Naked Science Forum

General Science => General Science => Topic started by: neilep on 19/01/2008 15:45:49

Title: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 19/01/2008 15:45:49
PLEASE post your Avionic related topics to this specific thread here http://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/index.php?topic=5776.925

Anything else to do with Science , post here.....

I'll start of with the letter 'A'


Alexander Graham Bell (3 March 1847 - 2 August 1922) was an eminent scientist, inventor and innovator. Most often associated with the invention of the telephone, Bell was also called "the father of the deaf".[1] His father, grandfather and brother had all been associated with work on elocution and speech, and both his mother and wife were deaf, profoundly influencing Bell's life's work. His research on hearing and speech further led him to experiment with hearing devices that eventually culminated in Bell being awarded the first U.S. patent for the invention of the telephone in 1876.

Many other inventions marked Bell's later life including groundbreaking work in hydrofoils and aeronautics. In 1888, Alexander Graham Bell was one of the founding members of the National Geographic Society. In reflection, Bell considered his most famous invention an intrusion on his real work as a scientist and refused to have a telephone in his study. Upon Bell's death, all telephones throughout the United States "stilled their ringing for a silent minute in tribute to the man whose yearning to communicate made them possible."


* 1876_Bell_Speaking_into_Telephone.jpg (85.33 kB . 614x504 - viewed 63500 times)lor=blue]
Bell speaking into a prototype model of the Telephone[/color][/b][/size]


Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 19/01/2008 15:59:16
Brownian Tree


A Brownian tree, whose name is derived from Robert Brown via Brownian motion, is a form of computer art that was briefly popular in the 1990s, when home computers started to have sufficient power to simulate Brownian motion. Brownian trees are mathematical models of dendritic structures associated with the physical process known as diffusion-limited aggregation.

A Brownian tree is built with these steps: first, a "seed" is placed somewhere on the screen. Then, a particle is placed in a random position of the screen, and moved randomly until it bumps against the seed. The particle is left there, and another particle is placed in a random position and moved, and so on.


The resulting tree can have many different shapes, depending on principally three factors:

    * the seed position
    * the initial particle position (anywhere on the screen, from a circle surrounding the seed, from the top of the screen, etc.)
    * the moving algorithm (usually random, but for example a particle can be deleted if it goes too far from the seed, etc.)

Particle color can change between iterations, giving interesting effects.

At the time of their popularity (helped by a Scientific American article in the Amateur Scientist section), a common computer took hours, and even days, to generate a small tree. Today's (2003) computers can generate trees with tens of thousands of particles in a few minutes.

These trees can also be grown easily in an electrodeposition cell, and are the direct result of diffusion-limited aggregation.


* Imccccage1.jpg (27.69 kB . 258x478 - viewed 59559 times)

* Imffffage2.jpg (19.5 kB . 256x216 - viewed 58076 times)
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 19/01/2008 20:30:48
Cybernetics

The term cybernetics stems from the Greek Κυβερνήτης (kybernetes, steersman, governor, pilot, or rudder — the same root as government). Cybernetics is a broad field of study, but the essential goal of cybernetics is to understand and define the functions and processes of systems. Studies of this field are all ultimately means of examining different forms of systems and applying what is known to make artificial systems, such as business management, more efficient and effective.

Cybernetic was defined by Norbert Wiener, in his book of that title, as the study of control and communication in the animal and the machine. Stafford Beer called it the science of effective organization and Gordon Pask extended it to include information flows "in all media" from stars to brains. It includes the study of feedback, black boxes and derived concepts such as communication and control in living organisms, machines and organizations including self-organization. Its focus is how anything (digital, mechanical or biological) processes information, reacts to information, and changes or can be changed to better accomplish the first two tasks [1]. A more philosophical definition, suggested in 1956 by Louis Couffignal, one of the pioneers of cybernetics, characterizes cybernetics as "the art of ensuring the efficacy of action" [2]. The most recent definition has been proposed by Louis Kauffman, President of the American Society for Cybernetics, "Cybernetics is the study of systems and processes that interact with themselves and produce themselves from themselves" [3].

Concepts studied by cyberneticists include, but are not limited to: learning, cognition, adaption, social control, emergence, communication, efficiency, efficacy and interconnectivity. These concepts are studied by other subjects such as engineering and biology, but in cybernetics these are removed from the context of the individual organism or device.
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: opus on 19/01/2008 21:37:44
D is for dodo- as in dead as a....
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 19/01/2008 22:22:42
Engram

Engrams are a hypothetical means by which memory traces are stored as biophysical or biochemical change in the brain (and other neural tissue) in response to external stimuli.

They are also sometimes thought of as a neuronal network or fragment of memory, sometimes using a hologram analogy to describe its action in light of results showing that memory appears to be non-localized in the brain. The existence of engrams is posited by some scientific theories to explain the persistence of memory and how memories are stored in the brain. The existence of neurologically defined engrams is not significantly disputed, though its exact mechanism and location has been a persistent focus of research for many decades.

Incidentally..I'm always interested in hearing abut YOUR earliest memory http://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/index.php?topic=2345.0
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: opus on 19/01/2008 22:26:15
F for Fabinacci (?) sequence. Aren't lots of things in nature supposed to follow this ?.... things like pinecone patterns etc....?
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 19/01/2008 22:58:33
Gerhard Ertl (born October 10, 1936(1936-10-10) in Stuttgart) is a German physicist and a Professor emeritus at the Department of Physical Chemistry, Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft in Berlin, Germany. He won the 2007 Nobel Prize in Chemistry

Gerhard Ertl is known for determining the detailed molecular mechanisms of the catalytic synthesis of ammonia over iron (Haber Bosch process) and the catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide over palladium (catalytic converter). During his research he discovered the important phenomenon of oscillatory reactions on platinum surfaces and, using photoelectron microscopy, was able to image for the first time, the oscillating changes in surface structure and coverage that occur during reaction.

He always used new observation techniques like low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) at the beginning of his career, later ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) and scanning tunneling microscope (STM) yielding ground breaking results.

He won the Wolf Prize in Chemistry in 1998 along with Gabor A. Somorjai of the University of California, Berkeley for "their outstanding contributions to the field of the surface science in general and for their elucidation of fundamental mechanisms of heterogeneous catalytic reactions at single crystal surface in particular."

Gerhard Ertl was awarded the 2007 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his studies of chemical processes on solid surfaces. The award, worth SEK 10 million (or 1.7 million U.S dollars) , was announced on Ertl's 71st birthday. "I am speechless," Ertl told The Associated Press from his office in Berlin. "I was not counting on this."


* ggggggggggggggImage1.jpg (22.11 kB . 225x326 - viewed 57895 times)





Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Carolyn on 19/01/2008 23:25:53
Herman Hollerith
(1860-1929),

Herman Hollerith is widely regarded as the father of modern automatic computation. He chose the punched card as the basis for storing and processing information and he built the first punched-card tabulating and sorting machines as well as the first key punch, and he founded the company that was to become IBM. Hollerith's designs dominated the computing landscape for almost 100 years.

After receiving his Engineer of Mines (EM) degree at age 19, Hollerith worked on the 1880 US census, a laborious and error-prone operation that cried out for mechanization. After some initial trials with paper tape, he settled on punched cards (pioneered in the Jacquard loom) to record information, and designed special equipment -- a tabulator and sorter -- to tally the results. His designs won the competition for the 1890 US census, chosen for their ability to count combined facts. These machines reduced a ten-year job to three months (different sources give different numbers, ranging from six weeks to three years), saved the 1890 taxpayers five million dollars, and earned him an 1890 Columbia PhD¹. This was the first wholly successful information processing system to replace pen and paper. Hollerith's machines were also used for censuses in Russia, Austria, Canada, France, Norway, Puerto Rico, Cuba, and the Philippines, and again in the US census of 1900. In 1911 Hollerith's company merged with two others to form the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (CTR), which changed its name to International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) in 1924.

Between the 1880 and 1890 censuses, Hollerith spent a year (1882) on the Mechanical Engineering faculty at MIT, and then in the mid-1880s worked on railroad braking systems, obtaining several patents for both electromagnetic pneumatic brakes and vacuum operated brakes, as well as for corrugated metal tubing.

Hollerith's ideas for automation of the census are expressed succinctly in Patent No. 395,782 of Jan. 8, 1889: "The herein described method of compiling statistics which consists in recording separate statistical items pertaining to the individual by holes or combinations of holed punched in sheets of electrically non-conducting material, and bearing a specific relation to each other and to a standard, and then counting or tallying such statistical items separately or in combination by means of mechanical counters operated by electro-magnets the circuits through which are controlled by the perforated sheets, substantially as and for the purpose set forth."

Hollerith's contributions to modern computing are... "incalculable" :-)   He did not stop at his original 1890 tabulating machine and sorter, but produced many other innovative new models. He also invented the first automatic card-feed mechanism, the first key punch, and took what was perhaps the first step towards programming by introducing a wiring panel in his 1906 Type I Tabulator, allowing it to do different jobs without having to be rebuilt! (The 1890 Tabulator was hardwired to operate only on 1890 Census cards.) These inventions were the foundation of the modern information processing industry.

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi25.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fc87%2Fkochcarolyn%2F416px-Hollerith.jpg&hash=26d7caf542db977c063879b3bf99ca96)
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: rosalind dna on 20/01/2008 00:13:50
Hippocampus

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi14.tinypic.com%2F7wpygli.png&hash=a080d42a300d9a474ad7d3e7e74688ed)

The hippocampus is a part of the forebrain, located in the medial temporal lobe. It forms a part of the limbic system and plays a part in long term memory and spatial navigation. Humans and other mammals have two hippocampi, one in each side of the brain.
The name derives from its curved shape in coronal sections of the brain, which resembles a seahorse (Greek: hippos = horse, kampi = curve).

In Alzheimer's disease, the hippocampus is one of the first regions of the brain to suffer damage; memory problems and disorientation appear among the first symptoms. Damage to the hippocampus can also result from oxygen starvation (anoxia) and encephalitis.



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hippocampus
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 20/01/2008 00:54:55
I is for Ice Cream


* ice-cream-van-hire-11.jpg (87.53 kB . 980x490 - viewed 12022 times)

Tastey :)
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: rosalind dna on 20/01/2008 01:10:55
Icebergs

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi29.tinypic.com%2F689beu.jpg&hash=8fe498a70dccbf053e8f6b27603cb74a)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iceberg
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/6227724.stm
http://www.hickerphoto.com/pictures-of-icebergs-314-pictures.htm


like the sort that sunk the Titanic and are still floating around now brrr
http://www.titanic-titanic.com/icebergs.shtml
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 20/01/2008 01:14:25
J is for Jump

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.eslkidstuff.com%2Fimages%2Fjump.gif&hash=060a994ff93767489fa67c7fcf1bc891)
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: rosalind dna on 20/01/2008 01:18:45
Jaundice

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jaundice

not nice for anyone who gets this, I prefer yellow flowers
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 20/01/2008 01:19:54
Rosalind what aer you doing!!! lol. Every letter i post you post with the same one? lol

K is for Kraner, Ryan

Subject: Human :) lol
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: rosalind dna on 20/01/2008 01:23:09
Lunar Full Eclipses

LUNAR ECLIPSES

A lunar eclipse occurs when the Earth passes between the Moon and the Sun.


A great event for beginners to observe
   
  Total and Partial Eclipses


A lunar eclipse

A lunar eclipse may be partial or total. A partial lunar eclipse occurs when the Moon skirts into the Earth's penumbral shadow. When the Moon is fully immersed in the umbra a total lunar eclipse occurs.

 
 
During a lunar eclipse, the Earth passes between the Sun and the Moon, blocking the Sun’s light. We see the Earth’s shadow creep across the surface of the Moon.

Lunar eclipses are not as spectacular as Solar eclipses, when day turns to night. However, they last for much longer, and can be seen from any part of the Earth’s surface where the Moon is above the horizon.

They require no equipment to view, and are perfect events for beginners to observe.

Learn more about solar eclipses

Why don't we see a lunar eclipse every month?
Full Moons occur when the Sun and Moon are on opposite sides of the Earth - so Lunar eclipses can only happen when the Moon is full. It would seem natural for a lunar eclipse to happen at each full Moon. But this isn't the case.

The Moon's orbit is tilted by about 5 degrees to the path of the Earth's orbit around the Sun. During most months the Moon will pass above or below the Earth's shadow and no eclipse will occur.

From the BBC's science site.


http://www.hermit.org/Eclipse/2007-03-03/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/3_March_2007_lunar_eclipse

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi32.tinypic.com%2Fsg7rx0.jpg&hash=1be73a9b950f47822e1abfa8ef9dc913)
http://flickr.com/photos/vee8/409332581/in/pool-71585219@N00

This picture is from the full Lunar Eclipse in 3 March 07. I watched all 4 hours of it.


I read every single page of this fascinating thread/topic. Having written down some ideas to work with hopefully


Simulated I am just testing myself and this is different also taken from the other thread, lol lol
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 20/01/2008 01:26:10
Ohh alright! lol

M is for Monkey!

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.coffeehouseculture.com%2FE-zine%2FIssue%2520Two%2FPages%2F02Page21%2F02P21Linkedfiles%2FBushMonkey01.jpg&hash=04eac8e26cf59d64570837726d9c2e13)

Just Messing George!

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.jrj-socrates.com%2FCartoon%2520Pics%2FFox%2FFamily%2520Guy%2FEvil_Monkey_301.gif&hash=4332bfcc7969e9bb894e1eb87c2f1416)

A monkey is any member of either the New World monkeys or Old World monkeys, two of the three groupings of simian primates, the third group being the apes. There are 264 known extant species of monkey.

The New World monkeys are classified within the parvorder Platyrrhini, whereas the Old World monkeys (superfamily Cercopithecoidea) form part of the parvorder Catarrhini, which also includes the apes. Thus, scientifically speaking, monkeys are paraphyletic (not a single coherent group), and Old World monkeys are actually more closely related to the apes than they are to the New World monkeys.

Because of their similarity to monkeys, apes such as chimpanzees and gibbons are often called "monkeys" in informal usage, though they are not monkeys. Conversely, due to its size (up to 1 m) the Mandrill is often thought to be an ape, but it is actually an Old World monkey. Also, a few monkey species have the word "ape" in their common name.

Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: rosalind dna on 20/01/2008 01:31:25
Nobel Prizes and nominations archives to be opened from 1958 this year.

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi6.tinypic.com%2F73aveqf.jpg&hash=9c8d0526e700278710061122b39f6199)

http://nobelprize.org/alfred_nobel/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nobel_Prize

By the way I like your Bush one lol
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 20/01/2008 01:32:41
O is for Opal

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.opalauctions.com%2Fimages%2Finfo-pages%2Fblack-opal.jpg&hash=e73e8118360a63429ace5564146f944f)

The mineraloid opal is amorphous SiO2·nH2O, hydrated silicon dioxide. The water content is usually between three and ten percent, but can be as high as 20%. Opal ranges from clear through white, gray, red, yellow, green, shore, blue, magenta, brown, and black. Of these hues, red and black are the most rare and dear, whereas white and green are the most common; these are a function of growth size into the red and infrared wavelengths—see precious opal. Common opal is truly amorphous, but precious opal does have a structural element. The word opal comes from the Latin opalus, by Greek òpalliòs, and is from the same root as Sanskrit upálá for "stone", originally a millstone with upárá for slab.[2] (see Upal). Opals are also Australia's national gemstone.

Opal is a mineraloid gel which is deposited at relatively low temperature and may occur in the fissures of almost any kind of rock, being most commonly found with limonite, sandstone, rhyolite, and basalt.

Opal is one of the mineraloids that can form or replace fossils. The resulting fossils, though not of any extra scientific interest, appeal to collectors.


And yess I like it too haha
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: rosalind dna on 20/01/2008 01:42:58
P is for Pearls.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pearls
Pearl oysters (it came together)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pearl_oyster

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi31.tinypic.com%2F29w8imd.jpg&hash=1b6ba195da19a26c6780baa3df0899ed)
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 20/01/2008 01:44:09
Q is for Quartz!

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fupload.wikimedia.org%2Fwikipedia%2Fcommons%2Fa%2Fab%2FUSDA_Mineral_Quartz_Crystal_93c3951.jpg&hash=3f3b8b775047b4eef361a0b5e6c5790d)

Quartz (from German Quarz (help·info)[1]) is the second most common mineral in the Earth's continental crust, feldspar being the first. It is made up of a lattice of silica (SiO2) tetrahedra. Quartz has a hardness of 7 on the Mohs scale and a density of 2.65 g/cm³.

Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: rosalind dna on 20/01/2008 12:37:50
Rosalind Franklin, who's my first cousin, so if I go on a bit much (sorry) it's because I
am proud of her and her work.

Dr Franklin, discovered the Single DNA Helix Structure in 1953 and after a lot of
Crystallography Diffraction X-Ray work to which she was dedicated her life too.
Although Wilkins took her now infamous Slide 51 out of her lab drawer and passed it onto Crick
and Watson, who in '62 received the Nobel Prize.

She died in 1958 and this year, 2008 is the 50th year of her death and since Crick, Watson also Maurice Wilkins received the Nobel Prize for Science, Rosalind was
nominated but never received the Prize as the organisation do not give them out
posthomously (sp) after death but the Nobel organisation will open their nomination
archives this year. http://nobelprize.org/educational_games/medicine/dna_double_helix/readmore.html


(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi31.tinypic.com%2F6zvjwy.jpg&hash=801e7715093b546f3567d1cc840c4e20)
(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi29.tinypic.com%2F2wcfp1d.jpg&hash=2127a84159f3eb423c69a14e39f572b2)
The CLICK ME FOR Rosalind Franklin Papers (http://images.google.co.uk/imgres?imgurl=http://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/KR/B/B/H/K/_/krbbhk.jpg&imgrefurl=http://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/KR/B/B/H/K/&h=626&w=521&sz=223&hl=en&start=3&tbnid=CNArvTya_TXjwM:&tbnh=136&tbnw=113&prev=/images%3Fq%3Drosalind%2Bfranklin%26gbv%3D2%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rosalind_Franklin
http://osulibrary.orst.edu/specialcollections/coll/pauling/dna/pictures/franklin-typeBphoto.html
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/photo51/


Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 20/01/2008 13:59:41
Strait

A strait is a narrow, navigable channel of water that connects two larger navigable bodies of water. It most commonly refers to a channel of water that lies between two land masses, but it may also refer to a navigable channel through a body of water that is not navigable, for example because it is too shallow, or because it contains an unnavigable reef or archipelago. The terms strait, channel, passage, sound, and firth can be synonymous and interchangeable, although each is sometimes differentiated with varying senses. Many straits are economically important. Straits can lie on important shipping routes, and wars have been fought for control of these straits. Numerous artificial channels, called canals, have been constructed to connect two bodies of water over land.

Although rivers and canals often form a bridge between two large lakes or a lake and a sea, and these seem to suit the formal definition of straits, they are not usually referred to as straits. Straits are typically much larger, wider structures that do not have water running in a single direction, and normally connect two seas.

Straits are the duals of isthmi. That is, while straits lie between two land masses and connect two larger bodies of water, isthmi lie between two bodies of water and connect two larger land masses.

A strait is similar to an inlet although inlets typically pass through island land masses usually from a large body of water such as an ocean to a much smaller body such as a bay while straits pass through much larger land masses and connect much larger bodies of water such as seas and oceans.


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The Strait of Dover or Dover Strait is the strait at the narrowest part of the English Channel. The shortest distance across the strait is from the South Foreland, some 6 km (4 mi) north-east of Dover in the county of Kent, England, to Cap Gris Nez, a cape near Calais in the département of Pas-de-Calais, France. Between these two points – the most popular route for cross-channel swimmers – the distance is just 33 km (20 mi).

The strait lies at the east end of the English Channel, where it joins the North Sea. Its width is the shortest distance between France and England. On a clear day, it is possible to see the opposite coastline and shoreline buildings with the naked eye.


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Source Wikipedia









Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: rosalind dna on 20/01/2008 14:50:56
Tonsils and it's infection - Tonsilitis

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi29.tinypic.com%2Fdqgk01.jpg&hash=a19824084c38421fd1fbbcd762f6e192)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tonsil

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi27.tinypic.com%2F24fkzkz.jpg&hash=5bea18e8f5111539d3abc974a14b52fc)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tonsillitis
http://www.sinuscarecenter.com/aao/tonad_aao.htm
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 20/01/2008 14:56:33
U is for Unicorn

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fcelesstar.osiriscomm.com%2Funicorn%2Funicorn.jpg&hash=d009e7aec80c6b8423ca2d416531d7d8)

A unicorn (from Latin unus 'one' and cornu 'horn') is a legendary creature. Though the modern popular image of the unicorn is sometimes that of a horse differing only in the horn on its forehead, the traditional unicorn has a billy-goat beard, a lion's tail, and cloven hooves - these distinguish it from a horse.[1] Marianna Mayer has observed (The Unicorn and the Lake), "The unicorn is the only fabulous beast that does not seem to have been conceived out of human fears. In even the earliest references he is fierce yet good, selfless yet solitary, but always mysteriously beautiful. He could be captured only by unfair means, and his single horn was said to neutralize poison."

Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 20/01/2008 15:07:54
V is for V-8 Engines

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fupload.wikimedia.org%2Fwikipedia%2Fcommons%2F4%2F42%2FAero4G11.jpg&hash=e6f68479e9c07c36b5baaf7cb6d8c002)

A V8 engine is a V engine with eight cylinders mounted on the crankcase in two banks of four cylinders, in most cases set at a right angle to each other but occasionally at some other angle.[1]

In its simplest form, it is basically two straight-4 engines sharing a common crankshaft. This simple configuration, however, has the same secondary dynamic imbalance problems as two straight-4s, resulting in annoying vibrations in large-displacement engines. Most modern automobile V8s use a somewhat more complex crossplane crankshaft with heavy counterweights to eliminate the vibrations. This results in an engine which is more powerful than and nearly as smooth as a straight-6 of equivalent cylinder size, while being considerably less expensive than a V12 engine


Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: rosalind dna on 20/01/2008 15:22:23
W is Weather Forecasting

To predict the weather's storms, winds, rain, sunny spells with satellites computers
and of course people's expertise although the weather forecasters are all civil servants,
trained as scientist too.
(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi32.tinypic.com%2Ffp4g7k.jpg&hash=990700a458a02d5d032a54b943323e0f)
http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/weather/uk/uk_forecast_weather.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weather_forecasting
http://ww2010.atmos.uiuc.edu/(Gh)/guides/mtr/fcst/home.rxml
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: rosalind dna on 20/01/2008 15:51:38
X is for X-Rays

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi31.tinypic.com%2F15ga0rq.gif&hash=a79c74ef3bb2ae891cc74fa08112fbc5)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X-ray
http://science.hq.nasa.gov/kids/imagers/ems/xrays.html
http://www.radiologyinfo.org/en/info.cfm?pg=bonerad&bhcp=1

(BTW it is not an X-ray of my hand)
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 20/01/2008 16:05:20
Y is for Yak

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fupload.wikimedia.org%2Fwikipedia%2Fcommons%2F1%2F12%2FYakinmeadow.jpg&hash=032b61f2feba01c9403429446f640d79)

The yak (Bos grunniens, but also Poephagus grunniens, though this new name is not universally accepted) is a long-haired bovine found throughout the Himalayan region of south Central Asia, the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and as far north as Mongolia. In addition to a large domestic population, there is a small, vulnerable wild yak population. In Tibetan, the word yak refers only to the male of the species; a female is a dri or nak. In most languages which borrowed the word, including English, yak is usually used for both sexes.

Yaks are herd animals. Wild yaks stand about two meters tall at the shoulder and domesticated yaks about one meter. Both types have long shaggy hair to insulate them from the cold. Wild yaks can be brown or black. Domesticated ones can also be white. Both males and females have horns.

Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 20/01/2008 16:06:43
Z is for Zune

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Digital music products and services sold by Microsoft. It includes digital audio players, client software, and the Zune Marketplace online music store.[4]

The devices come in three styles, all of which play music, pictures, and videos; display images; and receive FM radio. They can share files wirelessly with other Zunes and via USB with Xbox 360s, and can sync wirelessly with Windows PCs.

The Zune Software, which runs on Windows XP, Vista, and the Xbox 360, allows users to manage files on the player, rip audio CDs, and buy songs at the online store.

The first Zune player was released in the United States on November 14, 2006. The Zune 4, 8 and 80 were announced on October 2, 2007. The new Zunes offer the ability to sync wirelessly (automatically if connected to a power supply but can be manually started without it), a new touchpad-style input device, additional file support for H.264 and MPEG-4 files, podcast support, upgraded song-sharing licensing, and software that includes support for DRM-free music in the Marketplace. The Zune 80 also has a larger, 3.2” screen. A free firmware update added the new software features to the original Zune (now called the Zune 30) and was released on November 13, 2007.[5]

Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: rosalind dna on 20/01/2008 16:13:53
Adenoids part of your throats but if they become infected can be removed, mine were as were my tonsils at 3 years old.

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi31.tinypic.com%2F2qn3w1y.png&hash=3ba2bb1547341f358cb0487e29496bb2)
Adenoids (or pharyngeal tonsils, or nasopharyngeal tonsils) are a mass of lymphoid tissue situated at the very back of the nose, in the roof of the nasopharynx, where the nose blends into the mouth.

Normally, in children, they make a soft mound in the roof and posterior wall of the nasopharynx, just above and behind the uvula.



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adenoid
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 20/01/2008 16:16:03
B is for Buxite

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fupload.wikimedia.org%2Fwikipedia%2Fcommons%2F0%2F04%2FBauxiteUSGOV.jpg&hash=6d891b2036cf3e50ea0845d52261b402)

Bauxite is the most important aluminium ore. It consists largely of the minerals gibbsite Al(OH)3, boehmite γ-AlO(OH), and diaspore α-AlO(OH), together with the iron oxides goethite and hematite, the clay mineral kaolinite and small amounts of anatase TiO2. It was named after the village Les Baux-de-Provence in southern France, where it was first discovered in 1821 by geologist Pierre Berthier.
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: rosalind dna on 20/01/2008 16:19:10
Crystallography like the sort that was used to discover the Double Helix DNA and it's
a form of X-rays.

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi32.tinypic.com%2F2h2kp38.jpg&hash=079ff2fad01aee39744d8343bc422f5c)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X-ray_crystallography
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crystallography
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 20/01/2008 16:26:22
D is for Dimples

Sorry no fancy picutre this time they are to bigg lol

Dimples are visible indentations of the skin, caused by underlying flesh, which form on some people's cheeks when they smile. Dimples are genetically inherited and are a dominant trait.[1] Dimples on each cheek are a relatively common occurrence for people with dimples. A rarer form is the single dimple, which occurs on one side of the face only. Anatomically, dimples may be caused by variations in the structure of the facial muscle called zygomaticus major. Specifically, the presence of a double or bifid zygomaticus major muscle may explain the formation of cheek dimples.[2] This bifid variation of the muscle originates as a single structure from the zygomatic bone. As it travels anteriorly, it then divides with a superior bundle that inserts in the typical position above the corner of the mouth. An inferior bundle inserts below the corner of the mouth.

Dimples are considered attractive in some cultures. Babies commonly have dimples, but sometimes these disappear (or become less noticeable) as the muscles lengthen with age; consequently, dimples are often associated with youth.

Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: rosalind dna on 20/01/2008 16:31:23
E is Epilepsy (which I have had for ages)

It is a condition that affects the nerves in your brain and the static electricity in your
brain goes on overload when a seizure/fit happens which there are many different kinds and names for.
(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi28.tinypic.com%2F6h87sx.gif&hash=e8fc10f4470ad74ef49625291532d2ab)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epilepsy
http://www.epilepsynse.org.uk/pages/info/leaflets/explaini.cfm
http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/conditions/epilepsy1.shtml
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 20/01/2008 16:37:05
F is for Fire

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Fire is the heat and light energy released during a chemical reaction, in particular a combustion reaction. Depending on the substances alight, and any impurities within, the color of the flame and the fire intensity might vary.
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: rosalind dna on 20/01/2008 16:41:14
G is for Geometry

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi27.tinypic.com%2F2u6ojyo.jpg&hash=d965d6febbc97622918272f5fb5edaf4)
http://www.vermeersriddlerevealed.com/grail_geometry.shtml
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geometry
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 20/01/2008 16:44:50
H is for Highway

OK what's up with my pictures from wiki being really big?? (I Fixed it ..Neil)

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Highway is a term commonly used to designate major roads intended for travel by the public between important destinations, such as cities. The term highway can also be varied country-to-country, and can be referred to as a road, freeway, superhighway, autoroute, autobahn, parkway, expressway, autostrasse, autostrada, byway, auto-estrada or motorway.

Highway designs vary widely. They can include some characteristics of grade separations, multiple lanes of traffic, a median between lanes of opposing traffic, and access control (ramps and grade separation). Highways can also be as simple as a two-lane, shoulderless road.

The United States has the largest network of highways, including Interstate highways and United States Numbered Highways. This network is present in every state and connects all major cities. The Expressway Network of the People's Republic of China, also known as National Trunk Highway System (NTHS) has a total length of about 45,400 km at the end of 2006 [1][2][3], which is the world's second longest only after the United States.

According to world views, the characteristics of a highway can differ. For example, in the United States of America's state of California, civil code 360(590) defines that a highway refers to "any way or place of whatever nature, publicly maintained and open to the use of the public for purposes of vehicular travel." Streets, avenues and even one lane dirt roads are therefore considered highways within the state of California, so long as they are maintained by the state. Multi-lane, high-speed roadways with restricted access are called freeways according to California's civil code, whereby all freeways are highways but not all highways are freeways. In other jurisdictions, such as the Canadian province of Ontario, all public roadways are legally defined as a highway, regardless of its ownership.

Some highways, like the Pan-American Highway or the European routes, bridge multiple countries. Australia's Highway 1 is the longest national highway in the world at over 20,000km and runs almost the entire way around the country.

Highways are not always continuous stretches of pavement. For example, some highways are interrupted by bodies of water, and ferry routes may serve as sections of the highway.
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: rosalind dna on 20/01/2008 16:48:24
I is for Isthmus eg Isthmus of Panama.

An Isthmus is a narrow strip of land or small island

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi31.tinypic.com%2Fdz9vty.jpg&hash=50843b2787fd1f66a3d9ae9d69eae0a3)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isthmus
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isthmus_of_Panama
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 20/01/2008 16:51:26
J is for Jar

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ball.com%2Fimg%2F102%2FmasonJar02.jpg&hash=198ceb13936c2a6542b9f3f874b5fda8)

A jar is small, approximately cylindrical container for food, made of glass or clay, and also plastic as in the case of a "jar" of peanut butter.

Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: rosalind dna on 20/01/2008 17:00:33
K is for Kepplar, Johannes

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi30.tinypic.com%2F2a4zm9w.jpg&hash=edc638bc35b750b0fa9fa718d9acb813)

He was German mathematician, astronomer and astrologer,
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kepplar
http://galileo.rice.edu/sci/kepler.html
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 20/01/2008 17:16:11
Loupe
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


A loupe (pronounced loop), is a type of magnification device used to see things one is looking at more closely. In this respect, they are simply a form of a modified microscope, allowing the user to be able to better apply the phenomenon of microscopy to his or her trade.


 [ Invalid Attachment ]
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: rosalind dna on 20/01/2008 17:24:44
M is for the childhood infection - Mumps
(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi30.tinypic.com%2F2n05wkl.jpg&hash=82f4a136914a55c73527c45d0530f033)


Which causes swelling of the throat glands and makes the person feel poorly.





More on mumps here (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mumps) and here (http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/conditions/mumps2.shtml)
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 20/01/2008 17:47:57
Niels Bohr
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Niels Henrik David Bohr [nels ˈb̥oɐ̯ˀ] (October 7, 1885 – November 18, 1962) was a Danish physicist who made fundamental contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum mechanics, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922. He was also part of the team of physicists working on the Manhattan Project. Bohr married Margrethe Nørlund in 1912, and one of their sons, Aage Niels Bohr, grew up to be an important physicist, who like his father received the Nobel prize, in 1975. Bohr is widely considered to be the one of the greatest physicists of the 20th century.


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Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 20/01/2008 17:50:36
O is for Ostrich

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fpinker.wjh.harvard.edu%2Fphotos%2Fsanta_barbara_california%2Fimages%2Fostrich.jpg&hash=b43d424e3b1625b720c535c48a68e92d)
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The Ostrich (Struthio camelus) is a large flightless bird native to Africa (and formerly the Middle East). It is the only living species of its family, Struthionidae, and its genus, Struthio. Ostriches share the order Struthioniformes with emus, kiwis, and other ratites. It is distinctive in its appearance, with a long neck and legs and the ability to run at speeds of about 65 km/h (40 mph), the top land speed of any bird.[2] The Ostrich is the largest living species of bird and lays the largest egg of any bird species.

The diet of the Ostrich mainly consists of seeds and other plant matter, though it eats insects. It lives in nomadic groups which contain between five and 50 birds. When threatened, the Ostrich will either hide itself by lying flat against the ground, or will run away. If cornered, it can cause injury and death with a kick from its powerful legs. Mating patterns differ by geographical region, but territorial males fight for a harem of two to seven females.

The Ostrich is farmed around the world, particularly for its feathers, which are decorative and are also used for feather dusters. Its skin is used for leather and its meat marketed commercially.
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: paul.fr on 20/01/2008 17:57:10
P

W is for posts without text. My assumption is that posts here are to enlighten and inform the reader, so simply posting a title and link does neither. Please remember that members and nonmembers print these topics, a simple title and link does not let the person read at their leisure.

Please can we all post some information to accompany any links...even if it's a long, direct quot from said linked page.
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 20/01/2008 21:36:23
Q is for Queen (Band)

Science of Great Rock Music!

Queen are a British rock band formed in 1970 in London by guitarist Brian May, lead vocalist Freddie Mercury and drummer Roger Taylor, with bassist John Deacon joining the following year. Queen rose to prominence during the 1970s and are one of Britain's most successful bands of the past three decades.[1]

The band is noted for their musical diversity, multi-layered arrangements, vocal harmonies and incorporation of audience participation into their live performances.[2] Their 1985 Live Aid performance was voted the best live music performance of all time in a BBC poll.[3]

Queen had moderate success in the early 1970s, with the albums Queen and Queen II, but it was with the release of Sheer Heart Attack in 1974 and A Night at the Opera the following year that the band gained international success. All of the band's studio albums reached number one on numerous charts around the world. Since 1973, they have released fifteen studio albums, five live albums, and numerous compilation albums. They are estimated to have sold over 300 million albums worldwide ,[4] including more than 32.5 million in the United States alone,[5] making them one of the world's best-selling music artists.

Following Mercury's death in 1991 and Deacon's retirement later in the decade,[6] May and Taylor have performed infrequently under the Queen label. Since 2005, they have been collaborating with Paul Rodgers, under the moniker Queen + Paul Rodgers.

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fupload.wikimedia.org%2Fwikipedia%2Fcommons%2F9%2F92%2FQueenInArgentina1981.jpg&hash=dc13883693ab644fa92cccd1e7084fd1)
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 20/01/2008 21:46:56
Roger Penrose

Sir Roger Penrose, OM, FRS (born 8 August 1931) is an English mathematical physicist and Emeritus Rouse Ball Professor of Mathematics at the Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford and Emeritus Fellow of Wadham College. He is renowned for his work in mathematical physics, in particular his contributions to general relativity and cosmology. He is also a recreational mathematician and philosopher. Roger Penrose is the son of scientist Lionel S. Penrose and Margaret Leathes, and the brother of mathematician Oliver Penrose and correspondence chess grandmaster Jonathan Penrose. He was born in Colchester, Essex, England.
Source: Wikipedia

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Credit:http://www.abc.net.au/quantum/stories/s108094.htm

The Road to Reality: A Complete Guide to the Laws of the Universe
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia



The Road to Reality is a book on modern physics by the British mathematical physicist Roger Penrose, published in 2004. It covers the basics of the standard model of modern physics, discussing general relativity and quantum mechanics and then expands on the possible unification of these two theories.

The book is just over 1100 pages, of which the first 350 are dedicated to mathematics - Penrose's goal was to acquaint inquisitive readers with the mathematical tools needed to understand the remainder of the book in depth. On page 383 physics enters the discussion with the topic of spacetime. From there it moves on to fields in spacetime, deriving the classical electrical and magnetic forces from first principles; that is, if one lives in spacetime of a particular sort, these fields develop naturally as a consequence. Energy and conservation laws appear in the discussion of the Lagrangians and Hamiltonians, before moving onto a full discussion of quantum physics, particle theory and quantum field theory. A discussion of the measurement problem in quantum mechanics is given a full chapter; superstrings are given a chapter near the end of the book, so is loop gravity and twistor theory. The book ends with an exploration of other theories and possible ways forward.

The book discusses the physical world. Many fields that scientists in the 19th century believed were separate, electricity and magnetism for instance, are facets of a single property, electromagnetism. Some texts, both popular and university level, introduce these topics as separate concepts and then "force" the combination on them much later. In Road to Reality this process is reversed, by first demonstrating the mathematics that is needed to discuss the spacetime we appear to live in, then showing that electromagnetism simply falls out fully formed.

As Penrose admits, the final chapters reflect his personal perspective, as opposed to what he considers current fashion among theoretical physicists. He is skeptical about String Theory, optimistic about Twistor theory, and holds some controversial views about the role of consciousness in physics, as laid out in his earlier books (see Shadows of the Mind).
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 21/01/2008 00:14:27
S is for Sadness


Sadness is a mood characterized by feelings of disadvantage and loss. When sad, people often become quiet, less energetic and withdrawn. Sadness is considered to be the opposite of happiness, and is similar to the emotions of sorrow, grief, misery and melancholy. The philosopher Baruch Spinoza defined sadness as the “transfer of a person from a large perfection to a smaller one.”

Sadness is a temporary lowering of mood ('feeling blue'), whereas clinical depression is characterized by a persistent and intense lowered mood, as well as disruption to one's ability to function in day to day matters

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.alexross.com%2FTear.jpg&hash=5908e49e29edbae693cde4f9b4b9831a)
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 21/01/2008 12:29:42
T is for Terminator

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.edge-online.co.uk%2Farchives%2Fterminator-thumb.jpg&hash=1efa4263eb006fca7d9219f574fb9118)

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fvnunl.typepad.com%2Fphotos%2Funcategorized%2Fterminator.jpg&hash=3610a3ff0a71dd3ee8b74cecc3daa054)

Terminator is from Latin and means "finisher."

The Terminator is a 1984 science fiction/action film directed and co-written by James Cameron. It features Arnold Schwarzenegger, Linda Hamilton and Michael Biehn.

The film takes place in 1984, introducing the concept of a "terminator", specifically the titular character (Arnold Schwarzenegger), a seemingly unstoppable cyborg assassin who has been sent back from the year 2029 by a race of artificially intelligent computer-controlled machines bent on the extermination of mankind. The Terminator's mission is to kill Sarah Connor (Linda Hamilton) whose future son founds a resistance against the machines. A human, Kyle Reese, is also sent back from the future to protect her.
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 24/01/2008 01:50:56
U is for Unibrow

A unibrow or monobrow, medically known as a synophrys, refers to a "confluence of eyebrows"; i.e. the presence of abundant hair between the eyebrows, so that they seem to converge to form one long eyebrow.

The words unibrow and monobrow are in the Oxford English Dictionary, and unibrow was added to the Merriam-Webster Dictionary in 2006. Medical dictionaries, such as Dorland's Medical Dictionary, contain the word synophrys.
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Karen W. on 29/01/2008 04:35:32
Vortex


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

"Vortex created by the passage of an aircraft wing, revealed by coloured smoke"


(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi17.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fb73%2Fkarenw44%2Falbum%2520three%2F250px-Airplane_vortex_edit.jpg&hash=1790d79d2a5a76f2ea2997b0f7d35d94)

A vortex (pl. vortices) is a spinning, often turbulent, flow of fluid. Any spiral motion with closed streamlines is vortex flow. The motion of the fluid swirling rapidly around a center is called a vortex. The speed and rate of rotation of the fluid are greatest at the center, and decrease progressively with distance from the center.


Vortices display some special properties:

    * The fluid pressure in a vortex is lowest in the center where the speed is greatest, and rises progressively with distance from the center. This is in accordance with Bernoulli's Principle. The core of a vortex in air is sometimes visible because of a plume of water vapour caused by condensation in the low pressure of the core. The spout of a tornado is a classic and frightening example of the visible core of a vortex. A dust devil is also the core of a vortex, made visible by the dust drawn upwards by the turbulent flow of air from ground level into the low pressure core.

    * The core of every vortex can be considered to contain a vortex line, and every particle in the vortex can be considered to be circulating around the vortex line. Vortex lines start and end at the boundary of the fluid, but they do not start or end in the fluid. (See Helmholtz's theorems.) Vortices readily deflect and attach themselves to a solid surface. For example, a vortex usually forms ahead of the propeller disk or jet engine of a slow-moving airplane. One end of the vortex line is attached to the propeller disk or jet engine, but when the airplane is taxiing the other end of the vortex line readily attaches itself to the ground rather than end in midair. The vortex can suck water and small stones into the core and then into the propeller disk or jet engine.

    * Two or more vortices that are approximately parallel and circulating in the same direction will quickly merge to form a single vortex. The circulation of the merged vortex will equal the sum of the circulations of the constituent vortices. For example, a sheet of small vortices flows from the trailing edge of the wing or propeller of an airplane when the wing is developing lift or the propeller is developing thrust. In less than one wing chord downstream of the trailing edge of the wing these small vortices merge to form a single vortex. If viewed from the tail of the airplane, looking forward in the direction of flight, there is one wingtip vortex trailing from the left-hand wing and circulating clockwise, and another wingtip vortex trailing from the right-hand wing and circulating anti-clockwise. The result is a region of downwash behind the wing, between the pair of wingtip vortices. These two wingtip vortices do not merge because they are circulating in opposite directions.

    * Vortices contain a lot of energy in the circular motion of the fluid. In an ideal fluid this energy can never be dissipated and the vortex would persist forever. However, real fluids exhibit viscosity and this dissipates energy very slowly from the core of the vortex. (See Rankine vortex). It is only through dissipation of a vortex due to viscosity that a vortex line can end in the fluid, rather than at the boundary of the fluid. For example, the wingtip vortices from an airplane dissipate slowly and linger in the atmosphere long after the airplane has passed. This is a hazard to other aircraft and is known as wake turbulence.

[edit] Dynamics

A vortex can be any circular or rotary flow that possesses vorticity. Vorticity is a mathematical concept used in fluid dynamics. It can be related to the amount of "circulation" or "rotation" in a fluid. In fluid dynamics, vorticity is the circulation per unit area at a point in the flow field. It is a vector quantity, whose direction is (roughly speaking) along the axis of the swirl. Also in fluid dynamics, the movement of a fluid can be said to be vortical if the fluid moves around in a circle, or in a helix, or if it tends to spin around some axis. Such motion can also be called solenoidal. In the atmospheric sciences, vorticity is a property that characterizes large-scale rotation of air masses. Since the atmospheric circulation is nearly horizontal, the (3 dimensional) vorticity is nearly vertical, and it is common to use the vertical component as a scalar vorticity. Mathematically, it is defined as,

        \vec \omega = \nabla \times \vec \mathit{u}

where \vec \mathit{u} is the fluid velocity.

[edit] Two types of vortex

In fluid mechanics, a distinction is often made between two limiting vortex cases. One is called the free (irrotational) vortex, and the other is the forced (rotational) vortex. These are considered as below:
Two autumn leaves in a counter-clockwise vortex (reference position).
Two autumn leaves in a counter-clockwise vortex (reference position).
      
Two autumn leaves in a rotational vortex rotate with the counter-clockwise flow.
Two autumn leaves in a rotational vortex rotate with the counter-clockwise flow.
      
Two autumn leaves in an irrotational vortex preserve their original orientation while moving counter-clockwise.
Two autumn leaves in an irrotational vortex preserve their original orientation while moving counter-clockwise.

[edit] Free (irrotational) vortex

When fluid is drawn down a plug-hole, one can observe the phenomenon of a free vortex. The tangential velocity v varies inversely as the distance r from the center of rotation, so the angular momentum, rv, is constant; the vorticity is zero everywhere (except for a singularity at the center-line) and the circulation about a contour containing r=0 has the same value everywhere. The free surface (if present) dips sharply (as r − 2 ) as the center line is approached.

The tangential velocity is given by:

    v_{\theta} = \frac{\Gamma}{2 \pi r}\,                 (2.1)

where Γ is the circulation and r is the radial distance from the center of the vortex.

In non-technical terms the circular streamlines toward the center can sweep out a given angle faster than the outer streamlines. The speed along the circular path of flow is held constant or decreases as you move out from the center. At the same time the inner streamlines have a shorter distance to travel to complete a ring. If you were running a race on a circular track would you rather be on the inside or outside, assuming the goal was to complete a circle? Imagine a leaf floating in a free vortex. The leaf's tip points to the center and the blade straddles multiple streamlines. The outer flow is slow in terms of angle traversed and it exerts a backwards tug on the base of the leaf while the faster inner flow pulls the tip forwards. The drag force opposes rotation of the leaf as it moves around the circle.

[edit] Forced (rotational) vortex

In a forced vortex the fluid essentially rotates as a solid body (there is no shear). The motion can be realised by placing a dish of fluid on a turntable rotating at T radians/sec; the fluid has vorticity of 2 T everywhere, and the free surface (if present) is a parabola.

The tangential velocity is given by:

    v_{\theta} = \omega r\,                 (2.2)

where ω is the angular velocity and r is the radial distance from the center of the vortex.

[edit] Observations

A vortex can be seen in the spiraling motion of air or liquid around a center of rotation. Circular current of water of conflicting tides form vortex shapes. Turbulent flow makes many vortices. A good example of a vortex is the atmospheric phenomenon of a whirlwind or a tornado or dust devil. This whirling air mass mostly takes the form of a helix, column, or spiral. Tornadoes develop from severe thunderstorms, usually spawned from squall lines and supercell thunderstorms, though they sometimes happen as a result of a hurricane.

In atmospheric physics, a mesovortex is on the scale of a few miles (smaller than a hurricane but larger than a tornado). [2] On a much smaller scale, a vortex is usually formed as water goes down a drain, as in a sink or a toilet. This occurs in water as the revolving mass forms a whirlpool. This whirlpool is caused by water flowing out of a small opening in the bottom of a basin or reservoir. This swirling flow structure within a region of fluid flow opens downward from the water surface.

[edit] Instances

    * In the hydrodynamic interpretation of the behaviour of electromagnetic fields, the acceleration of electric fluid in a particular direction creates a positive vortex of magnetic fluid. This in turn creates around itself a corresponding negative vortex of electric fluid.
    * Smoke ring : A ring of smoke which persists for a surprisingly long time, illustrating the slow rate at which viscosity dissipates the energy of a vortex.
    * Lift-induced drag of a wing on an aircraft.
    * The primary cause of drag in the sail of a sloop.
    * Whirlpool : a swirling body of water produced by ocean tides or by a hole underneath the vortex, where water drains out, as in a bathtub. A large, powerful whirlpool is known as a maelstrom. In popular imagination, but only rarely in reality, can they have the dangerous effect of destroying boats.[citation needed]
    * Tornado : a violent windstorm characterized by a twisting, funnel-shaped cloud. A less violent version of a tornado, over water, is called a waterspout.
    * Hurricane : a much larger, swirling body of clouds produced by evaporating warm ocean water and influenced by the Earth's rotation. Similar, but far greater, vortices are also seen on other planets, such as the permanent Great Red Spot on Jupiter and the intermittent Great Dark Spot on Neptune.
    * Polar vortex : a persistent, large-scale cyclone centered near the Earth's poles, in the middle and upper troposphere and the stratosphere.
    * Sunspot : dark region on the Sun's surface (photosphere) marked by a lower temperature than its surroundings, and intense magnetic activity.
    * The accretion disk of a black hole or other massive gravitational source.
    * Spiral galaxy : a type of galaxy in the Hubble sequence which is characterized by a thin, rotating disk. Earth's galaxy, the Milky Way is of this type.

Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 30/01/2008 00:10:37
Walton, Mary

Mary Walton (a girly ! and Woman inventor).....developed a method of deflecting smoke stack emissions.
In 1879, Mary Walton patented a method of deflecting smoke stack emissions (U.S. patent #221,880) through water tanks and later adapted the system for use on locomotives.

Mary Walton also invented a noise reduction system for elevated railroads in New York City. In the 1880s, many cities developed a mass transit system using noisy elevated trains. To reduce the noise, Mary Walton invented a sound-dampening system that cradled the track in a wooden box lined with cotton and then filled with sand.

She received U.S. patent #237,422 for the system on February 8, 1881, and later sold the rights to the Metropolitan Railroad of New York City.

Source:http://inventors.about.com/od/wstartinventors/a/Mary_Walton.htm
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 30/01/2008 11:50:21
X is for Xlyophone

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.homeoint.org%2Fmorrell%2Fmisc%2Fxylophone.jpg&hash=8aece528fb5084edc97c27f7de35016c)

The xylophone (from the Greek words ξύλο (wood) and φωνή (voice), meaning 'wooden sound') is a musical instrument in the percussion family which probably originated in Indonesia. [1] It consists of wooden bars of various lengths that are struck by plastic, wooden, or rubber mallets. Each bar is tuned to a specific pitch of the musical scale. Xylophone can refer to western style concert xylophones or to one of the many wooden mallet percussion instruments found around the world. Xylophones are tuned to different scale systems depending on their origin, including pentatonic, heptatonic, diatonic, or chromatic. The arrangement of the bars is generally from low (longer bars) to high (shorter bars).
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Alandriel on 30/01/2008 19:30:08

Y - YODA

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fswg.stratics.com%2Fcontent%2Flore%2Fpersonas%2Fimages%2Fyoda.gif&hash=007a18d40cc7562b948573244b2d162d)

Yoda is a fictional character from the Star Wars universe. Yoda first appears in the saga in The Empire Strikes Back as a Jedi Master, and trains Luke Skywalker in the ways of the Jedi. In the prequel trilogy, he serves as Grand Master of the Jedi Order. Yoda (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yoda)

"Luminous beings are we, not this crude matter"

Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 31/01/2008 01:51:17
Z is for Zebra

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.animalinyou.com%2Fzebra.jpg&hash=b7c97c8159ef54943aa8baaad21f6b7e)
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: rosalind dna on 31/01/2008 11:55:13
A is Automobile/car.
From Wiki.
Automobile
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
"Car" redirects here. For other uses, see Car (disambiguation).
 
Karl Benz's "Velo" model (1894) - entered into an early automobile race
Passenger cars in 2000
World map of passenger cars per 1000 people.An automobile (via French from Greek auto, self and Latin mobilis moving, a vehicle that moves itself rather than being moved by another vehicle or animal) or motor car (usually shortened to just car) is a wheeled passenger vehicle that carries its own motor. Most definitions of the term specify that automobiles are designed to run primarily on roads, to have seating for one to eight people, to typically have four wheels, and to be constructed principally for the transport of people rather than goods.[1] However, the term is far from precise because there are many types of vehicles that do similar tasks.

There were 590 million passenger cars worldwide (roughly one car for every eleven people) as of 2002.[2]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Automobile

Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 31/01/2008 19:13:21
B is for Bananna

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fupload.wikimedia.org%2Fwikipedia%2Fcommons%2Fe%2Fe4%2FLuxor%252C_Banana_Island%252C_Banana_Tree%252C_Egypt%252C_Oct_2004.jpg&hash=f65933342c8fa37bb538e4c54b3c1bde)

Banana is the common name for a fruit and also the herbaceous plants of the genus Musa which produce the commonly eaten fruit. They are native to the tropical region of Southeast Asia and Australia. Today, they are cultivated throughout the tropics. [1]

Banana plants are of the family Musaceae. They are cultivated primarily for their fruit, and to a lesser extent for the production of fibre and as ornamental plants. As the bananas are mainly tall, upright, and fairly sturdy, they are often mistaken for trees, when the truth is the main or upright stem is called a pseudostem, literally meaning "fake stem", which for some species can obtain a height of up to 2–8 m, with leaves of up to 3.5 m in length. Each pseudostem would produce a bunch of yellow, green, or even red bananas before dying and being replaced by another pseudostem.

The banana fruit grow in hanging clusters, with up to 20 fruit to a tier (called a hand), and 3-20 tiers to a bunch. The total of the hanging clusters is known as a bunch, or commercially as a "banana stem", and can weigh from 30–50 kg. The fruit averages 125 g, of which approximately 75% is water and 25% dry matter content. Each individual fruit (known as a banana or 'finger') has a protective outer layer (a peel or skin) with a fleshy edible inner portion. Typically, the fruit has numerous strings (called 'phloem bundles') which run between the skin and the edible portion of the banana, and which are commonly removed individually after the skin is removed. Bananas are a valuable source of vitamin B6, vitamin C, and potassium.

Bananas are grown in at least 107 countries.[1] In popular culture and commerce, "banana" usually refers to soft, sweet "dessert" bananas that are usually eaten raw. The bananas from a group of cultivars with firmer, starchier fruit are called plantains, and are generally used in cooking rather than eaten raw. Bananas may also be dried and eaten as a snack food. Dried bananas are also ground into banana flour.

Although the wild species have fruits with numerous large, hard seeds, virtually all culinary bananas have seedless fruits. Bananas are classified either as dessert bananas (meaning they are yellow and fully ripe when eaten) or as green cooking bananas. Almost all export bananas are of the dessert types; however, only about 10-15% of all production is for export, with the U.S. and EU being the dominant buyers.


Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: DoctorBeaver on 31/01/2008 22:28:19
Castor Fiber

The Eurasian beaver. Up to 50% larger than the American/Canadian Castor Canadensis, and far more intelligent  [^]
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 31/01/2008 22:38:53
We just talkeda bout Castor Canadensis in Envirothon.

D is for Damn (i mean dam ha)

A dam is a barrier that divides waters. Dams generally serve the primary purpose of retaining water, while other structures such as levees and dikes are used to prevent water flow into specific land regions. The tallest dam in the world is the 300 meter high Nurek Dam in Tajikistan.[1]


The word dam can be traced back to Middle English,[2] and before that, from Middle Dutch, as seen in the names of many old cities.[3]

Most of the first Dams were built in Mesopotamia up to 7,000 years ago. These were used to control the water level, for Mesopotamia's weather affected the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, and could be quite unpredictable. The earliest recorded dam is believed to have been on the Sadd Al-Kafara at Wadi Al-Garawi, which is located about 25 kilometers south of Cairo, and built around 2600 B.C.[4] It was destroyed by heavy rain shortly afterwards.[4]

The oldest surviving and standing dam in the world is believed to be the Grand Anicut, also known as the Kallanai, an ancient dam built on the Kaveri River in the state of Tamil Nadu located in southern India. It was built by the Chola king Karikalan, and dates back to the 2nd century AD.[5] Du Jiang Yan in China is the oldest surviving irrigation system included a dam that directed waterflow. It was finished in 251 B.C.

The Kallanai is a massive dam of unhewn stone, over 300 meters long, 4.5 meters high and 20 meters (60 feet) wide,[5] across the main stream of the Kaveri. The purpose of the dam was to divert the waters of the Cauvery across the fertile Delta region for irrigation via canals. The dam is still in excellent repair, and served as a model for later engineers, including the Sir Arthur Cotton's 19th-century dam across the Kollidam, the major tributary of the Cauvery. The land area irrigated by the ancient irrigation network, of which the dam was the centerpiece, was 69,000 acres (280 square kilometers). By the early 20th century the irrigated area had been increased to about 1,000,000 acres (4,000 square kilometers).

In ancient China, the Prime Minister of Chu (state), Sunshu Ao, is the first known hydraulic engineer of China. He served Duke Zhuang of Chu during the reign of King Ding of Zhou (606 BC-586 BC), ruler of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty. His large earthen dam flooded a valley in modern-day northern Anhui province that created an enormous irrigation reservoir (62 miles in circumference), a reservoir that is still present today.[6]

In the Netherlands, a low-lying country, dams were often applied to block rivers in order to regulate the water level and to prevent the sea from entering the marsh lands. Such dams often marked the beginning of a town or city because it was easy to cross the river at such a place, and often gave rise to the respective place's names in Dutch. For instance the Dutch capital Amsterdam (old name Amstelredam) started with a dam through the river Amstel in the late 12th century, and Rotterdam started with a dam through the river Rotte, a minor tributary of the Nieuwe Maas. The central square of Amsterdam, believed to be the original place of the 800 year old dam, still carries the name Dam Square or simply the Dam.
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 01/02/2008 03:13:15
EQUINOX

In astronomy, equinox can have two meanings:

    * The moment when the Sun is positioned directly over the Earth's equator and, by extension, the apparent position of the Sun at that moment—see below.

    * A moment in time at which the vernal point, celestial equator, and other such elements are taken to be used in the definition of a celestial coordinate system—see Equinox (celestial coordinates)

An equinox in astronomy is that moment in time (not a whole day) when the center of the Sun can be observed to be directly above the Earth's equator, occurring around March 20 and September 23 each year.

More technically, at an equinox, the Sun is at one of two opposite points on the celestial sphere where the celestial equator (i.e. declination 0) and ecliptic intersect. These points of intersection are called equinoctial points—the vernal point and the autumnal point. By extension, the term equinox may be used to denote an equinoctial point.

There is either an equinox (autumn and spring) or a solstice (summer and winter) on approximately the 21st day of the last month of every quarter of the calendar year. On a day which has an equinox, the center of the Sun will spend a nearly equal amount of time above and below the horizon at every location on Earth and night and day will be of nearly the same length. The word equinox derives from the Latin words aequus (equal) and nox (night).

In reality, the day is longer than the night at an equinox. Commonly the day is defined as the period that sunlight reaches the ground in the absence of local obstacles. From Earth, the Sun appears as a disc and not a single point of light; so, when the center of the Sun is below the horizon, the upper edge is visible. Furthermore, the atmosphere refracts light; so, even when the upper limb of the Sun is below the horizon, its rays reach over the horizon to the ground. In sunrise/sunset tables, the assumed semi-diameter (apparent radius) of the sun is 16 minutes of arc and the atmospheric refraction is assumed to be 34 minutes of arc. Their combination means that when the upper limb of Sun is on the visible horizon its center is 50 minutes of arc below the geometric horizon, which is the intersection with the celestial sphere of a horizontal plane through the eye of the observer. These effects together make the day about 14 minutes longer than the night at the equator, and longer still at sites toward the poles. The real equality of day and night only happens at places far enough from the equator to have at least a seasonal difference in daylength of 7 minutes, and occurs a few days towards the winter side of each equinox.

 [ Invalid Attachment ]


SOURCE:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Equinox




Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 01/02/2008 12:31:54
F is for Front (Weather)

A weather front is a boundary in between two masses of air of different densities and is the principal cause of significant weather. In surface weather analyses, fronts are depicted using various colored lines and symbols. The air masses separated by a front usually differ in temperature and humidity. Cold fronts may feature narrow bands of thunderstorms and severe weather, and may on occasion be preceded by squall lines or dry lines. Warm fronts are usually preceded by stratiform precipitation and fog. The weather usually quickly clears after a front passes. Some fronts produce no precipitation and little cloudiness, although there is invariably a wind shift.

Cold and occluded fronts generally move from west to east, while warm fronts move poleward. Because of the greater density of air in their wake, cold fronts and cold occlusions move faster than warm fronts and warm occlusions. Mountains and warm bodies of water can slow the movement of fronts. When a front becomes stationary, and the density contrast across the frontal boundary vanishes, the front can degenerate into a line which separates regions of differing wind velocity, known as a shearline. This is most common over the open ocean
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 01/02/2008 15:30:59
Gold is a chemical element with the symbol Au (from the Latin aurum, meaning shining dawn) and atomic number 79. It is a highly sought-after precious metal which, for many centuries, has been used as money, a store of value and in jewelry. The metal occurs as nuggets or grains in rocks, underground "veins" and in alluvial deposits. It is one of the coinage metals. Gold is dense, soft, shiny and the most malleable and ductile of the known metals. Pure gold has a bright yellow color traditionally considered attractive.

Gold formed the basis for the gold standard used before the fiat currency monetary system was employed by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the Bank for International Settlements (BIS). It is specifically against IMF regulations to base any currency against gold for all IMF member states. The ISO currency code of gold bullion is XAU.

Modern industrial uses include dentistry and electronics, where gold has traditionally found use because of its good resistance to oxidative corrosion.

Chemically, gold is a trivalent and univalent transition metal. Gold does not react with most chemicals, but is attacked by chlorine, fluorine, aqua regia and cyanide. Gold dissolves in mercury, forming amalgam alloys, but does not react with it. Gold is insoluble in nitric acid, which will dissolve silver and base metals, and this is the basis of the gold refining technique known as "inquartation and parting". Nitric acid has long been used to confirm the presence of gold in items, and this is the origin of the colloquial term "acid test," referring to a gold standard test for genuine value.


 [ Invalid Attachment ]




SOURCE:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gold
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: rosalind dna on 02/02/2008 16:07:31
H is for the Heimlich Manouevre (sp).
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Heimlich

Heimlich maneuver
Heimlich first published his findings about the maneuver in a June 1974 informal article in Emergency Medicine entitled, "Pop Goes the Cafe Coronary." On June 19, 1974, the Seattle Post reported that retired restaurant owner Isaac Piha used the procedure to rescue choking victim Irene Bogachus in Bellevue, WA.

From 1976-1985, the American Heart Association and American Red Cross choking rescue guidelines taught rescuers to first perform a series of backblows to remove the FBAO (foreign body airway obstruction); if backblows failed, then rescuers were taught to proceed with the Heimlich maneuver (a/k/a abdominal thusts). After a July 1985 American Heart Association conference, backblows were removed from choking rescue guidelines. From 1986-2005, the Heimlich maneuver was the only recommended treatment for choking in the published guidelines of the American Heart Association and the American Red Cross.

Year 2005 choking rescue guidelines published by the American Heart Association ceased referring to "the Heimlich maneuver" and instead called the procedure "abdominal thrusts." The new guidelines stated that chest thrusts and back blows may also be effective treatments for choking.

In Spring 2006, the American Red Cross "downgraded" the use of the Heimlich maneuver, essentially returning to the pre-1986 guidelines. For conscious victims, the new guidelines (nicknamed "the five and five"), recommend first applying five backblows; if this method fails to remove the airway obstruction, rescuers were to then apply five abdominal thrusts. For unconscious victims, the new guidelines recommend chest thrusts, a method first recommended in a 1976 study by Charles Guildner MD whose results were duplicated in a year 2000 study by Audun Langhelle MD. The 2006 guidelines also eliminated the phrase "Heimlich maneuver" and replaced it with the more descriptive "abdominal thrust."

Dr. Heimlich's promotion of the use of abdominal thrusts in cases of near-drowning and to treat asthma has been dogged by allegations of fraud based on the research of his son, Peter M. Heimlich. The 2005 drowning rescue guidelines of the American Heart Association removed all citations or articles written by Dr. Heimlich and warn against the use of the Heimlich maneuver for drowning rescue as unproven and dangerous, since it may induce vomiting leading to aspiration.

On May 28, 2003, Heimlich's 30-year colleague and co-author, Edward A. Patrick MD PhD of Union, Kentucky, issued a press release stating he was the uncredited co-developer of the maneuver. From Outmaneuvered by Thomas Francis, Radar Magazine, November 10, 2005:

"I would like to get proper credit for what I've done," Patrick told me. "But I'm not hyper about it." Patrick's ex-wife Joy tells a different story: Whenever my kids would say "Heimlich maneuver," he would correct them and say, "Patrick maneuver."


Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 02/02/2008 16:46:47
Irinyi,János


János Irinyi (May 17, 1817 – December 17, 1895); IPA:  sometimes also spelled János Irínyi) [1] was a Hungarian chemist and inventor of the noiseless and non-explosive match. He achieved this by mixing the phosphorus with lead dioxide instead of the potassium chlorate used previously.[
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 02/02/2008 17:30:41
J is for Jiminy Cricket!

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.dep.state.fl.us%2Fsecretary%2Fpost%2F2004%2Fimages1%2FJiminy1073.jpg&hash=8629a793595b33fd79aa63b5dd8c49ad)

Jiminy Cricket is a fictional character who first appeared in the 1940 Walt Disney animated film Pinocchio. He was appointed by the Blue Fairy to serve as the official conscience for Pinocchio. He is also a comical and wise partner who accompanies Pinocchio on his adventures. He is based on the unnamed talking cricket who plays a similar but smaller role in the original story of The Adventures of Pinocchio.
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Karen W. on 02/02/2008 18:09:48
K is for Karen Warvi...LOL.. Member of this most wonderful Science forum..Chatterbox

extraordinarie..Hee hee.. Teacher and Student of all things great and small!!

Willing to learn from one and all!

Love to rhyme and read it too. Enjoying my time here with all of you!!
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 02/02/2008 19:41:20
L is for Love

The word love has many different meanings in English, from something that gives a little pleasure ("I loved that meal") to something one would die for (patriotism, family). It can describe an intense feeling of affection, an emotion or an emotional state. In ordinary use, it usually refers to interpersonal love. Probably due to its psychological relevance, love is one of the most common themes in art and music.

Just as there are many types of lovers, there are many kinds of love. Though love is inherent in all human cultures, cultural differences make any universal definition difficult to establish.[1] One definition attempting to be universally applicable is Thomas Jay Oord's: to love is to act intentionally, in sympathetic response to others (including God), to promote overall well-being. This definition applies to the positive connotations of love.

Expressions of love may include the love for a "soul" or mind, the love of laws and organizations, love for a body, love for nature, love of food, love of money, love for learning, love of power, love of fame, love for the respect of others, etcetera. Different people place varying degrees of importance on the kinds of love they receive. According to many philosophers, the only goal of life is to be happy. And there is only one happiness in life: to love and be loved. Love is essentially an abstract concept, much easier to experience than to explain.
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: JimBob on 02/02/2008 22:06:37
M, N, O & P

My, Oh My,

Cartoon crickets? previous things without any science basis at all?

No, No, No.

Please keep this thread on topic, PLEASE
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: DoctorBeaver on 02/02/2008 22:28:41
Let's go back to J and do this properly

Joy, Jim

Geologist and abuser of beavers.

He is a geologist from the old school - when he didn't take a doctorate to get a teaching job, he saw a need in college to become well educated in the European fashion and has done that for himself since 1970. He has done consulting in hydrology (not his forte) petroleum, coal, environmental, and hydrothermal geology worldwide. He has also been the chief operating officer for an oil company.
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Karen W. on 02/02/2008 23:22:23
Laparoscopy

http://www.ivf.com/laprscpy.html

Laparoscopy is direct visualization of the peritoneal cavity, ovaries, outside of the tubes and uterus by using a laparoscopy. The laparoscopy is an instrument somewhat like a miniature telescope with a fiber optic system which brings light into the abdomen. It is about as big around as a fountain pen and twice as long.

An instrument to move the uterus during surgery will be placed in the vagina. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is put into the abdomen through a special needle that is inserted just below the navel. This gas helps to separate the organs inside the abdominal cavity, making it easier for the physician to see the reproductive organs during laparoscopy. The gas is removed at the end of the procedure.
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: opus on 02/02/2008 23:49:29
M is for MNEMONIC- eg My Very Easy Method Just Speeds Up Naming.....- oh dear , can't use that one anymore...
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: rosalind dna on 03/02/2008 14:05:18
Numerical analysis

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   
(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi29.tinypic.com%2F2z7lpic.jpg&hash=0add98b11d2381d44bab1bca8631d9cd)

(c. 1800–1600 BCE) [1] with annotations. (Image by Bill Casselman)Numerical analysis is the study of algorithms for the problems of continuous mathematics (as distinguished from discrete mathematics).

One of the earliest mathematical writings is the Babylonian tablet YBC 7289, which gives a sexagesimal numerical approximation of , the length of the diagonal in a unit square.[1] Being able to compute the sides of a triangle (and hence, being able to compute square roots) is extremely important, for instance, in carpentry and construction.[2] In a square wall section that is two meters by two meters, a diagonal beam has to be  meters long.[3]

Numerical analysis continues this long tradition of practical mathematical calculations. Much like the Babylonian approximation to , modern numerical analysis does not seek exact answers, because exact answers are impossible to obtain in practice. Instead, much of numerical analysis is concerned with obtaining approximate solutions while maintaining reasonable bounds on errors.

Numerical analysis naturally finds applications in all fields of engineering and the physical sciences, but in the 21st century, the life sciences and even the arts have adopted elements of scientific computations. Ordinary differential equations appear in the movement of heavenly bodies (planets, stars and galaxies); optimization occurs in portfolio management; numerical linear algebra is essential to quantitative psychology; stochastic differential equations and Markov chains are essential in simulating living cells for medicine and biology.

Before the advent of modern computers numerical methods often depended on hand interpolation in large printed tables. Nowadays (after mid 20th century) these tables have fallen into disuse, because computers can calculate the required functions. The interpolation algorithms nevertheless may be used as part of the software for solving differential equations and the like.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Numerical_analysis
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 03/02/2008 20:31:03



John Ostrom


John H. Ostrom (February 18, 1928 – July 16, 2005) was an American paleontologist who revolutionized modern understanding of dinosaurs in the 1960s, when he demonstrated that dinosaurs are more like big non-flying birds than they are like lizards (or "saurians"), an idea first proposed by Thomas Henry Huxley in the 1860s, but which had garnered few supporters. The first of Ostrom's broad-based reviews of the osteology and phylogeny of the primitive bird Archaeopteryx appeared in 1976. His reaction to the eventual discovery of feathered dinosaurs in China, after years of acrimonious debate, was bittersweet


 [ Invalid Attachment ]



SOURCE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Ostrom





Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Karen W. on 03/02/2008 23:28:23
Photon = A particle or quantum of electromagnetic radiation.
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: DoctorBeaver on 03/02/2008 23:54:07
Qabala Radar

No, not a device for detecting misguided celebrities such as Madonna  [:D]

from Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qabala_radar (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qabala_radar)

The Qabala Radar or Qabala Radar (Radiolocation) Station (in many Western sources Qabala is spelled Gabala) is a Daryal-type (known in the West as Pechora after the location Daryal was first tested and installed) bistatic phased-array early warning radar,[1] built by the Soviet Union in the Qabala district of the Azerbaijan SSR
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: JimBob on 06/02/2008 15:48:32
Since "Q" & "R" have just been quite deftly used up, It is "S" next.

Smegma
- a thick, cheeselike, sebaceous secretion that .....



(its a family site)
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: rosalind dna on 06/02/2008 17:07:00
Tinnitus is a disease that affects people by constant ringing in their ears. Of different
kinds of hearing and natures as well as this link says

Tinnitus (pronounced /tɪˈnaɪtəs/ or /ˈtɪnɪtəs/,[1] from the Latin word for "ringing"[2]) is the perception of sound in the human ear in the absence of corresponding external sound(s).

Tinnitus can be perceived in one or both ears or in the head. It is usually described as a ringing noise, but in some patients it takes the form of a high pitched whining, buzzing, hissing, humming, or whistling sound, or as ticking, clicking, roaring, "crickets" or "tree frogs" or "locusts", tunes, songs, or beeping.[3] It has also been described as a "whooshing" sound, as of wind or waves.[4]


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tinnitus
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Carolyn on 11/02/2008 04:38:31
Uvula

The uvula (pronounced /ˈjuːvjələ/) is a small, mucosa-covered set of muscles, musculus uvulae, hanging down from the soft palate, near the back of the throat. The word is derived from the diminutive of uva, the Latin word for "grape", due to the uvula's grape-like shape.


Function in voice
The uvula plays an important role in the articulation of the sound of the human voice to form the sounds of speech.[1] It functions in tandem with the back of the throat, the palate, and air coming up from the lungs to create a number of guttural and other sounds. Consonants pronounced with the uvula are not found in English; however, languages such as Arabic, French, German, Hebrew, Ubykh, and Hmong use uvular consonants to varying degrees. Certain African languages use the uvula to produce click consonants as well. In English (as well as many other languages), it closes to prevent air escaping through the nose when making some sounds.

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi25.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fc87%2Fkochcarolyn%2F250px-Tonsils_diagram.jpg&hash=94678c3e4128f942100a7c19ba419278)


Source:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uvula

Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: rosalind dna on 11/02/2008 19:26:04
Varicose veinsFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

An Indian Railways worker affected by varicose veins in Karnataka, India.Varicose veins are veins that have become enlarged and twisted. The term commonly refers to the veins on the leg, although varicose veins occur elsewhere. Veins have leaflet valves to prevent blood from flowing backwards (retrograde). Leg muscles pump the veins to return blood to the heart. When veins become enlarged, the leaflets of the valves no longer meet properly, and the valves don't work. One cause of valve failure is Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT), which can cause permanent damage to the valves. The blood collects in the veins and they enlarge even more. Varicose veins are common in the superficial veins of the legs, which are subject to high pressure when standing. Besides cosmetic problems, varicose veins are often painful, especially when standing or walking. They often itch, and scratching them can cause ulcers. Serious complications are rare. Non-surgical treatments include sclerotherapy, elastic stockings, elevating the legs, and exercise. The traditional surgical treatment has been vein stripping to remove the affected veins. Newer surgical treatments are less invasive (see radiofrequency ablation) and are slowly replacing traditional surgical treatments. Since most of the blood in the legs is returned by the deep veins, and the superficial veins only return about 10%, they can be removed or ablated without serious harm.[1][2] Varicose veins are distinguished from reticular veins (blue veins) and telangiectasias (spider veins) which also involve valvular insufficiency,[3] by the size and location of the veins.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Varicose_veins
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Karen W. on 12/02/2008 05:40:40
Wagon-wheel effect
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wagon-wheel_effect

The wagon-wheel effect (alternatively, or stagecoach-wheel effect, stroboscopic effect) is an optical illusion in which a spoked wheel appears to rotate differently from its true rotation. The wheel can appear to rotate more slowly than the true rotation, it can appear stationary, or it can appear to rotate in the opposite direction from the true rotation. This last form of the effect is sometimes called the reverse rotation effect.

The wagon-wheel effect is most often seen in film or television depictions of stagecoaches or wagons in Western movies, although recordings of any regularly spoked wheel will show it, such as helicopter rotors and aircraft propellers. It can also commonly be seen when a rotating wheel is illuminated by flickering light. These forms of the effect are known as stroboscopic effects and they arise from temporal aliasing: the original smooth rotation of the wheel is visible only intermittently. A version of the wagon-wheel effect can also be seen under continuous illumination.
See more at:



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wagon-wheel_effect
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 13/02/2008 14:07:30
X is for X-Ray (Even though its probably been done before

An X-ray (or Röntgen ray) is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength in the range of 10 to 0.01 nanometers, corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz to 30 EHz. X-rays are primarily used for diagnostic radiography and crystallography. X-rays are a form of ionizing radiation and as such can be dangerous. In many languages it is called Röntgen radiation after one of the first investigators of the X-rays, Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen.

And from Science Class they were founded by him in 1899 (I beileve)
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 13/02/2008 23:46:51
Yellow fever (also called yellow jack, black vomit or vomito negro, or sometimes American Plague) is an acute viral disease. It is an important cause of hemorrhagic illness in many African and South American countries despite existence of an effective vaccine. The yellow refers to the jaundice symptoms that affect some patients.

Yellow fever has been a source of several devastating epidemics. French soldiers were attacked by yellow fever during the 1802 Haitian Revolution; more than half of the army perished from the disease. Outbreaks followed by thousands of deaths occurred periodically in other Western Hemisphere locations until research, which included human volunteers (some of whom died), led to an understanding of the method of transmission to humans (primarily by mosquitos) and development of a vaccine and other preventative efforts in the early 20th century.

Despite the costly and sacrificial breakthrough research by Cuban physician Carlos Finlay, American physician Walter Reed, and many others over 100 years ago, unvaccinated populations in many developing nations in Africa and Central and South America continue to be at risk. As of 2001, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that yellow fever causes 200,000 illnesses and 30,000 deaths every year in unvaccinated populations.

 [ Invalid Attachment ]

An electron micrograph of Yellow Fever Virus virions.
 Virions are spheroidal, uniform in shape and are 40-60nm
in diameter. The name "Yellow Fever" is due to the ensuing
 jaundice that affects some patients. The vector is the
 Aedes aegypti or Haemagogus spp. mosquito.
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: DoctorBeaver on 14/02/2008 07:39:10
grrrr... for Y I was going to put the "Ying Tong Song"  [:(!]
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Carolyn on 14/02/2008 19:43:36
Zircon

Zircon is a mineral belonging to the group of nesosilicates. Its chemical name is zirconium silicate and its corresponding chemical formula is ZrSiO4. Hafnium is almost always present in quantities ranging from 1 to 4%. The crystal structure of zircon is tetragonal crystal class. The natural color of zircon varies between colorless, yellow-golden, red, brown, and green. Colorless specimens that show gem quality are a popular substitute for diamond; these specimens are also known as "Matura diamond". It is not to be confused with cubic zirconia, a synthetic substance with a completely different chemical composition.

The name either derives from the Arabic word zarqun, meaning vermilion, or from the Persian zargun, meaning golden-colored. These words are corrupted into "jargoon", a term applied to light-colored zircons. Yellow zircon is called hyacinth, from a word of East Indian origin; in the Middle Ages all yellow stones of East Indian origin were called hyacinth, but today this term is restricted to the yellow zircons.

Zircon is regarded as the traditional birthstone for December.


Source:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zircon
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 04/03/2008 20:25:30
A if for -a-

Main Entry: -a-
Function: combining form
Etymology: International Scientific Vocabulary

 : replacing carbon especially in a ring *aza-*
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 07/03/2008 12:13:27
B is for B1

Main Entry:thiamine
Pronunciation:*th*-*-m*n, -*m*n
Variant:also thiamin  \-m*n\
Function:noun
Etymology:thiamine alteration of thiamin, from thi- + -amin (as in vitamin)
Date:1937

 : a vitamin (C12H17N4OS)Cl of the B complex that is essential to normal metabolism and nerve function and is widespread in plants and animals   called also vitamin B1
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 08/03/2008 01:47:09
C is for Calcium

Main Entry:calcium
Pronunciation:*kal-s*-*m
Function:noun
Usage:often attributive
Etymology:New Latin, from Latin calc-, calx lime
Date:1808

 : a silver-white bivalent metallic element of the alkaline-earth group occurring only in combination   see ELEMENT table
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 08/03/2008 02:50:47
D is for D1

Main Entry:calciferol
Pronunciation:kal-*si-f*-*r*l, -*r*l
Function:noun
Etymology:calciferous + ergosterol
Date:1931

 : an alcohol C28H43OH usually prepared by irradiation of ergosterol and used as a dietary supplement in nutrition and medicinally in the control of rickets and related disorders   called also vitamin D2
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 08/03/2008 07:34:21
E is for E Vitamin

Main Entry:vitamin E
Function:noun
Date:1925

 : any of several fat-soluble vitamins that are chemically tocopherols, are essential in the nutrition of various vertebrates in which their absence is associated with infertility, degenerative changes in muscle, or vascular abnormalities, are found especially in leaves and in seed germ oils, and are used chiefly in animal feeds and as antioxidants
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 08/03/2008 07:35:24
F is for the F1 Layer

Main Entry:F1 layer
Pronunciation:*ef-*w*n-
Function:noun
Date:1933

 : the lower of the two layers into which the F region of the ionosphere splits in the daytime that occurs at varying heights from about 80 to 120 miles (130 to 200 kilometers) above the earth's surface
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 08/03/2008 22:10:14
G is for G1 Phase

Main Entry:G1 phase
Pronunciation:*j*-*w*n-
Function:noun
Etymology:growth
Date:1966

 : the period in the cell cycle from the end of cell division to the beginning of DNA replication   compare G2 PHASE, M PHASE, S PHASE
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 18/03/2008 10:28:15
H is for H (get it? hahah)

Main Entry:4*H
Pronunciation:*f*r-**ch, *f*r-
Function:adjective
Etymology:from the fourfold aim of improving the head, heart, hands, and health
Date:1926

 : of or relating to a program set up by the U.S. Department of Agriculture orig. in rural areas to help young people become productive citizens by instructing them in useful skills (as in agriculture, animal husbandry, and carpentry), community service, and personal development
  –4*H'er also    4*Her \-**-ch*r\  noun 


Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 18/03/2008 10:31:34
I is for Iodine

Main Entry:iodine
Pronunciation:**-*-*d*n, -d*n, -*d*n
Function:noun
Usage:often attributive
Etymology:French iode, from Greek ioeid*s violet colored, from ion violet
Date:1814

1 : a nonmetallic halogen element obtained usually as heavy shining blackish gray crystals and used especially in medicine, photography, and analysis   see ELEMENT table
2 : a tincture of iodine used especially as a topical antiseptic
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 18/03/2008 12:43:23
Jade


Jade is an ornamental stone. The term jade is applied to two different rocks that are made up of different silicate minerals. Nephrite jade consists of the calcium- and magnesium-rich amphibole mineral actinolite (aggregates of which also make up one form of asbestos). The rock called jadeitite consists almost entirely of jadeite, a sodium- and aluminium-rich pyroxene. The trade name Jadite is sometimes applied to translucent/opaque green glass.

The English word 'jade' is derived from the Spanish term "cholo (first recorded in 1565) or 'loin stone', from its reputed efficacy in curing ailments of the loins and kidneys. 'Nephrite' is derived from lapis nephriticus, the Latin version of the Spanish piedra de ijada.[1]

Nephrite and jadeite were used by people from the prehistoric for similar purposes. Both are about the same hardness as quartz, and they are exceptionally tough. They are beautifully coloured and can be delicately shaped. Thus it was not until the 19th century that a French mineralogist determined that "jade" was in fact two different materials.

Among the earliest known jade artifacts excavated from prehistoric sites are simple ornaments with bead, button, and tubular shapes[2]. Additionally, jade was used for axe heads, knives, and other weapons. As metal-working technologies became available, the beauty of jade made it valuable for ornaments and decorative objects. Jade has a Mohs hardness of between 6.5 and 7.0,[3] so it can be worked with quartz or garnet sand, and polished with bamboo or even ground jade.


 [ Invalid Attachment ]


 [ Invalid Attachment ]
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 21/03/2008 03:26:11
K is for K (Potassium)

Main Entry:potassium
Pronunciation:p*-*ta-s*-*m
Function:noun
Usage:often attributive
Etymology:New Latin, from potassa potash, from English potash
Date:circa 1807

 : a silver-white soft light low-melting univalent metallic element of the alkali metal group that occurs abundantly in nature especially combined in minerals   see ELEMENT table
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 21/03/2008 03:27:22
L is for Lime

Main Entry:5lime
Function:noun
Etymology:French, from Spanish lima, from Arabic l*ma, l*m
Date:1583

1 : the small globose yellowish green fruit of a lime with a usually acid juicy pulp used as a flavoring agent and as a source of vitamin C
2 : a spiny tropical citrus tree (Citrus aurantifolia) with elliptical oblong narrowly winged leaves
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 21/03/2008 12:56:02
John C. Mather


John Cromwell Mather (b. August 7, 1946, Roanoke, Virginia) is an American astrophysicist, cosmologist and Nobel Prize in Physics laureate for his work on COBE with George Smoot. COBE was the first experiment to measure "... the black body form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation."

This work helped cement the big-bang theory of the universe using the Cosmic Background Explorer Satellite (COBE). According to the Nobel Prize committee, "the COBE-project can also be regarded as the starting point for cosmology as a precision science."[1]

Mather is a senior astrophysicist at the U.S. space agency's (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland and adjunct professor of physics at the University of Maryland, College Park. In 2007, Mather was listed among Time magazine's 100 Most Influential People in The World.


 [ Invalid Attachment ]
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 22/03/2008 12:22:09
N is for Neuston

Main Entry:neuston
Pronunciation:*n*-*st*n, *ny*-
Function:noun
Etymology:German, from Greek, neuter of neustos swimming, from nein to swim more at  NATANT
Date:1928

 : minute organisms that float in the surface film of water
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 22/03/2008 12:23:40
O is for Osteoplasty

Main Entry:osteoplasty
Pronunciation:**s-t*-*-*plas-t*
Function:noun
Date:circa 1860

 : plastic surgery on bone;  especially   : replacement of lost bone tissue or reconstruction of defective bony parts
  –osteoplastic \**s-t*-*-*plas-tik\  adjective
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 22/03/2008 12:24:20
P is for Pabluum

Main Entry:pabulum
Pronunciation:*pa-by*-l*m
Function:noun
Etymology:Latin, food, fodder; akin to Latin pascere to feed more at  FOOD
Date:1733

1 : FOOD;  especially   : a suspension or solution of nutrients in a state suitable for absorption
2 : intellectual sustenance
3 : something (as writing or speech) that is insipid, simplistic, or bland
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 22/03/2008 21:26:23
Q is for Qattara Depression

Main Entry:Qattara Depression
Pronunciation:k*-*t*r-*
Usage:geographical name

 region  NW Egypt, a low area 40 miles (64 kilometers) from coast; lowest point 440 feet (134 meters) below sea level
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 22/03/2008 21:26:43
R is for Radium

Main Entry:radium
Pronunciation:*r*-d*-*m
Function:noun
Usage:often attributive
Etymology:New Latin, from Latin radius ray
Date:1899

 : an intensely radioactive brilliant white metallic element that resembles barium chemically, occurs in combination in minute quantities in minerals (as pitchblende or carnotite), emits alpha particles and gamma rays to form radon, and is used chiefly in luminous materials and in the treatment of cancer   see ELEMENT table
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 23/03/2008 01:44:09
S is for Saar

Main Entry:Saar
Pronunciation:*s*r, *z*r
Usage:geographical name

1 or French    Sarre \*s*r\  river about 150 miles (241 kilometers) Europe flowing from Vosges Mountains in France  N to the Moselle in  W Germany
2 or    Saarland \*s*r-*land, *z*r-\  region  W Europe in basin of Saar River between France & Germany; once part of Lorraine, became part of Germany in 19th century; administered by League of Nations 1919*35; became a state of Germany 1935; came under control of France after World War II; to W. Germany by a plebiscite Jan. 1, 1957, as a state (  Saarland) capital Saarbr*cken area 991 square miles (2567 square kilometers), population 1,073,000
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 23/03/2008 01:44:34
T is for Triiodothyronine

Main Entry:triiodothyronine
Pronunciation:*tr*-**-*-d*-*th*-r*-*n*n
Function:noun
Etymology:tri- + iod- + thyronine (an amino acid of which thyroxine is a derivative)
Date:1952

 : an iodine-containing hormone C15H12I3NO4 that is an amino acid derived from thyroxine
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 23/03/2008 02:14:11
U is for Uranium

Main Entry:uranium
Pronunciation:y*-*r*-n*-*m
Function:noun
Usage:often attributive
Etymology:New Latin, from Uranus
Date:circa 1797

 : a silvery heavy radioactive polyvalent metallic element that is found especially in pitchblende and uraninite and exists naturally as a mixture of three isotopes of mass number 234, 235, and 238 in the proportions of 0.006 percent, 0.71 percent, and 99.28 percent respectively   see ELEMENT table
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 23/03/2008 02:15:25
V is Volcano

Main Entry:volcano
Pronunciation:v*l-*k*-(*)n*, v*l-
Function:noun
Inflected Form:plural -noes or -nos
Etymology:Italian or Spanish; Italian vulcano, from Spanish volc*n, ultimately from Latin Volcanus Vulcan
Date:1613

1 : a vent in the crust of the earth or another planet from which usually molten or hot rock and steam issue;  also   : a hill or mountain composed wholly or in part of the ejected material
2 : something of explosively violent potential
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 23/03/2008 02:44:29
W is for Watermelon

Main Entry:watermelon
Pronunciation:-*me-l*n
Function:noun
Date:1615

1 : a large oblong or roundish fruit with a hard green or white rind often striped or variegated, a sweet watery pink, yellowish, or red pulp, and usually many seeds
2 : a widely grown African vine (Citrullus lanatus syn. C. vulgaris) of the gourd family that bears watermelons
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 23/03/2008 02:45:06
X is for Xanthan Gum

Main Entry:xanthan gum
Pronunciation:*zan-th*n-
Function:noun
Etymology:xanth- (from New Latin Xanthomonas, genus name) + 3-an
Date:1964

 : a polysaccharide that is produced by fermentation of carbohydrates by a gram-negative bacterium (Xanthomonas campestris of the family Pseudomonadaceae) and is a thickening and suspending agent used especially in pharmaceuticals and prepared foods   called also xanthan
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 23/03/2008 02:45:56
Y is for Yablonovy Mountains

Main Entry:Yablonovy Mountains
Variant:or Yablonovyy Mountains  \*y*-bl*-n*-*v*\
Usage:geographical name

 mountain range  S Russia in Asia
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 23/03/2008 02:46:27
Z is for Z particle

Main Entry:Z particle
Function:noun
Date:1979

 : a neutral elementary particle about 90 times heavier than a proton that along with the W particle is a transmitter of the weak force   called also Z0 or Z0 particle
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Carolyn on 24/03/2008 14:58:31
Amber
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi25.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fc87%2Fkochcarolyn%2F250px-Fossil_amber_with_abee.jpg&hash=8e938c2073dda40619c5a45ed71c24c0)
 
Amber is the name for fossil resin or tree sap that is appreciated for its colour. It is used for the manufacture of ornamental objects and jewellery. Although not mineralized, it is sometimes considered a gemstone. Most of the world's amber is in the range of 30–90 million years old. Semi-fossilized resin or sub-fossil amber is called copal.

The presence of insects in amber was noticed by the Romans and led them to the (correct) theory that at some point, amber had to be in a liquid state to cover the bodies of insects. Hence they gave it the expressive name of suceinum or gum-stone, a name that is still in use today to describe succinic acid as well as succinite, a term given to a particular type of amber by James Dwight Dana (see below under Baltic Amber). The Greek name for amber was ηλεκτρον (Electron) and was connected to the Sun God, one of whose titles was Elector or the Awakener.[1]

The modern term electron was coined in 1891 by the Irish physicist George Stoney, using the Greek word for amber (and which was then translated as electrum) because of its electrostatic properties and whilst analyzing elementary charge for the first time. The ending -on, common for all subatomic particles, was used in analogy to the word ion.[2][3]

Heating amber will soften it and eventually it will burn, which is why in Germanic languages the word for amber is a literal translation of burn-Stone (In German it is Bernstein, in Dutch it is barnsteen etc.). Heated below 200°C, amber suffers decomposition, yielding an "oil of amber", and leaving a black residue which is known as "amber colophony", or "amber pitch"; when dissolved in oil of turpentine or in linseed oil this forms "amber varnish" or "amber lac". As mentioned above, amber was well known for its electrostatic properties since antiquity (though not identified as such until the concept of electronic charge became clear).

Chemistry of amber
Amber is heterogeneous in composition, but consists of several resinous bodies more or less soluble in alcohol, ether and chloroform, associated with an insoluble bituminous substance. Amber is a macromolecule by free radical polymerization of several precursors in the labdane family, communic acid, cummunol and biformene.[4] These labdanes are diterpenes (C20H32) and trienes which means that the organic skeleton has three alkene groups available for polymerization. As amber matures over the years, more polymerization will take place as well as isomerization reactions, crosslinking and cyclization. The average composition of amber leads to the general formula C10H16O.

Amber should be distinguished from copal. Molecular polymerisation caused by pressure and heat transforms the resin firstly into copal and then over time through the evaporation of turpenes it is transformed into amber.

Baltic amber is distinguished from the various other ambers from around the world, by the presence within it of succinic acid hence why Baltic amber is otherwise known as succinite.
Amber in geology
 
A bee and a Leaf inside the amber.Baltic amber or succinite (historically documented as Prussian amber) is found as irregular nodules in a marine glauconitic sand, known as blue earth, occurring in the Lower Oligocene strata of Sambia in Kaliningrad Oblast, where it is now systematically mined.[5] It appears, however, to have been partly derived from yet earlier Tertiary deposits (Eocene); and it occurs also as a derivative mineral in later formations, such as the drift. Relics of an abundant flora occur as inclusions trapped within the amber while the resin was yet fresh, suggesting relations with the flora of Eastern Asia and the southern part of North America. Heinrich Göppert named the common amber-yielding pine of the Baltic forests Pinites succiniter, but as the wood, according to some authorities, does not seem to differ from that of the existing genus it has been also called Pinus succinifera. It is improbable, however, that the production of amber was limited to a single species; and indeed a large number of conifers belonging to different genera are represented in the amber-flora.

Amber from the Middle Cretaceous is known from Ellsworth County, Kansas. This approximately 100 million year old amber has inclusions of bacteria and amoebae. They are morphologically very close to Leptothrix, and the modern genera Pontigulasia and Nebela. Morphological stasis is considered to be confirmed.[6]

Amber inclusions
 
An ant trapped in amber.
Insect trapped in amber. The amber piece is 10 mm (0.4 inches) long. In the enlarged picture, the insect's antennae are easily seen.The resin contains, in addition to the beautifully preserved plant-structures, numerous remains of insects, spiders, annelids, frogs,[7] crustaceans and other small organisms which became enveloped while the exudation was fluid. In most cases the organic structure has disappeared, leaving only a cavity, with perhaps a trace of chitin. Even hair and feathers have occasionally been represented among the enclosures. Fragments of wood frequently occur, with the tissues well-preserved by impregnation with the resin; while leaves, flowers and fruits are occasionally found in marvelous perfection. Sometimes the amber retains the form of drops and stalactites, just as it exuded from the ducts and receptacles of the injured trees. It is thought that, in addition to exuding onto the surface of the tree, amber resin also originally flowed into hollow cavities or cracks within trees, thereby leading to the development of large lumps of amber of irregular form.[8] The abnormal development of resin has been called succinosis. Impurities are quite often present, especially when the resin dropped on to the ground, so that the material may be useless except for varnish-making, whence the impure amber is called firniss. Enclosures of pyrites may give a bluish colour to amber. The so-called black amber is only a kind of jet. Bony amber owes its cloudy opacity to minute bubbles in the interior of the resin. A type of amber known as blue amber exists in the Dominican Republic.

Amber locations

Baltic amber
Amber has a very wide distribution, extending over a large part of northern Europe and occurring as far east as the Urals.

True amber yields on dry distillation succinic acid, the proportion varying from about 3% to 8%, and being greatest in the pale opaque or bony varieties. The aromatic and irritating fumes emitted by burning amber are mainly due to this acid. True Baltic amber is distinguished by its yield of succinic acid, for many of the other fossil resins which are often termed amber contain either none of it, or only a very small proportion; hence the name succinite proposed by Professor James Dwight Dana, and now commonly used in scientific writings as a specific term for the real Prussian amber. Succinite has a hardness between 2 and 3, which is rather greater than that of many other fossil resins. Its specific gravity varies from 1.05 to 1.10. An effective tool for amber analysis is IR spectroscopy. It enables the distinction between Baltic and non-Baltic amber varieties because of a specific carbonyl absorption and it can also detect the relative age of an amber sample.

 
Wood resin, the ancient source of amberAlthough amber is found along the shores of a large part of the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, the great amber-producing country is the promontory of Sambia, now part of Russia. About 90% of the world's extractable amber is located in the Kaliningrad region of Russia on the Baltic Sea.[9] Pieces of amber torn from the seafloor are cast up by the waves, and collected at ebb-tide. Sometimes the searchers wade into the sea, furnished with nets at the end of long poles, which they drag in the sea-weed containing entangled masses of amber; or they dredge from boats in shallow water and rake up amber from between the boulders. Divers have been employed to collect amber from the deeper waters. Systematic dredging on a large scale was at one time carried on in the Curonian Lagoon by Messrs Stantien and Becker, the great amber merchants of Königsberg. At the present time extensive mining operations are conducted in quest of amber. The pit amber was formerly dug in open works, but is now also worked by underground galleries. The nodules from the blue earth have to be freed from matrix and divested of their opaque crust, which can be done in revolving barrels containing sand and water. The sea-worn amber has lost its crust, but has often acquired a dull rough surface by rolling in sand.

Since the establishment of the Amber Road, amber (which is also commonly referred to as the "Lithuanian gold") has substantially contributed to Lithuanian economy and culture. Nowadays a great variety of amber jewelry and amberware is offered to foreign tourists in most souvenir shops as distinctive to Lithuania and its cultural heritage. The Amber Museum containing unique specimen of amber has been established in Palanga, near the sea coast. Amber can also be found in Latvia, and it has an important role in Latvian culture, too.


Other locations
A lesser known source of amber is in the Ukraine, within a marshy forested area on the Volyhn-Polesie border. Due to the shallow depth that this amber is found at it can be extracted with the simplest of tools, and has hence led to an economy of 'amber poaching' under cover of the forest. This Ukrainian amber is much appreciated for its wide range of colours, and was used in the restoration of 'amber room' in the Empress Catherines palace in St Petersberg (see below).

Rolled pieces of amber, usually small but occasionally of very large size, may be picked up on the east coast of England, having probably been washed up from deposits under the North Sea. Cromer is the best-known locality, but it occurs also on other parts of the Norfolk coast, such as Great Yarmouth, as well as Southwold, Aldeburgh and Felixstowe in Suffolk, and as far south as Walton-on-the-Naze in Essex, whilst northwards it is not unknown in Yorkshire. On the other side of the North Sea, amber is found at various localities on the coast of the Netherlands and Denmark. On the shores of the Baltic it occurs not only on the German and Polish coast but in the south of Sweden, in Bornholm and other islands, and in southern Finland. Some of the amber districts of the Baltic and North Sea were known in prehistoric times, and led to early trade with the south of Europe through the Amber Road. Amber was carried to Olbia on the Black Sea, Massilia (today Marseille) on the Mediterranean, and Adria at the head of the Adriatic; and from these centres it was distributed over the Ancient Greek world.

Amber and certain similar substances are found to a limited extent at several localities in the United States, as in the green-sand of New Jersey, but they have little or no economic value. Middle Cretaceous amber has also been found in Ellsworth county, Kansas. It has little value for jewelry makers, but is very valuable to biologists. Unfortunately the source of this amber is currently under a man made lake. A fluorescent amber occurs in the southern state of Chiapas in Mexico, and is used extensively to create eye-catching jewelery. Blue amber is recorded in the Dominican Republic. These Central American ambers are formed from the resins of legume trees (Hymenea) and not conifers.

Indonesia is also a rich source of amber with large fragments being unearthed in both Java and Bali.

Amber treatments
 
Amber (ca. 12 cm Ø)The famous Vienna amber factories which use pale amber to manufacture pipes and other smoking tools, apply a specific procedure when working amber: it is turned on the lathe and polished with whitening and water or with rotten stone and oil, the final lustre being given by friction with flannel. During the working a significant electrostatic charge is developed.

When gradually heated in an oil-bath, amber becomes soft and flexible. Two pieces of amber may be united by smearing the surfaces with linseed oil, heating them, and then pressing them together while hot. Cloudy amber may be clarified in an oil-bath, as the oil fills the numerous pores to which the turbidity is due. Small fragments, formerly thrown away or used only for varnish, are now utilized on a large scale in the formation of "ambroid" or "pressed amber". The pieces are carefully heated with exclusion of air and then compressed into a uniform mass by intense hydraulic pressure; the softened amber being forced through holes in a metal plate. The product is extensively used for the production of cheap jewelery and articles for smoking. This pressed amber yields brilliant interference colours in polarized light. Amber has often been imitated by other resins like copal and kauri, as well as by celluloid and even glass. True amber is sometimes coloured artificially.

Often amber (particularly with insect inclusions) is counterfeited using a plastic resin similar in appearance. A simple test (performed on the back of the object) consists of touching the object with a heated pin and determining if the resultant odor is of wood resin. If not, the object is counterfeit, although a positive test may not be conclusive owing to a thin coat of real resin. Often counterfeits will have a too perfect pose and position of the trapped insect.


Amber art and ornament
Amber was much valued as an ornamental material in very early times. It has been found in Mycenaean tombs; it is known from lake-dwellings in Switzerland, and it occurs with Neolithic remains in Denmark, whilst in England it is found with interments of the bronze age. A remarkably fine cup turned in amber from a bronze-age barrow at Hove is now in the Brighton Museum. Beads of amber occur with Anglo-Saxon relics in the south of England; and up to a comparatively recent period the material was valued as an amulet. It is still believed to possess a certain medicinal virtue.

 
Unpolished amber stones, in varying huesAmber is extensively used for beads and other ornaments, and for cigar-holders and the mouth-pieces of pipes. It is regarded by the Turks as specially valuable, inasmuch as it is said to be incapable of transmitting infection as the pipe passes from mouth to mouth. The variety most valued in the East is the pale straw-coloured, slightly cloudy amber. Some of the best qualities are sent to Vienna for the manufacture of smoking appliances.

The Amber Room was a collection of chamber wall panels commissioned in 1701 for the king of Prussia, then given to Tsar Peter the Great. The room was hidden in place from invading Nazi forces in 1941, who upon finding it in the Catherine Palace, disassembled it and moved it to Königsberg. What happened to the room beyond this point is unclear, but it may have been destroyed when the Russians burned the German fortification where it was stored. It is presumed lost. It was re-created in 2003.[10]

 
The Amber Room was reconstructed from the Kaliningrad amber.Amber has also been used to create the "frog" part of a Violin bow. It was commissioned by Gennady Filimonov and made by the late American Master Bowmaker Keith Peck [11]


Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 24/03/2008 18:27:17
Buchner Eduard  (May 20, 1860 – August 13, 1917) was a German chemist and zymologist, the winner of the 1907 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on fermentation.

He was born in Munich, the son of a physician and Doctor Extraordinary of Forensic Medicine. In 1884, he began studies in chemistry with Adolf von Baeyer and in botany with Professor C. von Naegeli, at the Botanic Institute in Munich. After a period working with Otto Fischer in Erlangen, he was awarded a doctorate from the University of Munich in 1888.

Buchner married Lotte Stahl in 1900.

Buchner was awarded the 1907 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his biochemical investigations and his discovery of non-cellular fermentation.

During World War I, Buchner served as a Major in a front-line field hospital at Focşani, Romania. He was wounded on August 3 1917 and died of these wounds nine days later in Munich, aged 57.

It is commonly thought that the Büchner flask and Büchner funnel are named for him, but they are actually named for the industrial chemist Ernst Büchner.


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Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 24/03/2008 19:15:17
C is Cladogram

Main Entry:cladogram
Pronunciation:*kla-d*-*gram
Function:noun
Date:1966

 : a branching diagrammatic tree used in cladistic classification to illustrate phylogenetic relationships
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 24/03/2008 19:26:42
Däniken ,Erich von
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Erich Anton Paul von Däniken (b. Zofingen, Aargau, Switzerland, April 14, 1935) is a controversial Swiss author best known for his books which examine possible evidence for extraterrestrial influences on early human culture. Von Däniken is one of the key figures responsible for popularizing the paleocontact and ancient astronaut hypotheses.

Von Däniken is a co-founder of the Archaeology, Astronautics and SETI Research Association (AAS RA). He developed a theme park called Mystery Park in Interlaken, Switzerland, which opened on May 23, 2003 and closed on November 19, 2006.

His 26 books have been translated into more than 20 languages, selling more than 60 million copies worldwide, and his documentary TV shows have been viewed in Germany and the United States. His influence can also be seen in science fiction, the New Age culture and some modern religions [1].

Source: Wikipedia
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 24/03/2008 19:30:28
E is Efate

Main Entry:Efate
Pronunciation:*-*f*-*t*
Variant:or French Vat*  \v*-*t*\
Usage:geographical name

 island  SW Pacific in central Vanuatu; chief town Port-Vila (capital of Vanuatu) area 353 square miles (914 square kilometers), population 30,422
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 24/03/2008 21:02:20
F is Fungi

Main Entry:fungus
Pronunciation:*f**-g*s
Function:noun
Inflected Form:plural fungi  \*f*n-*j*, *f**-*g*\ ; also funguses  \*f**-g*-s*z\
Usage:often attributive
Etymology:Latin
Date:1527

 : any of a major group (Fungi) of saprophytic and parasitic spore-producing organisms usually classified as plants that lack chlorophyll and include molds, rusts, mildews, smuts, mushrooms, and yeasts

Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 24/03/2008 21:03:09
G is Geanticline

Main Entry:geanticline
Pronunciation:j*-*an-ti-*kl*n
Function:noun
Date:1889

 : a great upward flexure of the earth's crust   compare GEOSYNCLINE
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 25/03/2008 10:49:21
H is Helicopter

Main Entry:1helicopter
Pronunciation:*he-l*-*k*p-t*r, *h*-
Function:noun
Etymology:French h*licopt*re, from Greek heliko- + pteron wing more at  FEATHER
Date:1887

 : an aircraft whose lift is derived from the aerodynamic forces acting on one or more powered rotors turning about substantially vertical axes
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 25/03/2008 10:52:17
I is for Ice Ax

Main Entry:ice ax
Function:noun
Date:1820

 : a combination pick and adze with a spiked handle that is used in mountain climbing
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 27/03/2008 11:26:05
J is for Jaguar

Main Entry:jaguar
Pronunciation:*ja-*gw*r, -gy*-*w*r, -gw*r, esp British *ja-gy*-w*r
Function:noun
Etymology:Spanish yaguar & Portuguese jaguar, from Guarani yaguara & Tupi jaguara
Date:1604

 : a large cat (Panthera onca syn. Felis onca) chiefly of Central and So. America that is larger and stockier than the leopard and is brownish yellow or buff with black spots
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 27/03/2008 11:26:37
K is for Kangaroo

Main Entry:kangaroo
Pronunciation:*ka*-g*-*r*
Function:noun
Inflected Form:plural -roos
Etymology:Guugu Yimidhirr (Australian aboriginal language of northern Queensland) ga*urru
Date:1770

 : any of various herbivorous leaping marsupial mammals (family Macropodidae) of Australia, New Guinea, and adjacent islands with a small head, large ears, long powerful hind legs, a long thick tail used as a support and in balancing, and rather small forelegs not used in progression
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 27/03/2008 11:27:28
L is for (Sea) Lion

Main Entry:sea lion
Function:noun
Date:1697

 : any of several Pacific eared seals (as genera Eumetopius and Zalophus) that are usually larger than the related fur seals and lack a thick underfur
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 27/03/2008 21:36:35
M is for Monkey

Main Entry:1monkey
Pronunciation:*m**-k*
Function:noun
Inflected Form:plural monkeys
Etymology:probably of Low German origin; akin to Moneke, name of an ape, probably of Romance origin; akin to Old Spanish mona monkey
Date:circa 1530

1 : a nonhuman primate mammal with the exception usually of the lemurs and tarsiers;  especially   : any of the smaller longer-tailed primates as contrasted with the apes
2 a : a person resembling a monkey  b : a ludicrous figure : DUPE
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 27/03/2008 21:37:21
N is for NOAA

Main Entry:NOAA
Function:abbreviation

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 28/03/2008 01:46:25
O is for Organelle

Main Entry:organelle
Pronunciation:**r-g*-*nel
Function:noun
Etymology:New Latin organella, from Latin organum
Date:1920

 : a specialized cellular part (as a mitochondrion, lysosome, or ribosome) that is analogous to an organ
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 28/03/2008 01:47:18
P is for Poop (Excrement)

Main Entry:excrement
Pronunciation:*ek-skr*-m*nt
Function:noun
Etymology:Latin excrementum, from excernere
Date:1533

 : waste matter discharged from the body;  especially   : waste (as feces) discharged from the alimentary canal
  –excremental \*ek-skr*-*men-t*l\  adjective 
  –excrementitious \-*men-*ti-sh*s, -m*n-\  adjective 
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 28/03/2008 13:23:29
Quicksilver (Mercury)

Mercury, also called quicksilver, is a chemical element with the symbol Hg (Latinized Greek: hydrargyrum, meaning watery or liquid silver) and atomic number 80. A heavy, silvery d-block metal, mercury is one of six elements that are liquid at or near room temperature and pressure.[1] The others are the metals caesium, francium, gallium, and rubidium, and the non-metal bromine. Of these, only mercury and bromine are liquids at standard conditions for temperature and pressure.

Mercury is used in thermometers, barometers, manometers, sphygmomanometers, float valves, and other scientific apparatus, though concerns about the element's toxicity have led to mercury thermometers and sphygmomanometers being largely phased out in clinical environments in favour of alcohol-filled, digital, or thermistor-based instruments. It remains in use in a number of other ways in scientific and scientific research applications, and in dental amalgam. Mercury is mostly obtained by reduction from the mineral cinnabar.

Mercury occurs in deposits throughout the world and it is harmless in an insoluble form, such as mercuric sulfide, but it is poisonous in soluble forms such as mercuric chloride or methylmercury.


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Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Seany on 28/03/2008 13:26:35
I love Mercury [;D]
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Seany on 28/03/2008 13:26:44
Is it magnetic btw?
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 28/03/2008 21:29:09
R is for Rabbits

Main Entry:1rabbit
Pronunciation:*ra-b*t
Function:noun
Inflected Form:plural rabbit or rabbits
Usage:often attributive
Etymology:Middle English rabet, probably from Middle French dialect (Walloon) robett, from Middle Dutch robe
Date:14th century

1 : any of a family (Leporidae) of long-eared short-tailed lagomorph mammals with long hind legs:  a : any of various lagomorphs that are born naked, blind, and helpless, that are sometimes gregarious, and that include especially the cottontails of the New World and a small Old World mammal (Oryctolagus cuniculus) that is the source of various domestic breeds  b : HARE
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 28/03/2008 21:29:35
S is for Snow


Main Entry:1snow
Pronunciation:*sn*
Function:noun
Usage:often attributive
Etymology:Middle English, from Old English sn*w; akin to Old High German sn*o snow, Latin niv-, nix, Greek nipha (accusative)
Date:before 12th century

1 a : precipitation in the form of small white ice crystals formed directly from the water vapor of the air at a temperature of less than 32*F (0*C)  b (1) : a descent or shower of snow crystals (2) : a mass of fallen snow crystals
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 04/04/2008 13:33:51
Thyroid
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


The thyroid is one of the largest endocrine glands in the body. This gland is found in the neck inferior to (below) the thyroid cartilage (a.k.a. the Adam's apple in men) and at approximately the same level as the cricoid cartilage. The thyroid controls how quickly the body burns energy, makes proteins, and how sensitive the body should be to other hormones.

The thyroid participates in these processes by producing thyroid hormones, principally thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). These hormones regulate the rate of metabolism and affect the growth and rate of function of many other systems in the body. Iodine is an essential component of both T3 and T4. The thyroid also produces the hormone calcitonin, which plays a role in calcium homeostasis.

The thyroid is controlled by the hypothalamus and pituitary. The gland gets its name from the Greek word for "shield", after its shape, a double-lobed structure. Hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) and hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) are the most common problems of the thyroid gland.

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Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 14/04/2008 00:56:06
U

Main Entry:uranography
Pronunciation:*y*r-*-*n*-gr*-f*
Function:noun
Etymology:Greek ouranographia description of the heavens, from ouranos sky + -graphia -graphy
Date:1675

 : the construction of celestial representations (as maps)
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 19/04/2008 21:38:01
Virology


Virology, often considered a part of microbiology or of pathology, is the study of biological viruses and virus-like agents: their structure, classification and evolution, their ways to infect and exploit cells for virus reproduction, the diseases they cause, the techniques to isolate and culture them, and their potential uses in research and therapy.


Source:Wikipedia






V
irologist: Someone who studies virology



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A Smiling Virologist

Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 30/04/2008 17:20:25
William Heberden (1710 – May 17, 1801), English physician, was born in London.

At the end of 1724 he was sent to St John's College, Cambridge, where he obtained a fellowship, around 1730, became master of arts in 1732, and took the degree of MD in 1739. He remained at Cambridge nearly ten years longer practising medicine, and gave an annual course of lectures on materia medica. In 1746 he became a fellow of the Royal College of Physicians in London; and two years later he settled in London, where he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1749, and enjoyed an extensive medical practice for more than thirty years.

At the age of seventy-two he partially retired, spending his summers at a house he had taken at Windsor, but he continued to practice in London during the winter for some years longer. In 1778 he was made an honorary member of the Paris Royal Society of Medicine.

Heberden, who was a good classical scholar, published several papers in the Phil. Trans. of the Royal Society, and among his noteworthy contributions to the Medical Transactions (issued, largely at his suggestion, by the College of Physicians) were papers on chickenpox  (http://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/index.php?topic=14165.0)(1767) and angina pectoris (1768). His Commentarii de morborum historia et curatione, the result of careful notes made in his pocket-book at the bedside of his patients, were published in 1802; in the following year an English translation appeared, believed to be from the pen of his son, William Heberden (1767-1845), also a distinguished scholar and physician, who attended King George III in his last illness.

He married twice. First to Elizabeth Martin in 1752, with whom he had one son Thomas, later Canon of Exeter, but she died in 1754. He remarried to Mary Wollaston, daughter of Francis Wollaston (1694-1774), and had a further eight children, of whom only two survived their father, one being the William Heberden the Younger (1767-1845), who followed his father into medicine, and the other Mary (1763-1832) who married the Rev George Leonard Jenyns.
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: rosalind dna on 01/05/2008 11:29:07
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X-ray

X-Rays to show up the injury of someone concerned. Like broken or sprains muscles/bones.

Also Rosalind Franklin's Crystallograpy work was done by using X-RAys to find her famous 2 Slides A and B, photo 51.

Other notable uses of X-rays include

X-ray crystallography in which the pattern produced by the diffraction of X-rays through the closely spaced lattice of atoms in a crystal is recorded and then analyzed to reveal the nature of that lattice (most notably used by Rosalind Franklin to discover the double helix structure of DNA).
(From wiki).
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 01/05/2008 13:02:36
Naples Yellow
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Naples yellow, also called antimony yellow, can range from a somewhat muted, or earthy, reddish yellow pigment to a bright light yellow, and is the chemical compound lead(II) antimonate. Its chemical composition is Pb(SbO3)2/Pb3(Sb3O4)2. It is also known as jaune d'antimoine. It is one of the oldest synthetic pigments, dating from around 1620. The related mineral pigment, bindheimite, dates from the 16th century BC, however this natural version was rarely, if ever, used as a pigment. Naples yellow was used extensively by the Old Masters and well into the 20th century. The genuine pigment is toxic, and its use today is becoming increasingly rare. Most paints labeled "Naples yellow" are instead made with a mix of modern, less toxic pigments. The colors of these paints vary considerably from one manufacturer to another


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How Naples Yellow Is Made (http://webexhibits.org/pigments/indiv/recipe/naplesyellow.html)
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: rosalind dna on 10/05/2008 17:00:47
Zenith

In broad terms, the zenith is the direction pointing directly above a particular location (perpendicular, orthogonal). Since the concept of being above is itself somewhat vague, scientists define the zenith in more rigorous terms. Specifically, in astronomy, geophysics and related sciences (e.g., meteorology), the zenith at a given point is the local vertical direction pointing away from direction of the force of gravity at that location.

For reference, the vertical direction at the given location and pointing in the same sense as the gravitational force is called the nadir.

Zenith is also used for the highest point reached by a celestial body during its apparent orbit around a given point of observation.  Often used in this sense about the Sun, it only corresponds to the first concept of zenith for one latitude at a time, and never at all for latitudes outside the tropics.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zenith
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 10/05/2008 17:04:18
Ångström
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 

An ångström or angstrom (symbol Å) (pronounced /ˈɔːŋstrəm/; Swedish: IPA: [ˈɔ̀ŋstrœm]) is a non-SI unit of length that is internationally recognized, equal to 0.1 nanometre or 1×10−10 metres. It is sometimes used in expressing the sizes of atoms, lengths of chemical bonds and visible-light spectra, and dimensions of parts of integrated circuits. It is commonly applied in structural biology. It is named after Anders Jonas Ångström.

Unicode includes the "angstrom sign" at U+212B (Å). However, the "angstrom sign" is normalized into U+00C5 (Å), and is thereby seen as a (pre-existing) encoding mistake, and it is better to use U+00C5 (Å) directly.[1]
 History

The ångström is named after the Swedish physicist Anders Jonas Ångström (1814–1874), one of the founders of spectroscopy who is known also for studies of astrophysics, heat transfer, terrestrial magnetism, and the aurora borealis.

In 1868, Ångström created a spectrum chart of solar radiation that expresses the wavelength of electromagnetic radiation in the electromagnetic spectrum in multiples of one ten-millionth of a millimetre, or 1×10−10 metres. This unit of length became known as the 'Ångström unit', and later simply as the ångström, Å.

The visual sensitivity of a human being is from about 4,000 ångströms (violet) to 7,000 ångströms (dark red) so the use of the ångström as a unit provided a fair amount of discrimination without resort to fractional units. Because of its closeness to the scale of atomic and molecular structures it also became popular in chemistry and crystallography.

Although intended to correspond to 1×10−10 metres, for precise spectral analysis the ångström needed to be defined more accurately than the metre which until 1960 was still defined based on the length of a bar of metal held in Paris. In 1907 the International Astronomical Union defined the international ångström by making the wavelength of the red line of cadmium in air equal to 6438.4696 international ångströms, and this definition was endorsed by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures in 1927. From 1927 to 1960, the ångström remained a secondary unit of length for use in spectroscopy, defined separately from the metre, but in 1960, the metre itself was redefined in spectroscopic terms, thus aligning the ångström as a submultiple of the metre.

Since the ångström is now defined as exactly 1×10−10 metres, there are therefore 10,000 ångströms in a micrometre (commonly called a 'micron', abbreviated μm, of which there are 1 million to a metre), and 10 in a nanometre (1 nm = 1×10−9 metres).

Today, the use of the ångström as a unit is less popular than it used to be and the nanometre (nm) is often used instead (with the ångström being officially discouraged by both the International Committee for Weights and Measures and the American National Standard for Metric Practice).
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Karen W. on 10/05/2008 19:58:08
Bicapsular = Having two capsules or a capsule with two cells.
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 11/05/2008 19:43:26
Compass
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


A compass, (or mariner compass) is a navigational instrument for finding directions on the Earth. It consists of a magnetized pointer free to align itself accurately with Earth's magnetic field, which is of great assistance in navigation. The face of the compass generally highlights the cardinal points of north, south, east and west. A compass can be used (to calculate heading) in conjunction with a marine chronometer (to calculate longitude) and a sextant (to calculate latitude) to provide a somewhat accurate navigation capability. This device greatly improved maritime trade by making travel safer and more efficient.


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A Compass relaxing earlier today !

Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: rosalind dna on 12/05/2008 11:36:03
Crystallography (from the Greek words crystallon = cold drop / frozen drop, with its meaning extending to all solids with some degree of transparency, and graphein = write) is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in solids. In older usage, it is the scientific study of crystals.

Before the development of X-ray diffraction crystallography (see below), the study of crystals was based on the geometry of the crystals. This involves measuring the angles of crystal faces relative to theoretical reference axes (crystallographic axes), and establishing the symmetry of the crystal in question. The former is carried out using a goniometer. The position in 3D space of each crystal face is plotted on a stereographic net, e.g. Wulff net or Lambert net. In fact, the pole to each face is plotted on the net. Each point is labelled with its Miller index. The final plot allows the symmetry of the crystal to be established.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crystallography

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi26.tinypic.com%2F24wyl9c.jpg&hash=bd01ccbe3fd8c4d018607a58de3cb796)

This special lady, Rosalind Frankin used Crystallography in the
discovery of the Single DNA Helix structure and it's form of X-Ray's too. I couldn't resist doing this. I hope you don't mind too much.
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 14/05/2008 12:21:34
Diode
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


In electronics, a diode is a two-terminal device (except that thermionic diodes may also have one or two ancillary terminals for a heater). Diodes have two active electrodes between which the signal of interest may flow, and most are used for their unidirectional current property. The varicap diode is used as an electrically adjustable capacitor.

The directionality of current flow most diodes exhibit is sometimes generically called the rectifying property. The most common function of a diode is to allow an electric current to pass in one direction (called the forward biased condition) and to block it in the opposite direction (the reverse biased condition). Thus, the diode can be thought of as an electronic version of a check valve. Real diodes do not display such a perfect on-off directionality but have a more complex non-linear electrical characteristic, which depends on the particular type of diode technology. Diodes also have many other functions in which they are not designed to operate in this on-off manner.

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Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Karen W. on 14/05/2008 14:34:50
EXOSPHERE = THE OUTER PORTION OF THE EARTHS ATMOSPHERE

CHECK OUT THIS LINK....SCROLL TO BOTTOM AND WATCH THE ANIMATION....

http://www.astro.umd.edu/~rkillen/
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 18/05/2008 15:22:06
F2 Layer

Main Entry:F2 layer
Pronunciation:*ef-*t*-
Function:noun
Date:1933

 : the upper of the two layers into which the F region of the ionosphere splits in the daytime at varying heights from about 120 miles (200 kilometers) to more than 300 miles (500 kilometers) above the earth
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Simulated on 18/05/2008 15:22:27
G2 Phase

Main Entry:G2 phase
Pronunciation:*j*-*t*-
Function:noun
Etymology:growth
Date:1968

 : the period in the cell cycle from the completion of DNA replication to the beginning of cell division   compare G1 PHASE, M PHASE, S PHASE
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 18/05/2008 20:37:20
The Hubble Space Telescope (HST; also known colloquially as "the Hubble" or just "Hubble") is a space telescope that was carried into Earth orbit by the Space Shuttle in April 1990. It is named for American astronomer Edwin Hubble. Although Hubble was not the first space telescope, it is one of the largest and most versatile, and well known as both a vital research tool and a public relations boon for astronomy. The HST is a collaboration between NASA and the European Space Agency, and is part of NASA's Great Observatories series, with the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, the Chandra X-ray Observatory, and the Spitzer Space Telescope.[3]

Space telescopes were proposed as early as the 1940s. The Hubble was funded in the 1970s, with a proposed launch in 1983, but the project was beset by technical delays, budget problems, and the Challenger disaster. When finally launched in 1990, scientists found that the main mirror had been ground incorrectly, severely compromising the telescope's capabilities. However, after a servicing mission in 1993, the telescope was restored to its intended quality. Hubble's position outside the Earth's atmosphere allows it to take extremely sharp images with almost no background light. Hubble's Ultra Deep Field image, for instance, is the most detailed visible-light image of the universe's most distant objects ever made. Many Hubble observations have led to breakthroughs in astrophysics, such as accurately determining the rate of expansion of the universe.

The Hubble is the only telescope ever designed to be serviced in space by astronauts. To date, there have been four servicing missions. Servicing Mission 1 took place in December 1993 when Hubble's imaging flaw was corrected. Servicing missions 2, 3, and 4 repaired various sub-systems and replaced many of the observing instruments with more modern and capable versions. However, following the 2003 Columbia Space Shuttle disaster, the fifth servicing mission was canceled on safety grounds. After spirited public discussion, NASA reconsidered this decision, and administrator Mike Griffin gave the green light for one final Hubble servicing mission. This is now planned for August 2008.

The planned repairs to the Hubble will allow the telescope to function until at least 2013, when its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), is due to be launched. The JWST will be far superior to Hubble for many astronomical research programs, but will only observe in infrared, so it would complement (not replace) Hubble's ability to observe in the visible and ultraviolet parts of the spectrum.

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Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 20/05/2008 11:42:56
Iodine is a chemical element that has the symbol I and atomic number 53. Naturally-occurring iodine is a single isotope with 74 neutrons.

Chemically, iodine is the least reactive of the halogens, and the most electropositive halogen after astatine. However, the element does not occur in the free state in nature. As with all other halogens (members of Group VII in the Periodic Table), when freed from its compounds iodine forms diatomic molecules (I2).

Iodine and its compounds are primarily used in medicine, photography and in dyes. Although it is rare in the solar system and Earth's crust, the iodides are very soluble in water, and the element is concentrated in seawater. This mechanism helps to explain how the element came to be required in trace amounts by all animals and some plants, being by far the heaviest element known to be necessary to living organisms.


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Some Iodine having a day out yesterday !



Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: rosalind dna on 24/05/2008 11:17:01
Jaundice

Jaundice, also known as icterus (attributive adjective: "icteric"), is yellowish discoloration of the skin, sclera (whites of the eyes) and mucous membranes caused by hyperbilirubinemia (increased levels of bilirubin in the blood). This hyperbilirubinemia subsequently causes increased levels of bilirubin in the extracellular fluids. Typically, the concentration of bilirubin in the plasma must exceed 1.5 mg/dL[1], three times the usual value of approximately 0.5mg/dL[1], for the coloration to be easily visible. Jaundice comes from the French word jaune, meaning yellow.

Contents
1 Normal Physiology
1.1 Pre-Hepatic events
1.2 Hepatic events
1.3 Post Hepatic events
2 Causes
2.1 Pre-hepatic
2.2 Hepatic
2.3 Post-hepatic
3 Laboratory Results
3.1 Laboratory Tests
4 Neonatal jaundice
5 Jaundiced eye
6 External links
7 See also
8 Footnotes
 

Normal Physiology
In order to understand how jaundice results, it is important to understand where the pathological processes that cause jaundice take their effect. It is also important to further recognize that jaundice itself is not a disease, but rather a symptom of an underlying pathological process that occurs at some point along the normal physiological pathway of the metabolism of bilirubin.

Pre-Hepatic events
When red blood cells have completed their life span of approximately 120 days, their membranes become fragile and prone to rupture. As the cell traverses through the reticuloendothelial system, their cell membranes rupture and the contents of the red blood cell is released into the blood. The component of the red blood cell that is involved in jaundice is hemoglobin. The hemoglobin released into the blood is phagocytosed by macrophages, and split into its heme and globin portions. The globin portion, being protein, is degraded into amino acids and plays no further role in jaundice. Two reactions then take place to the heme molecule. The first reaction is the oxidation of heme to form biliverdin.This reaction is catalyzed by microsomal enzyme heme oxygenase and it results in biliverdin (green color pigment), iron and carbon monoxide. Next step is reduction of biliverdin to yellow color tetrapyrol pigment bilirubin by cytosolic enzyme biliverdin reductase. This bilirubin is known as "unconjugated", "free" or "indirect" bilirubin. Approximately 4 mg per kg of bilirubin is produced each day.[2] The majority of this bilirubin comes from the breakdown of heme from expired red blood cells in the process just described. However approximately 20 per cent comes from other heme sources, including ineffective erythropoiesis, breakdown of other heme protrins such as muscle myoglobin and cytochrome enzymes.

Hepatic events
The unconjugated bilirubin then travels to the liver through the bloodstream. Because this bilirubin is not soluble, however, it is transported through the blood bound to serum albumin. Once it arrives at the liver, it is conjugated with glucuronic acid (to form bilirubin diglucuronide, or just "conjugated bilirubin") to become more water soluble. The reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme UDP-glucuronide transferase.

Post Hepatic events
This conjugated bilirubin is excreted from the liver into the biliary and cystic ducts as part of bile. Intestinal bacteria convert the bilirubin into urobilinogen. From here the urobilinogen can take two pathways. It can either be further converted into stercobilinogen, which is then oxidized to stercobilin and passed out in the faeces, or it can be reabsorbed by the intestinal cells, transported in the blood to the kidneys, and passed out in the urine as the oxidised product urobilin. Stercobilin and urobilin are the products responsible for the coloration of faeces and urine, respectively.

Causes
When a pathological process interferes with the normal functioning of the metabolism and excretion of bilirubin just described, jaundice may be the result. Jaundice is classified into three categories, depending on which part of the physiological mechanism the pathology affects. The three categories are:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jaundice
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 12/06/2008 01:47:45
K-theory


In mathematics, K-theory is a tool used in several disciplines. In algebraic topology, it is an extraordinary cohomology theory known as topological K-theory. In algebra and algebraic geometry, it is referred to as algebraic K-theory. It also has some applications in operator algebras. It leads to the construction of families of K-functors, which contain useful but often hard-to-compute information.

In physics, K-theory and in particular twisted K-theory have appeared in Type II string theory where it has been conjectured that they classify D-branes, Ramond-Ramond field strengths and also certain spinors on generalized complex manifolds. For details, see also K-theory (physics).


Guess what....I don't understand a single thing in the above paragraphs !! [;D]
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Karen W. on 13/06/2008 04:20:55
LOL.. Me neither! Hee hee!

Lithium
From Wikipedia

Lithium (pronounced /ˈlɪθiəm/) is a chemical element with the symbol Li and atomic number 3. It is a soft alkali metal with a silver-white color. Under standard conditions, it is the lightest metal and the least dense solid element. Like all alkali metals, lithium is highly reactive, corroding quickly in moist air to form a black tarnish. For this reason, lithium metal is typically stored under the cover of oil.

According to theory, lithium (mostly 7Li) was one of the few elements synthesized in the Big Bang, although its quantity has vastly decreased. The reasons for its disappearance and the processes by which new lithium is created continue to be important matters of study in astronomy. Lithium is the 33rd most abundant element on Earth, [1] but due to its high reactivity only appears naturally in the form of compounds. Lithium occurs in a number of pegmatitic minerals, but is also commonly obtained from brines and clays; on a commercial scale, lithium metal is isolated electrolytically from a mixture of lithium chloride and potassium chloride.

Trace amounts of lithium are present in the oceans and in some organisms, though the element serves no apparent biological function in humans. Nevertheless, the neurological effect of the lithium ion Li+ makes some lithium salts useful as a class of mood stabilizing drugs. Lithium and its compounds have several other commercial applications, including heat-resistant glass and ceramics, high strength-to-weight alloys used in aircraft, and lithium batteries. Lithium also has important links to nuclear physics: the splitting of lithium atoms was the first man-made form of a nuclear reaction, and lithium deuteride serves as the fusion fuel in staged thermonuclear weapons.
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 13/06/2008 12:58:46
Maxwell, James Clerk
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish mathematician and theoretical physicist. His most significant achievement was the development of the classical electromagnetic theory, synthesizing all previous unrelated observations, experiments and equations of electricity, magnetism and even optics into a consistent theory.[1] His set of equations—Maxwell's equations—demonstrated that electricity, magnetism and even light are all manifestations of the same phenomenon: the electromagnetic field. From that moment on, all other classical laws or equations of these disciplines became simplified cases of Maxwell's equations. Maxwell's work in electromagnetism has been called the "second great unification in physics", after the first one carried out by Newton.

Maxwell demonstrated that electric and magnetic fields travel through space in the form of waves, and at the constant speed of light. Finally, in 1864 Maxwell wrote A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field where he first proposed that light was in fact undulations in the same medium that is the cause of electric and magnetic phenomena. His work in producing a unified model of electromagnetism is considered to be one of the greatest advances in physics.

Maxwell also developed the Maxwell distribution, a statistical means to describe aspects of the kinetic theory of gases. These two discoveries helped usher in the era of modern physics, laying the foundation for future work in such fields as special relativity and quantum mechanics. He is also known for creating the first true colour photograph in 1861.

Maxwell is considered by many physicists to be the most influential nineteenth century scientist on twentieth century physics. His contributions to the science are considered by many to be of the same magnitude as those of Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein. In 1931, on the centennial of Maxwell's birthday, Einstein himself described Maxwell's work as the "most profound and the most fruitful that physics has experienced since the time of Newton.

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Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: rosalind dna on 13/06/2008 13:06:58
NADIR

From Wiki


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Diagram showing the relationship between the Zenith, the Nadir, and different types of Horizon. Note how the Nadir is opposite the Zenith.The nadir (from Arabic ندير nadeer نظير nathir, "opposite") is the astronomical term for the point directly below the observer, or more precisely, the point with an inclination of −90°. In simple terms, if you are standing on the Earth, it is the direction "down" toward your feet.




Geometrically, it is the point on the celestial sphere intersected by a line drawn from the observer's location on the Earth's surface through the center of the Earth. The point opposite the nadir is the zenith. Nadir also refers to a downward-facing viewing angle of an orbiting satellite[2], such as is employed during remote sensing of the atmosphere, as well as when an astronaut faces the Earth while performing an EVA.

The word is also used figuratively to mean the lowest point of a person's spirits. [

Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 13/06/2008 23:05:28
Ostrom, John
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


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John H. Ostrom (February 18, 1928 – July 16, 2005) was an American paleontologist who revolutionized modern understanding of dinosaurs in the 1960s, when he demonstrated that dinosaurs are more like big non-flying birds than they are like lizards (or "saurians"), an idea first proposed by Thomas Henry Huxley in the 1860s, but which had garnered few supporters. The first of Ostrom's broad-based reviews of the osteology and phylogeny of the primitive bird Archaeopteryx appeared in 1976. His reaction to the eventual discovery of feathered dinosaurs in China, after years of acrimonious debate, was bittersweet (Gentile, 2000).
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 15/06/2008 19:13:12
 Palmieri , Luigi
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Luigi Palmieri (April 22, 1807 - September 9, 1896) was an Italian physicist and meteorologist.


He was born at Faicchio, Benevento, Italy. He died at Naples, Italy. Palmieri made observation of the eruptions on Mount Vesuvius. He also researched earthquakes and meteorological phenomena.

Palmieri received a degree in architecture from the University of Naples. In 1845, Palmieri was the professor of physics at the Royal Naval School at Naples. In 1847, Palmieri was the chair of physics at the university. In 1848, he began working at the Vesuvius Observatory. By 1854, Palmieri was the observatory director. Using a seismometer for the detection and measurement of ground tremors, Palmieri was able to detect very slight movements and to predict the eruption of volcanos.

Using a modified Peltier electrometer, he researched atmospheric electricity. He developed a modified Morse telegraph. He improved the anemomete and pluviometer.
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: rosalind dna on 15/06/2008 22:49:40
Quinine

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi27.tinypic.com%2F2po5tw3.jpg&hash=05a925114082d43e0cffe8a62acdc7e5)

Quinine (IPA: /ˈkwaɪnaɪn, kwɪˈniːn, ˈkwiːniːn/) is a natural white crystalline alkaloid having antipyretic (fever-reducing), antimalarial, analgesic (painkilling), and anti-inflammatory properties and a bitter taste. It is a stereoisomer of quinidine.

Quinine was the first effective treatment for malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum, appearing in therapeutics in the 17th century. It remained the antimalarial drug of choice until the 1940s, when other drugs took over. Since then, many effective antimalarials have been introduced, although quinine is still used to treat the disease in certain critical situations. Quinine is available with a prescription in the United States. Quinine is also used to treat nocturnal leg cramps and arthritis, and there have been attempts (with limited success) to treat prion diseases. It was once a popular heroin adulterant.

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi26.tinypic.com%2Fev6ner.png&hash=83933f5609f05ab8b939db905648570b)
It was first brought to Europe by Jesuits and it was also used to cure King Louis XIV.
Chemical structure
Quinine contains two major fused-ring systems: The aromatic quinoline and the bicyclic quinuclidine.

Mechanism of action against P. falciparum
The drug acts by inhibiting the hemozoin biocrystallization, thus facilitating an aggregation of cytotoxic heme. Toxic free heme accumulates in the parasites, leading to their death.

History
Quinine was extracted from the bark of the South American cinchona tree and was isolated and named in 1817 by French researchers Pierre Joseph Pelletier and Joseph Bienaimé Caventou. The name was derived from the original Quechua (Inca) word for the cinchona tree bark, "Quina" or "Quina-Quina", which roughly means "bark of bark" or "holy bark". Prior to 1820, the bark was first dried, ground to a fine powder and then mixed into a liquid (commonly wine) which was then drunk.

Large scale use of quinine as a prophylaxis started around 1850, although it had been used in un-extracted form by Europeans since at least the early 1600s. Quinine was first used to treat malaria in Rome in 1631. During the 1600s, malaria was endemic to the swamps and marshes surrounding the city of Rome. Over time, malaria was responsible for the death of several Popes, many Cardinals and countless common citizens of Rome. Most of the priests trained in Rome had seen malaria victims and were familiar with the shivering brought on by the cold phase of the disease. In addition to its anti-malarial properties, quinine is an effective muscle relaxant, long used by the Quechua Indians of Peru to halt shivering brought on by cold temperatures. The Jesuit Brother Agostino Salumbrino (1561-1642), an apothecary by training and who lived in Lima, observed the Quechua using the quinine-containing bark of the cinchona tree for that purpose. While its effect in treating malaria (and hence malaria-induced shivering) was entirely unrelated to its effect in controlling shivering from cold, it was still the correct medicine for malaria. At the first opportunity, he sent a small quantity to Rome to test in treating malaria. In the years that followed, cinchona bark became one of the most valuable commodities shipped from Peru to Europe.

Quinine also played a significant role in the colonization of Africa by Europeans. As the harbinger of modern pharmacology, Quinine was the prime reason why Africa ceased to be known as the white man's grave. According to socialist historian Clifford Conner in "A People's History of Science", "It was quinine's efficacy that gave colonists fresh opportunities to swarm into the Gold Coast, Nigeria and other parts of west Africa..." (Conner pp 95-96 also cites Porter, "The Greatest Benefit to Mankind," pp. 465-466).

Synthetic quinine
Main article: quinine total synthesis
Cinchona trees remain the only practical source of quinine. However, under wartime pressure, research towards its artificial production was undertaken. A formal chemical synthesis was accomplished in 1944 by American chemists R.B. Woodward and W.E. Doering.[1] Since then, several more efficient quinine total syntheses have been achieved[2], but none of them can compete in economic terms with isolation of the alkaloid from natural


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quinine
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 16/06/2008 01:26:29
Rosalind Franklin
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia




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Rosalind Elsie Franklin (25 July 1920 Notting Hill, London – 16 April 1958 Chelsea, London) was an English biophysicist and X-ray crystallographer who made very important contributions to the understanding of the fine structures of DNA, viruses, coal and graphite. Franklin is best known for her work on the X-ray diffraction images of DNA which were an important influence on Crick and Watson's 1953 hypothesis regarding the structure of DNA. When her work was published it also presented critical evidence in support of their hypothesis. Later she led pioneering work on the tobacco mosaic and polio viruses. She died in 1958 of bronchopneumonia, secondary carcinomatosis, and carcinoma of the ovary; her death certificate read: "A Research Scientist, Spinster, Daughter of Ellis Arthur Franklin, a Banker."
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Karen W. on 16/06/2008 01:43:50
SPLIT PERSONALITY.... more commonly known these days as:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dissociative_identity_disorder


Dissociative identity disorder
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Dissociative identity disorder
Classification and external resources
ICD-10    F44.8
ICD-9    300.14
MeSH    D009105

Dissociative Identity Disorder, as defined by the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), is a psychiatric diagnosis that describes a condition in which a single person displays multiple distinct identities or personalities, each with its own pattern of perceiving and interacting with the environment.[1] The diagnosis requires that at least two personalities routinely take control of the individual's behavior with an associated memory loss that goes beyond normal forgetfulness; in addition, symptoms cannot be due to substance abuse or medical condition. Earlier versions of the DSM named the condition multiple personality disorder (MPD) and the term is still used by the ICD-10. There is controversy around the existence, possible causes, appearance across cultures, and epidemiology of the condition.
Contents
[hide]

    * 1 Controversy
    * 2 Classification
    * 3 Signs and symptoms
    * 4 Causes
    * 5 Pathophysiology
    * 6 Diagnosis
    * 7 Screening
    * 8 Treatment
    * 9 Prognosis
    * 10 Epidemiology
    * 11 History
    * 12 Cultural references
    * 13 See also
    * 14 Notes
    * 15 Further reading
    * 16 External links

 Controversy;

    Main article: Multiple personality controversy

DID is a controversial diagnosis and condition, with much of the literature on DID being generated and published in North America, to the extent that it was regarded as a phenomenon confined to that continent.[2][3][4] Even within North American psychiatrists, there is a lack of consensus regarding the validity of DID,[5][6] with some researchers considering it a culture bound, iatrogenic condition[4][7] though this idea is neither confirmed nor has been accepted by many researchers in the field. [8][9][10][11][12][13] The DSM is explicit about the controversy over the condition, identifying both the objective evidence of physical and sexual abuse in the history of individuals diagnosed with DID and that individuals accused of abuse are motivated to deny or distort past actions, but also points out that childhood memories may be distorted, and that individuals with DID are highly hypnotizable and unusually vulnerable to suggestion.[1] Practitioners who accept DID as a valid disorder have produced an extensive amount of literature, and research originating outside North America has appeared in recent years that documents the epidemiology of the condition in a far greater variety of countries and cultures. Scientific interest in DID peaked in the mid 1990s, then sharply declined, and may now not have widespread scientific acceptance.[14]


Some believe that DID should be re-classified as a trauma disorder.[15]

[edit] Signs and symptoms

Individuals with DID demonstrate a variety of symptoms with wide fluctuations across time; functioning can vary from severe impairment in daily functioning to normal or high abilities. Symptoms can include:[16]

    * multiple mannerisms, attitudes and beliefs that are dissimilar to each other
    * headaches and other body pains
    * distortion or loss of subjective time
    * depersonalization
    * amnesia
    * depression

Patients may experience an extremely broad array of other symptoms that resemble epilepsy, schizophrenia, anxiety, Mood disorders, posttraumatic stress, personality, and eating disorders, with frequent misdiagnoses and ineffective treatment.[16] Patients may experience auditory hallucinations of the various alters conversing, and may be misdiagnosed as psychotic as a result. Changes in identity, loss of memory, and awaking in unexplained locations and situations often leads to chaotic personal lives.[16]
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 17/06/2008 15:27:39
Traeger,Alfred Hermann OBE (August 2, 1895 – July 31, 1980) was an Australian inventor, chiefly known for the development of the pedal radio.

Traeger was born in Victoria, and raised near Adelaide, South Australia.

He was instrumental in the establishment and early success of the Royal Flying Doctor Service of Australia. Traeger had an interest in radio for much of his life. During the 1920s, he was contacted by Rev John Flynn to assist in experiments which were to enable remote families access to medical treatment by using radio equipment. Since much of remote Australia had no access to electricity, the initial problem was how to provide reliable power to a radio. Traeger consequently developed a pedal generator to power a morse code wireless set.

He made subsequent refinements to this system. A keyboard was developed which enabled unskilled operators to type their message in plain language and have it transmitted in morse. He later developed a voice-capable transceiver.

Due to the success of these inventions, the Traeger Transceivers company was founded, and radios were exported to a number of countries. Traeger was awarded an OBE in 1944.
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 19/06/2008 18:07:56
Uziel Gal
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia



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Uziel "Uzi" Gal (Hebrew: עוזיאל "עוזי" גל), born Gotthard Glass (December 15, 1923–September 7, 2002), was a German-born- Israeli gun designer best remembered as the designer and namesake of the Uzi submachine gun.

Gal was born in Weimar, Germany. When the Nazis came to power in 1933 he moved first to England and later, in 1936, to Kibbutz Yagur in the British Mandate of Palestine. In 1943 he was arrested for illegally carrying a gun and sentenced to six years in prison. However he was pardoned and released in 1946, serving less than half of his sentence.

Gal began designing the Uzi submachine gun in 1948, shortly after the Israel War of Independence. In 1951 it was officially adopted by the Israeli Defense Force and was called the Uzi after its creator. Gal did not want the weapon to be named after him but his request was ignored. In 1955 he was decorated with Tzalash HaRamatkal and in 1958, Gal was the first person to receive the Israel Security Award, presented to him by Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion for his work on the Uzi.

In 1975 Gal retired from the IDF, and the next year he moved to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, so that his daughter Tamar, who had serious brain damage, could receive special medical attention.

Gal continued his work as a firearms designer until his death from cancer in 2002.
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Karen W. on 19/06/2008 18:32:20
Vicodin = is a pain medication which is 5mg hydrocodone and 500mg Tylenol when the Hydrocodone is upped and the Tylenol bumped down it is  called "Norco" which comes in a 10mg Hydrocodone and a 325mg Tylenol!
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 01/07/2008 22:03:40
Wankel engine
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


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The Wankel engine is a type of internal combustion engine which uses a rotary design to convert pressure into a rotating motion instead of using reciprocating pistons. Its four-stroke cycle is generally generated in a space between the inside of an oval-like epitrochoid-shaped housing and a roughly triangular rotor. This design delivers smooth high-rpm power from a compact, lightweight engine.

The engine was invented by German engineer Felix Wankel. He began its development in the early 1950s at NSU Motorenwerke AG (NSU) before completing a working, running prototype in 1957. NSU then subsequently licenced the concept to other companies across the globe, who added more efforts and improvements in the 1950s and 1960s.

Because of their compact, lightweight design, Wankel rotary engines have been installed in a variety of vehicles and devices such as automobiles and racing cars, aircraft, go-karts, personal water crafts, and auxiliary power units.
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Alan McDougall on 03/07/2008 11:07:06
Lithium to get a little off topic was a godsendfor sufferers of sever bipolar like me.

As a medicine it helped me return to a fairly normal existence. It is toxic and the blood levels must be carefully monitored
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 03/07/2008 18:14:56
Lithium to get a little off topic was a godsendfor sufferers of sever bipolar like me.

As a medicine it helped me return to a fairly normal existence. It is toxic and the blood levels must be carefully monitored

You describe it in the past tense !...does this mean you are better ?..cured ?....on different meds now ?

Thank you for your contributions Alan !
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 04/07/2008 02:22:19
 Xing ,Yi (Chinese: 一行; pinyin: Yī Xíng; Wade-Giles: I-Hsing, 683–727), born Zhang Sui (张遂), was a Chinese astronomer, mathematician, mechanical engineer, and Buddhist monk of the Tang Dynasty (618–907). His astronomical celestial globe was the first to feature a clockwork escapement mechanism, the first in a long tradition of Chinese astronomical clockworks.


Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Carolyn on 06/07/2008 02:45:26
James Whitney Young (January 24, 1941) was born in Portland, Oregon, and is currently the resident astronomer of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Table Mountain Observatory (TMO) near Wrightwood, California having been with them for 45 years. A very prolific asteroid observer of both physical properties and astrometric positions, he has discovered some 390 main belt asteroids in the last six years, as well as two NEOs, 2003 BV35 and 2003 RW11, two Trojan asteroids, 2002 VQ and 2003 FE42, three Mars crossers, 2005 SA, 2005 SB, and 2007 WX3, and one extra-galactic supernova, SN 2005eg.

Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 08/07/2008 20:47:55
Ahmed Hassan Zewail (Arabic: أحمد حسن زويل) (born February 26, 1946 in Damanhur, Egypt) is an Egyptian American scientist, and the winner of the 1999 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on femtochemistry.

Femtochemistry
is the science that studies chemical reactions on extremely short timescales, approximately 10–15 seconds (this is one femtosecond, hence the name).

In 1999, Ahmed H. Zewail received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his pioneering work in this field.

Zewail’s technique uses flashes of laser light that last for a few femtoseconds. Femtochemistry is the area of physical chemistry that addresses the short time period in which chemical reactions take place and investigates why some reactions occur but not others. Zewail’s picture-taking technique made possible these investigations. One of the first major discoveries of femtochemistry was to reveal details about the intermediate products that form during chemical reactions, which cannot be deduced from observing the starting and end products. Many publications have discussed the possibility of controlling chemical reactions by this method, but this remains controversial.

The simplest approach and still one of the most common techniques is known as pump-probe spectroscopy. In this method, two or more optical pulses with variable time delay between them are used to investigate the processes happening during a chemical reaction. The first pulse (pump) initiates the reaction, by breaking a bond or exciting one of the reactants. The second pulse (probe) is then used to interrogate the progress of the reaction a certain period of time after initiation. As the reaction progresses, the response of the reacting system to the probe pulse will change. By continually scanning the time delay between pump and probe pulses and observing the response, workers can follow the progress of the reaction in real time.
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Karen W. on 09/07/2008 14:32:09
Aberration of light

An annual apparent shift in the positions of stars against the background of more distant stars,
caused by the earth's orbital motion. The shift appears as a circle, an ellipse or even a short line, depending on the distance of the star above or below the earth's orbital plane.

[size=07pt](taken from Colan A. Ronan "the universe the cosmos explained" Glossary)[/size]
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 12/07/2008 22:20:55
Bullocks !

A bullock is a bull which has been castrated !

 [ Invalid Attachment ]

Here are a load of Bullocks !





Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 14/07/2008 16:02:47
A cyst is a closed sac having a distinct membrane and division on the nearby tissue. They may contain air, fluids, or semi-solid material. A collection of pus is called an abscess, not a cyst. Once formed, the cyst could go away by itself or will have to be removed using surgery.
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 25/08/2008 02:31:54
The Doppler effect (or Doppler shift), named after Christian Doppler, is the change in frequency and wavelength of a wave for an observer moving relative to the source of the waves. It is commonly heard when a vehicle sounding a siren approaches, passes and recedes from an observer. The received frequency is higher than the emitted frequency when the siren approaches, is equal to the emitted frequency as it passes the observer and is lower than the emitted frequency as it recedes from the observer.

For waves that propagate in a medium, such as sound waves, the velocity of the observer and of the source are relative to the medium in which the waves are transmitted. The total Doppler effect may therefore result from motion of the source, motion of the observer, or motion of the medium. Each of these effects is analysed separately. For waves which do not require a medium, such as light or gravity in special relativity, only the relative difference in velocity between the observer and the source needs to be considered.

 [ Invalid Attachment ]
A source of waves moving to the left.
The frequency is higher on the left than
on the right.



Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: H2O2 on 27/08/2008 17:05:06
X is for xylem tissue, found in a plants vascular system, used to transport water and solutes.
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 27/08/2008 17:36:13
X is for xylem tissue, found in a plants vascular system, used to transport water and solutes.

Brilliant post H202...but if ewe look closely that each post is sequential in the alphabet...ie: this one that ewe just posted should have started with an ' E' to follow on from the ' D ' of Doppler !

Wanna try again ?....good on ya and no worries. thanks for your contribution!
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 29/08/2008 15:21:12
Etymology
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Etymology is the study of the history of words —(The history of these words date as far back as two minutes ago)    [;D]) when they entered a language, from what source, and how their form and meaning have changed over time.

In languages with a long detailed history, etymology makes use of philology, the study of how words change from culture to culture over time. However, etymologists also apply the methods of comparative linguistics to reconstruct information about languages that are too old for any direct information (such as writing) to be known. By analyzing related languages with a technique known as the comparative method, linguists can make inferences, about their shared parent language and its vocabulary. In this way, word roots have been found which can be traced all the way back to the origin of, for instance, the Indo-European language family.

Even though etymological research originally grew from the philological tradition, nowadays much etymological research is done in language families where little or no early documentation is available, such as Uralic and Austronesian.

Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: rosalind dna on 29/08/2008 16:42:41
Filament Propagation


(Wiki)

In nonlinear optics, filament propagation is propagation of a beam of light through a medium without diffraction. This is possible because the Kerr effect causes an index of refraction change in the medium, resulting in self-focusing of the beam.

Filament propagation of laser pulses in the atmosphere was observed in 1994 by Gérard Mourou and his team at University of Michigan. The balance between the self-focusing refraction and self-attenuating diffraction by ionization and rarefaction of a laser beam of terawatt intensities, created by chirped pulse amplification, in the atmosphere creates "filaments" which act as waveguides for the beam thus preventing divergence. If a light filament drops below the intensity needed for this dynamic balance, called modulation instability, it can merge with another filament and continue propagating without broadening as with all earlier means of sending light. The filaments, having made a plasma, turn the narrowband laser pulse into a broadband pulse having a wholly new set of applications.

Filament propagation in a semiconductor medium can also be observed in large aperture vertical cavity surface emitting

In nonlinear optics, filament propagation is propagation of a beam of light through a medium without diffraction. This is possible because the Kerr effect causes an index of refraction change in the medium, resulting in self-focusing of the beam.

Filament propagation of laser pulses in the atmosphere was observed in 1994 by Gérard Mourou and his team at University of Michigan. The balance between the self-focusing refraction and self-attenuating diffraction by ionization and rarefaction of a laser beam of terawatt intensities, created by chirped pulse amplification, in the atmosphere creates "filaments" which act as waveguides for the beam thus preventing divergence. If a light filament drops below the intensity needed for this dynamic balance, called modulation instability, it can merge with another filament and continue propagating without broadening as with all earlier means of sending light. The filaments, having made a plasma, turn the narrowband laser pulse into a broadband pulse having a wholly new set of applications.

Filament propagation in a semiconductor medium can also be observed in large aperture vertical cavity surface emitting

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Filament_propagation
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 27/09/2008 01:10:44
Glycine  is the organic compound with the formula NH2CH2COOH. It is the smallest of the 20 amino acids commonly found in proteins, coded by codons GGU, GGC, GGA and GGG. Because it has specialized structural properties in protein architecture, this compact amino acid is often evolutionarily conserved. For example, cytochrome c, myoglobin, and hemoglobin all contain conserved glycines. Glycine is unique among the proteinogenic amino acids in that is not chiral. Most proteins contain only small quantities of glycine. A notable exception is collagen, which contains about 35% glycine. In its solid, i.e., crystallized, form, glycine is a free-flowing, sweet-tasting crystalline material.





Ewe can't look me in the eye and say that you are not fascinated by that can ewe ?
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Karen W. on 27/09/2008 06:50:20
Why yes yes I can!!! LOL

HEAD.... THE UPPER TOP OF THE HUMAN BODY,
OPPOSITE OF THE FEET. THE HEAD HOLDS THE BRAIN AND CONSISTS HOUSES THE EYES, EARS, NOSE, MOUTH, TONGUE and MULTIPLE MUSCLES, BONES,BLOOD, TEETH ETC..ETC...ETC..
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Don_1 on 29/09/2008 16:27:23
Why yes yes I can!!! LOL

HEAD.... THE HEAD HOLDS THE BRAIN

I might dispute that statement in some cases!!!

e.g. Traffic Wardens, it is a requirement by ALL local authorities here in the UK that Traffic Wardens should have hollow heads.
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 11/10/2008 11:27:52
Indian summer is a name given to a period of sunny, warm weather in autumn, not long before winter. Usually occurring after the first frost, Indian summer can be in September, October, or early November in the northern hemisphere, and March, April, or early May in the Southern hemisphere. It can persist for a few days or extend to a week or more. This term is not related to the summer season in India.

 [ Invalid Attachment ]
A typical day within a period of "Indian Summer"

WIKI LINK HERE (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_summer)
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Karen W. on 19/10/2008 20:01:21
 
Nice SAVE.... LOL...


Jewel BOX (Open Stellar Cluster)

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi17.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fb73%2Fkarenw44%2Fngc290_hstTheJewelBoxCluster-1.jpg&hash=822c83b25c313af46b27ab976b11b10e)



NGC 4755: A Jewel Box of Stars
Credit & Copyright: Michael Bessell (RSAA, ANU), MSO

Explanation: The great variety of star colors in this open cluster underlies its name: The Jewel Box. One of the bright central stars is a red supergiant, in contrast to the many blue stars that surround it. The cluster, also known as Kappa Crucis contains just over 100 stars, and is about 10 million years old. Open clusters are younger, contain few stars, and contain a much higher fraction of blue stars than do globular clusters. This Jewel Box lies about 7500 light-years away, so the light that we see today was emitted from the cluster before even the Great Pyramids in Egypt were built. The Jewel Box, pictured above, spans about 20 light-years, and can be seen with binoculars towards the southern constellation of Crux.
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 21/10/2008 18:48:34
Emil Theodor Kocher (August 25, 1841 – July 27, 1917) was a Swiss physician, medical researcher, and Nobel laureate for his work in the physiology, pathology and surgery of the thyroid.

Kocher was born in Berne, Switzerland. He studied in Zürich, Berlin, London and Vienna, and obtained his doctorate in Berne in 1865. In 1872, he succeeded Georg Albert Lücke as Ordinary Professor of Surgery and Director of the University Surgical Clinic at the Inselspital in Berne. He published works on a number of subjects other than the thyroid gland including hemostasis, antiseptic treatments, surgical infectious diseases, on gunshot wounds, acute osteomyelitis, the theory of strangulated hernia, and abdominal surgery. His new ideas on the thyroid gland were initially controversial but his successful treatment of goiter with a steadily decreasing mortality rate soon won him recognition. The prize money, from the Nobel prize he received, helped him to establish the Kocher Institute in Berne.

A number of instruments and surgical techniques (for example, the Kocher manoeuvre) are named after him, as well as the Kocher-Debre-Semelaigne syndrome.


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Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Karen W. on 22/10/2008 14:04:21
lepton era

(′lep′tän ′ir·ə)

(astronomy) The period in the early universe, following the hadron era, during which electrons, positrons, neutrinos, and photons were present in nearly equal numbers; roughly between 10-4 and 20 seconds after the big bang.
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Karen W. on 07/02/2009 01:08:43
MICROSCOPE!
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 Microscope
Robert Hooke's microscope
Uses    Small sample observation
Notable experiments
   Discovery of cells
Inventor    Hans Lippershey
Hans Janssen
Related items    Electron microscope

A microscope (from the Greek: μικρός, mikrós, "small" and σκοπεῖν, skopeîn, "to look" or "see") is an instrument for viewing objects that are too small to be seen by the naked or unaided eye. The science of investigating small objects using such an instrument is called microscopy. The term microscopic means minute or very small, not visible with the eye unless aided by a microscope.

History

    See also: History of optics

Microscopes trace their history back almost 1200 years with Abbas Ibn Firnas's corrective lenses,[1] and it was Ibn al-Haytham's Book of Optics — written between 1011 and 1021 — that laid the foundation for optical research on the magnifying glass. Also, a device called the reading stone by an unknown inventor (thought to be Ibn Firnas) magnified text when laid on top of reading materials.[2]

The first true microscope was made around 1595 in Middelburg, Holland.[3] Three different eyeglass makers have been given credit for the invention: Hans Lippershey (who also developed the first real telescope); Hans Janssen; and his son, Zacharias. The coining of the name "microscope" has been credited to Giovanni Faber, who gave that name to Galileo Galilei's compound microscope in 1625.[4] (Galileo had called it the "occhiolino" or "little eye".)

The most common type of microscope—and the first to be invented—is the optical microscope. This is an optical instrument containing one or more lenses that produce an enlarged image of an object placed in the focal plane of the lens(es). There are, however, many other microscope designs.

[edit] Types
Several types of microscopes

"Microscopes" can largely be separated into three classes: optical theory microscopes (Light microscope), electron microscopes (e.g.,TEM), and scanning probe microscopes (SPM).

Optical theory microscopes are microscopes which function through the optical theory of lenses in order to magnify the image generated by the passage of a wave through the sample. The waves used are either electromagnetic (in optical microscopes) or electron beams (in electron microscopes). The types are the Compound Light, Stereo, and the electron microscope.

[edit] Optical microscopes

    Main article: Optical microscope

Optical microscopes, through their use of visible wavelengths of light, are the simplest and hence most widely used type of microscope.

Optical microscopes typically use refractive lenses of glass and occasionally of plastic or quartz, to focus light into the eye or another light detector. Mirror-based optical microscopes operate in the same manner. Typical magnification of a light microscope, assuming visible range light, is up to 1500x with a theoretical resolution limit of around 0.2 micrometres or 200 nanometers. Specialized techniques (e.g., scanning confocal microscopy) may exceed this magnification but the resolution is diffraction limited. Using shorter wavelengths of light, such as the ultraviolet, is one way to improve the spatial resolution of the microscope as are techniques such as Near-field scanning optical microscope.
A stereo microscope is often used for lower-power magnification on large subjects.

Various wavelengths of light, including those beyond the visible range, are sometimes used for special purposes. Ultraviolet light is used to enable the resolution of smaller features as well as to image samples that are transparent to the eye. Near infrared light is used to image circuitry embedded in bonded silicon devices as silicon is transparent in this region. Many wavelengths of light, ranging from the ultraviolet to the visible are used to excite fluorescence emission from objects for viewing by eye or with sensitive cameras.

    * phase contrast microscope:Phase contrast microscopy is an optical microscopy illumination technique in which small phase shifts in the light passing through a transparent specimen are converted into amplitude or contrast changes in the image.

A phase contrast microscope does not require staining to view the slide. This microscope made it possible to study the cell cycle.

[edit] Electron Microscope

Two major variants of electron microscopes exist:

    * Scanning electron microscope (SEM): looks at the surface of bulk objects by scanning the surface with a fine electron beam and measuring reflection. May also be used for spectroscopy.
    * Transmission electron microscope (TEM): passes electrons completely through the sample, analogous to basic optical microscopy. This requires careful sample preparation, since electrons are scattered so strongly by most materials.This is a scientific device that allows people to see objects that could normally not be seen by the naked or unaided eye.
    * Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM): is a powerful technique for viewing surfaces at the atomic level.

The SEM, TEM, STM are include in the scanning probe microsocpy.

[edit] Established types of scanning probe microscopy

    * AFM, atomic force microscopy
          o Contact AFM
          o Non-contact AFM
          o Dynamic contact AFM
          o Tapping AFM
    * BEEM, ballistic electron emission microscopy
    * EFM, electrostatic force microscope
    * ESTM electrochemical scanning tunneling microscope
    * FMM, force modulation microscopy
    * KPFM, kelvin probe force microscopy
    * MFM, magnetic force microscopy
    * MRFM, magnetic resonance force microscopy
    * NSOM, near-field scanning optical microscopy (or SNOM, scanning near-field optical microscopy)
    * PFM, Piezo Force Microscopy
    * PSTM, photon scanning tunneling microscopy
    * PTMS, photothermal microspectroscopy/microscopy
    * SAP, scanning atom probe [5]
    * SECM, scanning electrochemical microscopy
    * SCM, scanning capacitance microscopy
    * SGM, scanning gate microscopy
    * SICM, scanning ion-conductance microscopy
    * SPSM spin polarized scanning tunneling microscopy
    * SThM, scanning thermal microscopy[2]
    * STM, scanning tunneling microscopy
    * SVM, scanning voltage microscopy
    * SHPM, scanning Hall probe microscopy

Of these techniques AFM and STM are the most commonly used followed by MFM and SNOM/NSOM.

[edit] Other microscopes

Scanning acoustic microscopes use sound waves to measure variations in acoustic impedance. Similar to Sonar in principle, they are used for such jobs as detecting defects in the subsurfaces of materials including those found in integrated circuits.




Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 12/02/2009 02:13:48
Nanotechnology, which is sometimes shortened to "Nanotech", refers to a field whose theme is the control of matter on an atomic and molecular scale. Generally nanotechnology deals with structures of the size 100 nanometers or smaller, and involves developing materials or devices within that size.

Nanotechnology is extremely diverse, ranging from novel extensions of conventional device physics, to completely new approaches based upon molecular self-assembly, to developing new materials with dimensions on the nanoscale, even to speculation on whether we can directly control matter on the atomic scale.

There has been much debate on the future of implications of nanotechnology. Nanotechnology has the potential to create many new materials and devices with wide-ranging applications, such as in medicine, electronics, and energy production. On the other hand, nanotechnology raises many of the same issues as with any introduction of new technology, including concerns about the toxicity and environmental impact of nanomaterials , and their potential effects on global economics, as well as speculation about various doomsday scenarios. These concerns have led to a debate among advocacy groups and governments on whether special regulation of nanotechnology is warranted.
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Chemistry4me on 28/02/2009 11:39:30
L, M, N ....? [???][???]
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Chemistry4me on 28/02/2009 12:13:41
So I've noticed [:)]
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 23/03/2009 12:30:42
Otto Wallach
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Otto Wallach (27 March 1847 - 26 February 1931) was a German chemist and Nobel laureate for work on alicyclic compounds.


 [ Invalid Attachment ]

Wallach was born at Königsberg, the son of a Prussian official. His father was transferred to Stettin (Szczecin) and later to Potsdam. Otto Wallach went to school, a Gymnasium, in Potsdam, where he got in contact with literature and the history of art, two subjects he was interested his whole life. At this time he also started private chemical experiments at the house of his parents.

In 1867 he started studying chemistry at the University of Göttingen, where at this time Friedrich Wöhler was head of the organic chemistry. After one semester at the University of Berlin with August Wilhelm von Hofmann, Wallach received his Doctoral degree from the University of Göttingen in 1869, and worked as a Professor in the University of Bonn (1870-89) and the University of Göttingen (1889-1915). Wallach died at Göttingen.
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: JimBob on 25/03/2009 01:20:13
Π = Pi

The ratio of any circle's circumference to its diameter.

Binary Value           11.00100100001111110110…
Decimal Value            3.14159265358979323846…
Hexadecimal Value    3.243F6A8885A308D31319…

Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Karen W. on 31/03/2009 10:58:22
Quasar
Quasi-Stellar Radio Source


Taken from:

http://space.about.com/od/deepspace/a/quasarinfo.htm

"A Quasar is an enormously bright object at the edge of our universe with the appearance of a star when viewed through a telescope. It emits massive amounts of energy, more energy than 100 normal galaxies combined. The name comes from a shortening of quasi-stellar radio source (QSR). Current theories hold that quasars are one type of active galactic nuclei (AGN). Many astronomers believe supermassive black holes may lie at the center of these galaxies and power their explosive energy output. In one second, a typical quasar releases enough energy to satisfy the electrical energy needs of Earth for the next billion years."
 [ Invalid Attachment ]
"Hubble Image of Quasar
NASA, A. Martel, H. Ford, M. Clampin, G. Hartig, G. Illingworth, the ACS Science Team and ESA"



"It is thought by many astronomers that quasars are the most distant objects yet detected in the Universe. With the massive amounts of energy a quasar emits, it can be a trillion times brighter than our own sun. Because of this, they often drown out the light from all other stars in the same galaxy. Yet, despite this, they are not visible to the naked eye."

"Quasars were first detected in the 1960s as sources of radio waves. In addition to radio waves and visible light, quasars also emit ultraviolet rays, infrared waves, X-rays, and gamma-rays. Most quasars are larger than our solar system. A quasar is approximately 1 kiloparsec in width. Because of their distance, when we view quasars, we are seeing light from very early in the life of our universe, giving scientists information about the early stages of the Universe."
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Yomi on 12/04/2009 12:46:18
       (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fmembers.tripod.com%2Fmathsc%2Framanujan%2Fsramanujan.gif&hash=c84743abf9613c9677980a7f424e8d4d)
Srinivasa Ramanujan was born in a poor Tamil Brahmin family that resided in the town of Kumbakonam. He attended school there and did averagely well. While in school he came across a book entitled A synopsis of elementary results in Pure and Applied Mathematics by George Carr. This book is just a compendium of results on integrals, infinite series and other mathematical entities found in analysis. Yet it left a lasting impression on Ramanujan; in fact it virtually determined his mathematical style. He would later write mathematics as a string of results without proof or with the barest outline of a proof.

     After school Ramanujan was hooked on mathematics. He spent all his time with his head over a slate working with problems in number theory that interested him and neglected everything else. The result was that he could never get through another examination. An early marriage as was usual at those times led to a frantic search for a job to earn an income. He became a clerk in the Madras Port Trust with the help of some well wishers.

     In the meantime Ramanujan kept showing his results to various people who he thought would be interested or would help him get a job that would give him a lot of time to do mathematics. He wrote to a couple of well known British mathematicians giving a list of some of the results he had obtained. They ignored him - thought he was a crank! Finally he wrote to one of the most distinguished English mathematicians of the time - a person who had done a lot of work on number theory - G H Hardy. Hardy arranged for Ramanujan to come to Trinity College, Cambridge where he and Ramanujan met almost daily discussing mathematics for about three years. Ramanujan died shortly after at the age of 33.

All interested people are referred to The Man Who Knew Infinity: A Life of the Genius Ramanujan by Robert Kanigel.


(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi143.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fr147%2FNitajk%2FSrinivasaRamanujan_1_1.jpg&hash=e8f2b42c5ce04188aef48ee319f5aefb)
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: huafei on 18/04/2009 03:54:52
Thanks for the info, I appreciate it.
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Karen W. on 16/06/2009 07:14:28
Solar flare
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 16/06/2009 09:04:15
Terby is a crater on the northern edge of Hellas Planitia, Mars. The 174 km diameter crater is centered at 28°S, 73°E with an elevation of −5 km. It is named after François J. Terby. It is the site of an ancient lakebed and has clay deposits.



 [ Invalid Attachment ]
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Karen W. on 16/06/2009 09:26:32
UNIVERSE
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 04/07/2009 19:59:53
Venus


 [ Invalid Attachment ]

Second major planet from the Sun. Named for the Roman goddess, Venus is, after the Moon, the most brilliant natural object in the night sky. Venus comes closer to Earth—about 26 million mi (42 million km)—than any other planet. Its orbit around the Sun is nearly circular at a distance of about 67 million mi (108 million km) and takes 225 days; its rotation, in retrograde motion, takes even longer (243 days). As viewed from Earth, Venus undergoes phase changes similar to the Moon's, going through one cycle of phases in 584 days. It is seen only near sunrise or sunset and has long been known as both the morning star and the evening star. Venus is a near twin of Earth in size and mass but is completely enveloped by thick clouds of concentrated sulfuric acid droplets. Its surface gravity is about 90percnt that of Earth. Its atmosphere is over 96percnt carbon dioxide, with a pressure about 95 times Earth's. The dense atmosphere and thick cloud layers trap incoming solar energy so efficiently that Venus has the highest surface temperature of any of the Sun's planets, more than 860 °F (460 °C). Radar imaging indicates that the surface is dry and rocky, consisting mostly of gently rolling plains, broad depressions, and two large elevated regions analogous to continents on Earth; Venus also has impact craters, extensive lava fields, and massive shield volcanos. The interior is thought to be similar to that of Earth, with a metal core, a dense rocky mantle, and a less-dense rocky crust. Unlike Earth, Venus has no intrinsic magnetic field.
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 11/08/2009 23:25:27
Yuty (A Mars Crater)


 [ Invalid Attachment ]



The crater is about 18 km in diameter, and is surrounded by complex ejecta lobes, one of which partly covers an older crater. Many craters at equatorial and mid-latitudes on Mars have this form of ejecta morphology, which is believed to arise when the impacting object melts ice in the subsurface. Liquid water in the ejected material would then allow it to flow, forming the characteristic lobe shapes.


Source:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yuty_Crater
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Karen W. on 17/12/2009 08:15:04
http://www.google.com/search?q=volcano&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&aq=t&rls=com.ubuntu:en-US:unofficial&client=firefox-a

Aleutian Islands of Alaska, "Ash cloud"


 [ Invalid Attachment ]

Volcano
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 [ Invalid Attachment ]


Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station, May 2006

Cross-section through a stratovolcano (vertical scale is exaggerated):
1. Large magma chamber
2. Bedrock
3. Conduit (pipe)
4. Base
5. Sill
6. Dike
7. Layers of ash emitted by the volcano
8. Flank    9. Layers of lava emitted by the volcano
10. Throat
11. Parasitic cone
12. Lava flow
13. Vent
14. Crater
15. Ash cloud
Pinatubo ash plume reaching a height of 19 km, 3 days before the climactic eruption of 15 June 1991

A volcano is an opening, or rupture, in a planet's surface or crust, which allows hot, molten rock, ash, and gases to escape from below the surface. Volcanic activity involving the extrusion of rock tends to form mountains or features like mountains over a period of time. The word volcano is derived from the name of Vulcano island off Sicily. In turn, it was named after Vulcan, the Roman god of fire.[1]

Volcanoes are generally found where tectonic plates are diverging or converging. A mid-oceanic ridge, for example the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, has examples of volcanoes caused by divergent tectonic plates pulling apart; the Pacific Ring of Fire has examples of volcanoes caused by convergent tectonic plates coming together. By contrast, volcanoes are usually not created where two tectonic plates slide past one another. Volcanoes can also form where there is stretching and thinning of the Earth's crust (called "non-hotspot intraplate volcanism"), such as in the African Rift Valley, the Wells Gray-Clearwater volcanic field and the Rio Grande Rift in North America and the European Rhine Graben with its Eifel volcanoes.

Volcanoes can be caused by mantle plumes. These so-called hotspots, for example at Hawaii, can occur far from plate boundaries. Hotspot volcanoes are also found elsewhere in the solar system, especially on rocky planets and moons.
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Karen W. on 17/12/2009 08:25:45
Binary Star

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Binary_star

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For the band, see Binary Star (band).
This is a featured article. Click here for more information.
Hubble image of the Sirius binary system, in which Sirius B can be clearly distinguished (lower left).

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A binary star is a star system consisting of two stars orbiting around their common center of mass. The brighter star is called the primary and the other is its companion star, comes,[1] or secondary. Research between the early 1800s and today suggests that many stars are part of either binary star systems or star systems with more than two stars, called multiple star systems. The term double star may be used synonymously with binary star, but more generally, a double star may be either a binary star or an optical double star which consists of two stars with no physical connection but which appear close together in the sky as seen from the Earth. A double star may be determined to be optical if its components have sufficiently different proper motions or radial velocities, or if parallax measurements reveal its two components to be at sufficiently different distances from the Earth. Most known double stars have not yet been determined to be either bound binary star systems or optical doubles.

Binary star systems are very important in astrophysics because calculations of their orbits allow the masses of their component stars to be directly determined, which in turn allows other stellar parameters, such as radius and density, to be indirectly estimated. This also determines an empirical mass-luminosity relationship (MLR) from which the masses of single stars can be estimated.

Binary stars are often detected optically, in which case they are called visual binaries. Many visual binaries have long orbital periods of several centuries or millennia and therefore have orbits which are uncertain or poorly known. They may also be detected by indirect techniques, such as spectroscopy (spectroscopic binaries) or astrometry (astrometric binaries). If a binary star happens to orbit in a plane along our line of sight, its components will mutually eclipse and transit each other; these pairs are called eclipsing binaries, or, as they are detected by their changes in brightness during eclipses and transits, photometric binaries.

If the orbits of components in binary star systems are close enough they can gravitationally distort their mutual outer stellar atmospheres. In some cases, these close binary systems can exchange mass, which may bring their evolution to stages that single stars cannot attain. Examples of binaries are Algol (an eclipsing binary), Sirius, and Cygnus X-1 (of which one member is probably a black hole). Binary stars are also common as the nuclei of many planetary nebulae, and are the progenitors of both novae and type Ia supernovae.
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Geezer on 04/01/2010 05:27:52
D would have to be for Digital Systems. Is there any aspect of our lives that they have not altered in the last fifty years?
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 04/01/2010 12:01:54
Extinction Event


An extinction event (also known as: mass extinction; extinction-level event, ELE) is a sharp decrease in the number of species in a relatively short period of time. Mass extinctions affect most major taxonomic groups present at the time — birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, fish, invertebrates and other simpler life forms. They may be caused by one or both of:

    * extinction of an unusually large number of species in a short period.
    * a sharp drop in the rate of speciation.

Over 97% of species that ever lived are now extinct, but extinction occurs at an uneven rate. Based on the fossil record, the background rate of extinctions on Earth is about two to five taxonomic families of marine invertebrates and vertebrates every million years. Marine fossils are mostly used to measure extinction rates because they are more plentiful and cover a longer time span than fossils of land organisms.

Since life began on Earth, several major mass extinctions have significantly exceeded the background extinction rate. The most recent, the Cretaceous–Tertiary extinction event, occurred 65 million years ago, and has attracted more attention than all others as it marks the extinction of nearly all dinosaur species, which were the dominant animal class of the period. In the past 540 million years there have been five major events when over 50% of animal species died. There probably were mass extinctions in the Archean and Proterozoic Eons, but before the Phanerozoic there were no animals with hard body parts to leave a significant fossil record.

Estimates of the number of major mass extinctions in the last 540 million years range from as few as five to more than twenty. These differences stem from the threshold chosen for describing an extinction event as "major", and the data chosen to measure past diversity.


Every time wifey cooks is almost an E.E !  [;D]
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 07/02/2010 21:15:27
Richard Phillips Feynman (pronounced /ˈfaɪnmən/ FYEN-mən; May 11, 1918 – February 15, 1988)

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........ was an American physicist known for his work in the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, the theory of quantum electrodynamics and the physics of the superfluidity of supercooled liquid helium, as well as in particle physics (he proposed the parton model). For his contributions to the development of quantum electrodynamics, Feynman, jointly with Julian Schwinger and Sin-Itiro Tomonaga, received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1965. He developed a widely used pictorial representation scheme for the mathematical expressions governing the behavior of subatomic particles, which later became known as Feynman diagrams. During his lifetime and after his death, Feynman became one of the best-known scientists in the world.

He assisted in the development of the atomic bomb and was a member of the panel that investigated the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster. In addition to his work in theoretical physics, Feynman has been credited with pioneering the field of quantum computing,and introducing the concept of nanotechnology (creation of devices at the molecular scale). He held the Richard Chace Tolman professorship in theoretical physics at the California Institute of Technology.

Feynman was a keen popularizer of physics in both his books and lectures, notably a 1959 talk on top-down nanotechnology called There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom, and The Feynman Lectures on Physics. Feynman is also known for his semi-autobiographical books Surely You're Joking, Mr. Feynman! and What Do You Care What Other People Think?, and through books about him, such as Tuva or Bust! He was also known as a prankster, juggler, safecracker, and a proud amateur painter and bongo player. He was regarded as an eccentric and a free spirit. He liked to pursue multiple, seemingly unrelated, paths, such as biology, art, percussion, Maya hieroglyphs, and lock picking.

Feynman also had a deep interest in biology, and was a friend of the geneticist and microbiologist Esther Lederberg, who developed replica plating and discovered bacteriophage lambda. They had mutual friends in several other physicists who, after beginning their careers in nuclear research, moved for moral reasons into genetics—among them Leó Szilárd, Guido Pontecorvo, and Aaron Novick.


SOURCE WIKIPEDIA (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Feynman)
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Karen W. on 11/02/2010 13:07:45
Woooooooeeeeeeee! He's a handsome fellow.LOL...

Gyroscope
Source:
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gyroscope

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi17.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fb73%2Fkarenw44%2F250px-3D_Gyroscope.png&hash=9a0165e62f46019e994358971d3150bb)



A gyroscope is a device for measuring or maintaining orientation, based on the principles of conservation of angular momentum.[1] A mechanical gyroscope is essentially a spinning wheel or disk whose axle is free to take any orientation. This orientation changes much less in response to a given external torque than it would without the large angular momentum associated with the gyroscope's high rate of spin. Since external torque is minimized by mounting the device in gimbals, its orientation remains nearly fixed, regardless of any motion of the platform on which it is mounted. Solid state devices also exist, such as the ring laser gyroscope.

Applications of gyroscopes include navigation (INS) when magnetic compasses do not work (as in the Hubble telescope) or are not precise enough (as in ICBMs) or for the stabilization of flying vehicles like Radio-controlled helicopters or UAVs. Due to higher precision, gyroscopes are also used to maintain direction in tunnel mining [1].
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: vipinkumar on 14/04/2010 14:15:05
it is very important knowledge
I am regular reader of it
      thanks
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Karen W. on 29/04/2010 04:50:52
HYDROGEN BOMB

http://www.answers.com/topic/hydrogen-bomb

n.
An explosive weapon of enormous destructive power caused by the fusion of the nuclei of various hydrogen isotopes in the formation of helium nuclei.


hydrogen bomb

 
Britannica Concise Encyclopedia

Weapon whose enormous explosive power is generated by the nuclear fusion of hydrogen isotopes. The high temperatures required for the fusion reaction are produced by detonating an atomic bomb (which draws its energy from nuclear fission). The bomb's explosion produces a blast that can destroy structures within a radius of several miles, an intense white light that can cause blindness, and heat fierce enough to set off firestorms. It also creates radioactive fallout that can poison living creatures and contaminate air, water, and soil. Hydrogen bombs, which may be thousands of times more powerful than atomic bombs, can be made small enough to fit in the warhead of a ballistic missile (see ICBM) or even in an artillery shell (see neutron bomb). Edward Teller and other U.S. scientists developed the first H-bomb and tested it at Enewetak atoll (Nov. 1, 1952). The Soviet Union first tested an H-bomb in 1953, followed by Britain (1957), China (1967), and France (1968). Most modern nuclear weapons employ both fusion and fission.

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Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 19/06/2010 14:57:18
Iridescence (also known as goniochromism) is generally known as the property of certain surfaces which appear to change colour as the angle of view changes. Iridescence is commonly seen in items such as soap bubbles, butterfly  wings, and sea shells.


* iridescent beetle.jpg (9.47 kB . 575x440 - viewed 11350 times)
Beetle


* Clear Ice Crystal Texture Iridescent.jpg (26.77 kB . 300x300 - viewed 14184 times)
Clear Ice Crystal


* soap_bubble_-_foliage_background_-_iridescent_colours_-_traquair_040801.jpg (59.79 kB . 523x604 - viewed 11301 times)
Soap Bubble



Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 11/02/2011 19:43:36
Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff (30 August 1852 – 1 March 1911)


...... was a Dutch physical and organic chemist and the first winner of the Nobel Prize in chemistry. He is best known for his discoveries in chemical kinetics, chemical equilibrium, osmotic pressure, and stereochemistry. Van 't Hoff's work in these subjects helped found the discipline of physical chemistry as it is today.


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Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 28/03/2011 18:47:42
Krypton  is a chemical element with the symbol Kr and atomic number 36. It is a member of Group 18 and Period 4 elements. A colourless, odorless, tasteless noble gas, krypton occurs in trace amounts in the atmosphere, is isolated by fractionally distilling liquified air, and is often used with other rare gases in fluorescent lamps. Krypton is inert for most practical purposes.

Krypton, like the other noble gases, can be used in lighting and photography. Krypton light has a large number of spectral lines, and krypton's high light output in plasmas allows it to play an important role in many high-powered gas lasers, which pick out one of the many spectral lines to amplify. There is also a specific krypton fluoride laser. The high power and relative ease of operation of krypton discharge tubes caused (from 1960 to 1983) the official meter to be defined in terms of the orange spectral line of krypton-86.

 [ Invalid Attachment ]
Colourless gas, exhibiting a whitish glow when placed in a high voltage electric field
& Spectral lines of Krypton


SOURCE: WIKIPEDIA
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 28/03/2011 18:50:27
THIS THREAD IS FOR EVERYONE TO CONTRIBUTE TO BY THE WAY !!....JUST KEEP IT SCIENCE BASED AND IN ALPHABETICAL ORDER !!...which is nice !!
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 04/09/2011 19:09:12
Leachate is any liquid that, in passing through matter, extracts solutes, suspended solids or any other component of the material through which it has passed.
Leachate is a widely used term in the Environmental sciences where it has the specific meaning of a liquid that has dissolved or entrained environmentally harmful substances which may then enter the environment. It is most commonly used in the context of land-filling of putrescible or industrial waste.
In the narrow environmental context leachate is therefore any liquid material that drains from land or stockpiled material and contains significantly elevated concentrations of undesirable material derived from the material that it has passed through.

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fupload.wikimedia.org%2Fwikipedia%2Fcommons%2F2%2F2f%2FLeachate_Pond.JPG&hash=72d96d9230f918751171eede2f20fb21)
A leachate evaporation pond in a landfill site located in Cancun, Mexico.

SOURCE: WIKIPEDIA
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: CZARCAR on 04/09/2011 23:13:24
M for the moron who realized he was a moron & thereby concluded his knowledge was limited & reconsidered..........marrying a Monkey
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 05/09/2011 00:19:00
M for the moron who realized he was a moron & thereby concluded his knowledge was limited & reconsidered..........marrying a Monkey


Perhaps he was a Neanderthal


The Neanderthal (short for Neanderthal man; sometimes spelled Neandertal) is an extinct member of the Homo genus known from Pleistocene specimens found in Europe and parts of western and central Asia. Neanderthals are classified either as a subspecies (or race) of modern humans (Homo sapiens neanderthalensis) or as a separate human species (Homo neanderthalensis).

The first proto-Neanderthal traits appeared in Europe as early as 600,000–350,000 years ago. Proto-Neanderthal traits are occasionally grouped with another phenetic 'species', Homo heidelbergensis, or a migrant form, Homo rhodesiensis.


Source WIKIPEDIA (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neanderthal)
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: CZARCAR on 05/09/2011 18:39:39
ORO= gold in Spanish...as the value increases, MORONS will burn oil+ fuels to mine it & lock in a vault & these aint Neandarthals so whats the word?
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 17/11/2011 10:30:52
Pulsar


(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fupload.wikimedia.org%2Fwikipedia%2Fcommons%2F7%2F73%2FCycle_of_pulsed_gamma_rays_from_the_Vela_pulsar.gif&hash=532d52abe8b16b8e29ee7b2d81090bdd)


A pulsar (portmanteau of pulsating star) is a highly magnetized, rotating neutron star that emits a beam of electromagnetic radiation. The radiation can only be observed when the beam of emission is pointing towards the Earth. This is called the lighthouse effect and gives rise to the pulsed nature that gives pulsars their name. Because neutron stars are very dense objects, the rotation period and thus the interval between observed pulses is very regular. For some pulsars, the regularity of pulsation is as precise as an atomic clock. The observed periods of their pulses range from 1.4 milliseconds to 8.5 seconds. A few pulsars are known to have planets orbiting them, such as PSR B1257+12. Werner Becker of the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics said in 2006, "The theory of how pulsars emit their radiation is still in its infancy, even after nearly forty years of work."

Source WIKIPEDIA (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pulsar)
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 25/08/2012 19:10:46
Quark epoch
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quark_epoch)

In physical cosmology the quark epoch was the period in the evolution of the early universe when the fundamental interactions of gravitation, electromagnetism, the strong interaction and the weak interaction had taken their present forms, but the temperature of the universe was still too high to allow quarks to bind together to form hadrons. The quark epoch began approximately 10−12 seconds after the Big Bang, when the preceding electroweak epoch ended as the electroweak interaction separated into the weak interaction and electromagnetism. During the quark epoch the universe was filled with a dense, hot quark-gluon plasma, containing quarks, leptons and their antiparticles. Collisions between particles were too energetic to allow quarks to combine into mesons or baryons. The quark epoch ended when the universe was about 10−6 seconds old, when the average energy of particle interactions had fallen below the binding energy of hadrons. The following period, when quarks became confined within hadrons, is known as the hadron epoch.

WIKIPEDIA (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quark_epoch)
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 26/08/2012 17:44:46
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Radium is a chemical element with symbol Ra and atomic number 88. Radium is an almost pure-white alkaline earth metal, but it readily oxidizes on exposure to air, becoming black in color. All isotopes of radium are highly radioactive, with the most stable isotope being radium-226, which has a half-life of 1601 years and decays into radon gas. Because of such instability, radium is luminescent, glowing a faint blue.
Radium, in the form of radium chloride, was discovered by Marie Skłodowska-Curie and Pierre Curie in 1898. They extracted the radium compound from uraninite and published the discovery at the French Academy of Sciences five days later. Radium was isolated in its metallic state by Marie Curie and André-Louis Debierne through the electrolysis of radium chloride in 1910. Since its discovery, it has given names like radium A and radium C2 to several isotopes of other elements that are decay products of radium-226.
In nature, radium is found in uranium ores in trace amounts as small as a seventh of a gram per ton of uraninite. Radium is not necessary for living organisms, and adverse health effects are likely when it is incorporated into biochemical processes because of its radioactivity and chemical reactivity.


SOURCE WIKIPEDIA (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radium)
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Karen W. on 26/08/2012 22:26:04
SYNDROME= pathol psychiatry,  a group of symptoms that together are characteristic of a specific disorder, disease,or the like.
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 05/09/2012 21:35:34
Telstar is the name of various communications satellites. The first two Telstar satellites were experimental and nearly identical. Telstar 1 was launched on top of a Thor-Delta rocket on July 10, 1962. It successfully relayed through space the first television pictures, telephone calls, fax images and provided the first live transatlantic television feed. Telstar 2 was launched May 7, 1963. Telstar 1 and 2, though no longer functional, are still in orbit as of July 2012.


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SOURCE: WIKIPEDIA (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Telstar)
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: CliffordK on 06/09/2012 04:39:15
Uranium
is the 92nd element in the periodic table, conveniently abbreviated with the letter U.

Common naturally occurring isotopes include:

238U 99.3% of all naturally occurring Uranium with a half life of 4.46 billion years
235U 0.7% of all naturally occurring Uranium with a half life of 700 million years.
234U 0.006% of all naturally occurring Uranium with a half life of 248 thousand years.

Uranium is the primary fuel for nuclear reactors around the world.  And, was the explosive in the Little Boy bomb dropped on Hiroshima.

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fupload.wikimedia.org%2Fwikipedia%2Fcommons%2F6%2F6a%2FLittle_boy.jpg&hash=cfbdcd53770e6d6c1a6be97aeece1b5c)
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Lmnre on 08/09/2012 23:11:18
After Uranium comes "EUreka!", which is what Archimedes shouted when he realized that he was sitting in, and being measured by, ...

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Farchimedespalimpsest.org%2Fimages%2Fkaltoon%2Fpage-1.jpg&hash=e402223c33bb1fa3b313f883d230f11a)

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Farchimedespalimpsest.org%2Fimages%2Fkaltoon%2Fpage-2.jpg&hash=90aab447da4c88d77059f43d6ecb7b85)

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Farchimedespalimpsest.org%2Fimages%2Fkaltoon%2Fpage-3.jpg&hash=2ef67702ddb7a124680e56a1375b35fc)

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Farchimedespalimpsest.org%2Fimages%2Fkaltoon%2Fpage-4.jpg&hash=339d7892e01cd654211f132b12f6d7ee)
source (http://archimedespalimpsest.org/images/kaltoon/index.php)
... a Volumeter, an instrument for measuring the volumes of something by the amount of gas or liquid it displaces. source (http://www.thefreedictionary.com/volumeter)

Help! I've broken the page. How do I fix it? Please send me a message on what to do.
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: CliffordK on 09/09/2012 00:12:18
W

For Tungsten

[:o]

The 74th element on the periodic table, and one of the highest melting point metals with a melting point of 3695 K, 3422 °C, 6192 °F.  It is used in tungsten carbide to form extremely hard tips for blades and drills.  It is used for high temperature heating elements for kilns, as well as filaments for incandescent light bulbs.  It is also used as electrodes for TIG welding.

Tungsten Carbide has also been used in jewelry.

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Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: damocles on 09/09/2012 00:51:13
X

for X-ray

Mysterious radiation discovered in the 1890s -- 'x' for unknown.

Quite apart from well known medical applications, x-rays provided an experimental tool that led Moseley in 1913 to the discovery of Atomic Number, and resolved a few anomalies in the Periodic Law to set it on a revised, and much firmer footing.

http://web.lemoyne.edu/~giunta/Moseley-article.html (http://web.lemoyne.edu/~giunta/Moseley-article.html)
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: damocles on 09/09/2012 01:03:05
Y

for Ytterby

The "complete village" near Stockholm that provided the raw material for the discovery of many new elements, and the names of four of them

Y -- yttrium
Yb -- ytterbium
Tb -- terbium
Er -- erbium

Even Paris does not have such a distinction!
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 10/09/2012 01:37:24
Z (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zero-point_energy)ero-point energy


Zero-point energy is the lowest possible energy that a quantum mechanical physical system may have; it is the energy of its ground state. All quantum mechanical systems undergo fluctuations even in their ground state and have an associated zero-point energy, a consequence of their wave-like nature. The uncertainty principle requires every physical system to have a zero-point energy greater than the minimum of its classical potential well, even at absolute zero. For example, liquid helium does not freeze under atmospheric pressure at any temperature because of its zero-point energy.
The concept of zero-point energy was developed in Germany by Albert Einstein and Otto Stern in 1913, using a formula developed by Max Planck in 1900. The term zero-point energy originates from the German Nullpunktsenergie. The German name is also spelled Nullpunktenergie (without the "s").
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 10/09/2012 01:44:19
Architectural Acoustics is the science of noise control within buildings.

 [ Invalid Attachment ]

 The first application of architectural acoustics was in the design of opera houses and then concert halls. More widely, noise suppression is critical in the design of multi-unit dwellings and business premises that generate significant noise, including music venues like bars. The more mundane design of workplaces has implications for noise health effects. Architectural acoustics includes room acoustics, the design of recording and broadcast studios, home theaters, and listening rooms for media playback.





Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 24/12/2012 21:15:20
Backronym


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


A bacronym or backronym is a phrase specially constructed so that an acronym fits an existing word. For example, NASA's "Combined Operational Load-Bearing External Resistance Treadmill (COLBERT)" was given that name in recognition of comedian Stephen Colbert's attempts to have a space module named for him. Backronyms may be invented with serious or humorous intent, or may be a type of false or folk etymology.
The word is a combination of backward and acronym, and has been defined as a "reverse acronym". Its earliest known citation in print is as "bacronym" in the November 1983 edition of the Washington Post monthly neologism contest. The newspaper quoted winning reader "Meredith G. Williams of Potomac" defining it as the "same as an acronym, except that the words were chosen to fit the letters"
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 26/12/2012 05:44:01
Carbon

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Carbon (from Latin: carbo "coal") is the chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6. As a member of group 14 on the periodic table, it is nonmetallic and tetravalent—making four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds. There are three naturally occurring isotopes, with 12C and 13C being stable, while 14C is radioactive, decaying with a half-life of about 5,730 years. Carbon is one of the few elements known since antiquity.
There are several allotropes of carbon of which the best known are graphite, diamond, and amorphous carbon.The physical properties of carbon vary widely with the allotropic form. For example, diamond is highly transparent, while graphite is opaque and black. Diamond is the hardest naturally-occurring material known, while graphite is soft enough to form a streak on paper (hence its name, from the Greek word "to write"). Diamond has a very low electrical conductivity, while graphite is a very good conductor. Under normal conditions, diamond, carbon nanotube and graphene have the highest thermal conductivities of all known materials.
All carbon allotropes are solids under normal conditions with graphite being the most thermodynamically stable form. They are chemically resistant and require high temperature to react even with oxygen. The most common oxidation state of carbon in inorganic compounds is +4, while +2 is found in carbon monoxide and other transition metal carbonyl complexes. The largest sources of inorganic carbon are limestones, dolomites and carbon dioxide, but significant quantities occur in organic deposits of coal, peat, oil and methane clathrates. Carbon forms more compounds than any other element, with almost ten million pure organic compounds described to date, which in turn are a tiny fraction of such compounds that are theoretically possible under standard conditions.
Carbon is the 15th most abundant element in the Earth's crust, and the fourth most abundant element in the universe by mass after hydrogen, helium, and oxygen. It is present in all known life forms, and in the human body carbon is the second most abundant element by mass (about 18.5%) after oxygen. This abundance, together with the unique diversity of organic compounds and their unusual polymer-forming ability at the temperatures commonly encountered on Earth, make this element the chemical basis of all known life.



SOURCE: WIKIPEDIA
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: CamKrist on 17/01/2013 15:34:31
Similar subject was being discussed at yahoo answers last week. I can post the link if needed.
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: roysmit1 on 05/04/2013 07:26:38
Thanks for this valuable information...
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Karen W. on 06/08/2014 19:14:08


               D
                                                         
                               DIATOMACEOUS EARTH

   
                                                 (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2F%5Battachment%3D19049%5D%5B%2Fattachment%5D&hash=43f8d30e650da8c6731733dbf2130e3d)
                                  A sample of food-grade diatomaceous earth

Diatomaceous earth/ˌdaɪ.ətəˌmeɪʃəs ˈɜrθ/, also known as D.E.,diatomite, orkieselgur/kieselguhr,
is a naturally occurring, soft, siliceous sedimentary rock that is easily crumbled into a fine white to
off-white powder. It has a particle size ranging from less than 3 micrometers to more than 1 millimeter,
but typically 10 to 200 micrometers. Depending on the granularity, this powder can have an abrasive
feel, similar to pumice powder, and has a low density as a result of its high porosity. The typical chemical
composition of oven-dried Diatomaceous earth is 80 to 90% silica, with 2 to 4% alumina (attributed
mostly to clay minerals) and 0.5 to 2% iron oxide.[1]

Diatomaceous earth consists of fossilized remains of diatoms, a type of hard-shelled algae. It is
used as a filtration aid, mild abrasive in products including toothpaste, mechanical insecticide,
absorbent for liquids, matting agent for coatings, reinforcing filler in plastics and rubber, anti-block
in plastic films, porous support for chemical catalysts,cat litter, activator in blood clotting studies,
a stabilizing component of dynamite, and a thermal insulator.


                   http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diatomaceous_earth

                               

   
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Sheppie on 14/08/2014 13:47:37
Actinides

" For many years, the list of chemical elements known to scientists ended with number 92, uranium. Scientists were uncertain as to whether elements heavier than uranium would ever be found. Then, in 1940, a remarkable discovery was made while University of California physicists Edwin McMillan (1907–1991) and Philip Abelson (1913– ) were studying nuclear fission. (Nuclear fission is the splitting of an atomic nucleus, a process that releases large amounts of energy. Atomic bombs and nuclear power plants operate on nuclear fission.) During their research, the duo found evidence for the existence of a new element with atomic number 94, two greater than that of uranium.

This new element was the first transuranium (heaver than uranium) element ever discovered. McMillan and Abelson named it neptunium, after the planet Neptune, just as uranium had been named after the planet Uranus. Later in the same year, McMillan and two other colleagues found a second transuranium element, which they named plutonium, after the planet Pluto.

At that point, the race was on to develop more synthetic transuranium elements, but the research process was not easy. The approach was to fire subatomic particles or small atoms, like those of helium, at a very large nucleus by means of a particle accelerator. If the smaller particle could be made to merge with the larger nucleus, a new atom would be produced. Over time, techniques became more and more sophisticated, and ever-heavier elements were created: americium (number 95) and curium (number 96) in 1944; berkelium (number 97) in 1949; californium (number 98) in 1950; einsteinium (number 99) and fermium (number 100) in 1952; mendelevium (number 101) in 1955; nobelium (number 102) in 1958; and lawrencium (number 103) in 1961."

Read more: http://www.scienceclarified.com/A-Al/Actinides.html#ixzz3AN2PwzU6
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Karen W. on 15/08/2014 19:39:18
Sheppie..the letter to you was
"E"...lol....Remember Alphabetical order....

"C"= Carbon

"D" = Diatomaceous Earth

Then you respond with the word starting with "E"...not "A"....
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: hussen on 11/09/2014 07:48:17
thank u very much for this nice topic........it is a very benefitial data
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Karen W. on 27/11/2014 09:23:59
This thread is: A-Z of anything or anyone associated with science. So if you wish to post in this thread it is done in alphabbetical order so the next science related word should start with an  "E"..ok?
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Radium on 20/07/2015 20:34:53
B: Bismuth

Quote
Bismuth, which has been known since ancient times, was often confused with lead and tin. Bismuth was first shown to be a distinct element in 1753 by Claude Geoffroy the Younger. Bismuth does occur free in nature and in such minerals as bismuthinite (Bi2S3) and bismite (Bi2O3). The largest deposits of bismuth are found in Bolivia, although bismuth is usually obtained as a by-product of mining and refining lead, copper, tin, silver and gold.

Pure bismuth is a white, brittle metal with a slight pink color. Bismuth is usually mixed with other metals, such as lead, tin, iron or cadmium to form low-melting alloys. These alloys are used in such things as automatic fire sprinkler systems, fire detection systems and electrical fuses.

Bismuth oxide (Bi2O3), a bismuth compound, is used as a yellow pigment in paints and cosmetics. Bismuth oxychloride (BiOCl) is used to make a pigment known as bismuth white. Bismuth carbonate (Bi2(CO3)3) is used to treat diarrhea and gastric ulcers.

Once thought to be the heaviest stable isotope to exist in nature, experiments conducted in 2002 showed that bismuth-209 is unstable and decays into thallium-205 through alpha decay. Bismuth-209 has a half-life of roughly 19,000,000,000,000,000,000 years.

Source: http://education.jlab.org/itselemental/ele083.html
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 06/05/2016 20:19:52
C


Cepheid Variables

...............are very large, luminous, yellow stars. They change in brightness very regularly with periods of 1 to 70 days between peaks. The stars are called Cepheids after the first star of this type to be discovered - Delta Cephei. This is a reasonably bright star in the constellation of Cepheus
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: JimBob on 26/06/2016 03:43:09
D


Dike

NO! not the usual common association

IT IS: A tabular igneous intrusion that cuts across the surrounding rock.

((BE AFRAID  be VERY afraid.  I am gaining strength!))

after a lengthy incapacitation
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Karen W. on 26/06/2016 11:01:06
E

EUPHORIA

A very heightened state of joy and happiness.

GOOGLE

"eu·pho·ri·a
yo͞oˈfôrēə/Submit
noun
a feeling or state of intense excitement and happiness.
"the euphoria of success will fuel your desire to continue training"
synonyms:   elation, happiness, joy, delight, glee;"






Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 20/09/2016 20:15:50
Michael Faraday


Michael Faraday (22 September 1791 – 25 August 1867) was an English scientist who contributed to the study of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. His main discoveries include the principles underlying electromagnetic induction, diamagnetism and electrolysis.

Although Faraday received little formal education, he was one of the most influential scientists in history. It was by his research on the magnetic field around a conductor carrying a direct current that Faraday established the basis for the concept of the electromagnetic field in physics. Faraday also established that magnetism could affect rays of light and that there was an underlying relationship between the two phenomena. He similarly discovered the principles of electromagnetic induction and diamagnetism, and the laws of electrolysis. His inventions of electromagnetic rotary devices formed the foundation of electric motor technology, and it was largely due to his efforts that electricity became practical for use in technology.

As a chemist, Faraday discovered benzene, investigated the clathrate hydrate of chlorine, invented an early form of the Bunsen burner and the system of oxidation numbers, and popularised terminology such as "anode", "cathode", "electrode" and "ion". Faraday ultimately became the first and foremost Fullerian Professor of Chemistry at the Royal Institution of Great Britain, a lifetime position.

Faraday was an excellent experimentalist who conveyed his ideas in clear and simple language; his mathematical abilities, however, did not extend as far as trigonometry and were limited to the simplest algebra. James Clerk Maxwell took the work of Faraday and others and summarized it in a set of equations which is accepted as the basis of all modern theories of electromagnetic phenomena. On Faraday's uses of lines of force, Maxwell wrote that they show Faraday "to have been in reality a mathematician of a very high order – one from whom the mathematicians of the future may derive valuable and fertile methods."[3] The SI unit of capacitance is named in his honour: the farad.

Albert Einstein kept a picture of Faraday on his study wall, alongside pictures of Isaac Newton and James Clerk Maxwell. Physicist Ernest Rutherford stated, "When we consider the magnitude and extent of his discoveries and their influence on the progress of science and of industry, there is no honour too great to pay to the memory of Faraday, one of the greatest scientific discoverers of all time."



credit: Wikipedia



Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Karen W. on 23/09/2016 11:52:01
     Credit:       https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gyroscope


                                     GYROSCOPE


A gyroscope in operation. Note the freedom of rotation in all three axes. The rotor will maintain its spin axis direction regardless of the orientation of the outer frame.
A gyroscope (from Greek γῦρος gûros, "circle" and σκοπέω skopéō, "to look") is a spinning wheel or disc in which the axis of rotation is free to assume any orientation by itself. When rotating, the orientation of this axis is unaffected by tilting or rotation of the mounting, according to the conservation of angular momentum. Because of this, gyroscopes are useful for measuring or maintaining orientation.[1][2]

Gyroscopes based on other operating principles also exist, such as the electronic, microchip-packaged MEMS gyroscopes found in consumer electronics devices, solid-state ring lasers, fibre optic gyroscopes, and the extremely sensitive quantum gyroscope.[citation needed]

Applications of gyroscopes include inertial navigation systems where magnetic compasses would not work (as in the Hubble telescope) or would not be precise enough (as in intercontinental ballistic missiles), or for the stabilization of flying vehicles like radio-controlled helicopters or unmanned aerial vehicles, and recreational boats and commercial ships. Due to their precision, gyroscopes are also used in gyrotheodolites to maintain direction in tunnel mining.[3] Gyroscopes can be used to construct gyrocompasses, which complement or replace magnetic compasses (in ships, aircraft and spacecraft, vehicles in general), to assist in stability (Hubble Space Telescope, bicycles, motorcycles, and ships) or be used as part of an inertial guidance system.
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 27/05/2017 11:50:42
Heliosphere


"Helio-" means having to do with the Sun...
The heliosphere is the immense magnetic bubble containing our solar system, solar wind, and the entire solar magnetic field. It extends well beyond the orbit of Pluto. While the density of particles in the heliosphere is very low (it's a much better vacuum than is created in a laboratory), it is full of particles of interest to heliospheric scientists. Check out the image below for a diagram of the heliosphere.


* heliosph.gif (109.42 kB . 560x492 - viewed 6850 times)

CREDIT COSMICOPIA (https://helios.gsfc.nasa.gov/heliosph.html)
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: cinka on 21/08/2017 01:02:08
So much worth to read of this thread. Thanks you so much, I will post mine in a couple of days that is worth read as well.
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Bill S on 26/11/2018 20:31:20
The Scientific Alphabet.

A is for argument, sometimes profound,
B for the bullshit that lies all around.
C is for light speed – a limit for all,
D for dimensions rolled up really small.
E is for energy; that you must know,
F for the future, towards which we go.
G is for general; a relative type,
H for Planck’s constant, h-bar and hype.
I is for infinite – everything’s in,
J is for joule and repetitive jinn.
K for kinetic – an energy kind,
L for the ludicrous concepts we find.
M is a theory all tied up in strings,
N is a number that covers all things.
O for opinion; a person’s belief,
P for momentum, p-brane and relief.
Q is for quantum and quark – sometimes strange,
R is for radius and also for range.
S is for science, to which we stay close,
T is for time and for theories verbose.
U for the Universe in which we all sit,
V for the vacuum; full of weird sh1t.
W for wisdom – we can’t get enough,
X for the X-rays that see through our bluff.
Y is for Yang, who with Mills makes a pair;
Z is for zero, that’s really not there.
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Bill S on 27/11/2018 15:03:02
The Forum’s guardians of “Faith and morals” changed the original to:
Quote
sh1t.

Isn’t this hypocrisy? If using a word is offensive, surely using it, while pretending that one is not, is both offensive and insulting

Just a thought. :)
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Karen W. on 08/01/2019 17:59:23
We should be on "I" in alphabetical order... 

                                                                  " I "               
                                                                  for
                                                                Isotopes 





https://binged.it/2LXofMS



Isotope
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number, although all isotopes of a given element have the same number of protons in each atom. The term isotope is formed from the Greek roots isos and topos, meaning "the same place"; thus, the meaning behind the name is that different isotopes of a single element occupy the same position on the periodic table.
Isotope - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isotope



Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Bill S on 08/01/2019 18:56:00
Quote
We should be on "I" in alphabetical order... 

Sorry if I disrupted the  concatenation of this thread, it's something I do well. :)

I is for Inselberg.

This is a landform in which erosion gives rise to an isolated hill rising abruptly from a plain.

https://www.google.com/search?q=Inselberg.&oq=Inselberg.&aqs=chrome..69i57.201171j1j1&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Karen W. on 08/01/2019 22:46:13
                                                                       
                                                                                "J"
                                                                        For
                                                                      Jasper




By Tommy from Arad - Jasper, CC BY 2.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=21802106


[[File:Jasper outcrop in the Bucegi Mountains.jpg|Jasper outcrop in the Bucegi Mountains]]




Jasper - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jasper

Overview
Jasper, an aggregate of microgranular quartz and/or chalcedony and other mineral phases, is an opaque, impure variety of silica, usually red, yellow, brown or green in color; and rarely blue. The common red color is due to iron inclusions. The mineral aggregate breaks with a smooth surface and is used for ornamentation or as a gemstone. It can be highly polished and is used for items such as vases, seals, and snuff boxes. The specific gravity of jasper is typically 2.5 to 2.9.

See more on en.wikipedia.org · Text under CC-BY-SA license
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: alancalverd on 09/01/2019 00:31:40
I'd like to mention James Joule as the instigator of one of the most profound concepts of physics, the mechanical equivalent of heat, which turns up in pretty well every aspect of engineering from lift-off to re-entry and replaces rules of thumb with a single precise value that saves lives.
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: neilep on 13/08/2019 17:40:47



Kryptonite

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Kryptonite is a fictional  REAL material that appears primarily in Superman (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Superman) stories. In its most well-known form, it is a green, crystalline material originating from Superman's home world of Krypton (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Krypton_(comics)), that emits a peculiar radiation that weakens Superman, but is generally harmless to humans when exposed to it in short term. There are other varieties of kryptonite such as red and gold kryptonite which have different but still generally negative effects on Superman. Due to Superman's popularity kryptonite has become a byword for an extraordinary exploitable weakness, synonymous with "Achilles' heel (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Achilles%27_heel)".

(https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/e/e9/Kryptonite_%28DC_Comics%29.jpg)

BONAFIDE REAL PICTURE OF REAL KRYPTONITE !!  ;)
Title: Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE!!
Post by: Karen W. on 23/08/2019 15:19:37
                                             Laboratory

a nice place where one can engage in loads of ghoulish and fun scientific experiments all in the name of empirical studies! lol...