nuclear forces and the formation of higher atoms is still stored within the virgin hydrogen proton.
Where this comes in handy is connected to the donor electrons associated with hydrogen bonding. Electrons have been found to be elementary particles. This means they are singular things that cannot be broken down any further. However, they show both negative change and mass, even though they are one thing.
This paradox means within the electron, its mass and negative charge are unified, and are interchangeable allowing the electron to be one thing at any conditions. We cannot break the electron down into two things; mass and charge particles. These two things have to be part of one thing, at at a very base level. Science is not ready for this important change in the conservation of charge and mass.
The analogy is the hydrogen bond but has two attributes; polar and covalent, but it is still one bond. The polar and covalent attributes of the hydrogen bond are able to change into each other, with a range of affects. But at the chemical level, this is still a hydrogen bond, either way.
The hydrogen bond, which is driven by the donor, such as oxygen, implies that the electrons, interacts via an aspect of the unified force; charge and mass, with hydrogen protons, that contain the extra free energy compared to the rest of the atomic states of the universe. The electron unifies negative charge with mass and then interacts with virgin protons that have only seen EM force and gravity. Is this important?
The proton is not a unified particle, but rather it can be broken down further. It does not have a direct connection to the unified force of the electron. The net affect is that within hydrogen bonding is sort of a communication breakdown, at some level, which allows the electrons and protons of hydrogen bonds to partially ignore each other; two inter-connected but semi-autonomous affects. Cells have stable materials that are very sturdy, as well as many transient affects that are hard to pin down and measure. For example, if the electron shift its charge to mass ratio, even slightly, the proton remains with a single change having to react to a partial charge. One can get some weird affects that look like statistical magic.