Naked Science Forum

On the Lighter Side => New Theories => Topic started by: Rlmdouglas on 09/08/2017 07:01:55

Title: Could expansion and contraction of the universe be driven by the same processes?
Post by: Rlmdouglas on 09/08/2017 07:01:55
The following speculations are drawn, in part, from my reflections on the cosmology of Nicholas of Cusa, with which I have been engaging for the purposes of a PhD on the modern idea of (privative) infinity.  In brief, what follows is the proposition that the expansion of the universe following the big bang is the same process which leads to its eventual contraction into a big crunch (thus is a theory of an infinite cycle of universes).  The key assumption is that the universe begins - and on some level remains - as a single unity:

Let us say that the universe begins as a singularity, and, as such, a formless plenum.  Let us say that the process of the universe is one of development from formlessness and infinite potential to absolute form and actuality.

Let us say that matter is the ‘contraction’ or ‘condensation’ of formless plenum into more definite forms; and that this process is at the same time what ‘forms’ space, as the differentiation ‘within’ the plenum of itself from itself which separates bodies of matter.  Contraction of the plenum into definite forms, occupying space, would at the same time be the process which ‘creates’ space and thus expands the spatial universe.

Let us say that gravity is the force of contraction of matter, tending towards absolute contraction into a single definite point.  As space is created by matter (or the process of matter-creation), and does not have pre-existing dimensions to expand into, all objects are simultaneously at the centre (rather, centres) of the universe.  Gravity, then, is the simultaneous contraction of the universe towards its manifold centres.  From the perspective of any one of these centres, the processes of matter creation from the plenum and of inward contraction of each galaxy or region of space towards its centre, would make it appear as though the universe were expanding in every direction, each galaxy or region of space rushing away from us.

Let us say that a black hole is formed when a body is so massive, and has such a concentration of matter (and thus of the universe as a whole, conceiving it as a single ‘substance’), that its attraction towards its own centre is greater than towards every other centre in the universe combined.  On a local scale it ‘outweighs’ the rest of the universe.  As it contracts, it becomes denser, and thus harder to contract further.  It can only do so by gaining mass, and thus increasing the force of its own gravitational attraction.  It becomes denser by becoming denser, contracts by contracting.  It does this by pulling in matter from outside.  As it does so, it increases its prominence among the manifold centres of the universe, biasing the ongoing expansion of the universe (also its contraction towards a definite point) in its direction.  The contraction of the black hole is a kind of inward expansion, in the sense that more and more of the universe is concentrated within it.

As the universe ages, there should be more, denser, black holes, and fewer other massive bodies.  The counteracting attraction of other bodies towards their own centres will be lessened in force, and the attraction of black holes increased.  The contraction of matter into black holes, and the attraction of black holes into each other, could still simultaneously represent an expansion of the universe, so long as there were still sufficient matter in each region of space to fuel the continuing contraction of its black holes. 

But once at a stage where regions of space had each contracted to a single black hole then there would be a contraction of space as superdense black holes simultaneously contracted towards and into each other.  Although the expanse of space between them might be immense, equally, with its being so empty, there would be so little in it for black holes to ‘eat’, so little resistance in terms of the counteracting weight of other bodies towards their own centres, that the gravitational attraction of black holes should still lock onto each other, growing ever stronger as they pulled in the space towards themselves, the process of overall contraction of the spatial universe towards its remaining centres accelerating.

We might see the end result of this process being the final contraction of the last two black holes into one, resulting in a single definite point, the universe as a singularity, which as such would also not be definite at all, lacking all form and dimensions; and, with the infinite gravitational force required to contract the entire universe into a point of infinite density suddenly lifted, as soon as there was nothing to attract itself towards, giving rise to a Big Bang.  In such a way this would be an account of an infinite cycle of universes.

This, at least, has an emotional, aesthetic, and rational appeal to me.

Very grateful for any thoughts on how and with whom I might engage on this further.
Title: Re: Could expansion and contraction of the universe be driven by the same processes?
Post by: evan_au on 09/08/2017 12:32:46
Quote from: Rlmdouglas
The contraction of the black hole is a kind of inward expansion
There is a suggestion that a black hole is like a "universe within a universe".
Current theories suggest that our usual concepts of time and space become twisted and even interchanged inside the event horizon of a black hole.

Unfortunately, as far as we know, no-one can peek inside the event horizon and then come back to tell us what it is like inside.

the processes of ... inward contraction of each galaxy or region of space towards its centre, would make it appear as though the universe were expanding in every direction, each galaxy or region of space rushing away from us.
Gravity certainly does attract all stars of the galaxy in towards the center of the galaxy, just like the Sun attracts the planets, and the Earth attracts the orbiting satellites.

If our galaxy were contracting towards its center, we could look out farther in our galaxy, and see the outer parts of our galaxy collapsing inwards. But we don't see this.

This is because inertia makes matter continue in its previous direction. For the Solar System or a Galaxy, gravity and inertia are balanced so that the planets take elliptical orbits around the Sun, and the stars take elliptical orbits around the center of the galaxy.

The beautiful spiral arms of a galaxy suggest that the galaxy has maintained roughly its current rotating structure for several revolutions of the galaxy; for our Milky Way galaxy, that makes it a multiple of 250 million years. This is not the sort of timespan for which a collapsing galaxy could exist.

Could expansion and contraction of the universe be driven by the same processes?
Most cosmologists agree that gravity act in the direction of contracting the universe; just what acts to drive an (accelerating) expansion of the universe is a bit mysterious, and is dubbed "Dark energy".

Einstein's General Theory of relativity describes the structure of a universe with gravity, and did allow for a "Cosmological Constant" which could drive expansion of the universe. So in this sense, I guess here is a unified description of forces in the universe which describes both a contracting and an expanding force.
Title: Re: Could expansion and contraction of the universe be driven by the same processes?
Post by: puppypower on 09/08/2017 14:10:44
If you assume the speed of light is the ground state or state of lowest potential of the universe, then the contraction of matter and the red shift of energy both reflect movement toward the ground state. Matter and energy have two different paths, with both affects the result of returning to the ground state.

In our universe, there is a net conversion of matter to energy via fusion and the forces of nature. We are not net creating new matter from energy, but we are net converting matter to energy. This is the direction of potential; inertial to speed of light.

In terms of energy, matter and anti-matter will only form from energy, when we reach the upper limits of energy. Matter appears at the upper limits of energy, therefore matter and anti-matter is at upper potential of energy. If we take away the anti-matter, and only have matter, like our universe did, the matter is still at higher potential than energy, but has no direct way back to the energy, since annihilation is off the table. The force of nature are all the available paths back to energy and the speed of light reference.

Gravity causes mass to clump leading to a contraction of local space-time. This contraction of space-time is moving in the direction of the point-instant seem by the speed of light reference. Return to the speed of light reference is approximated by the black hole; matter is going home. Energy net moves in the direction of infinite wavelength; red shifts, since infinite wavelength is the only wavelength that can be seen at the speed of light reference; inertial infinity appear like a point at the speed of light.

The reason the speed of light is the same in all references is because the ground state is the same place for all references. The analogy is sea level is the ground state for all the water on the earth, both on the surface at any elevation as well as in the atmosphere. All roads lead to the same final place of lowest potential. The place of lowest potential does not change regardless of your reference, allowing the laws of physics to apply in all references since matter, energy and inertial references all are going to the same place.

This ground state allows a way to unify all forces, including gravity,  since all are roads lead us back to C-level. It also allows us to start the universe earlier that the current t=0. The primordial atom has a potential with the speed of light ground state, before the universe expands. This new model requires we start at the ground state, even before the primordial atom appears.

At the speed of light reference of the ground state, the analogy of the fabric of space-time dissociates into separate threads of space and separate threads of time. One can follow a time line without the restriction of space and/or follow space line without the restriction of time; omnipresence and omniscience. The separation of space and time causes the  C-level reference to be a place of infinite entropy. The ground state drives the second law. Space-Time places restrictions on infinite entropy, with the lowering of local entropy releasing potential energy; primordial atom. It then moves back to C-level with this place the same for all references.

This is the future of physics, since is simplifies everything. However, the horseless carriage is not yet welcome by the horse and buggy industries who currently dominate the science market place.
Title: Re: Could expansion and contraction of the universe be driven by the same processes?
Post by: Rlmdouglas on 11/08/2017 14:15:55
Just to add on this, from the perspective I am interested in exploring, that tradition of Neoplatonic metaphysics which culminated in the cosmological thought of Nicholas of Cusa, it is very hard to understand or accept the idea of black holes as containing singularities.  What is hard to accept, I mean, is the idea of multiple real singularities.  Within that tradition of thought, a real singularity - that is to say, an object of infinite density and zero dimensions, which was actually existent and not merely a mathematical abstraction - would have to contain the whole of existence within itself, to be everything, the Absolute or One.

In this respect, I am interested and encouraged to read about speculations such as those of the cosmologist Nikodem Poplawski, who suggests a quantum mechanism for the resistance of what lies within the event horizon of a black hole to be crushed to a point of infinite density.  I would be interested to read any reflections on this work, or that of others in this area.