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On the Lighter Side => New Theories => Topic started by: RTCPhysics on 26/05/2019 16:51:42

Title: On de Broglie's concept of particle-wave duality and the photoelectric effect.
Post by: RTCPhysics on 26/05/2019 16:51:42

One of the conundrums in the development of quantum physics, arose from the phenomenon that is called the photoelectric effect.
 
The 'photoelectric' effect is initiated when light rays from a source such as the sun, are directed at the receptive surface of a metal, triggering the release of electrons from their atoms.
 
But the only light rays that create the photoelectric effect, have frequencies that lie in, or above, the ultraviolet sector of the Spectrum of Light.

This emission of electrons has been explained by proposing that the energy carried by light rays increase with their frequency.

But light rays have no mass and hence their energy is equivalent to their speed.

As a consequence, light rays with differing energy levels would  move at different speeds.

But we know that they don't.

The aim of this article is to propose an alternative explanation to this conundrum of the photoelectric effect.

But first the sequence of events that led to the current understanding of the photoelectric effect needs reviewing.

Max Plank quantified the relationship between the frequency of light and its energy, by measuring the energy carried by light waves of different frequencies.

This led to his formula: E=hf, where E is the energy of the light under test, 'f' is the frequency measured in cycles per second and 'h' is Plank's constant, which has a calculated value of 6260610-34 Joules.

Einstein added to Plank's work, by postulating that light was not a continuous stream of waves, as previously thought, but was comprised of discrete packets, which have been called the 'photon', the smallest being a single wave.

These two concepts when taken together, seemed to explained the photoelectric effect, which is triggered when the increasing energy that is held by single light quanta, reaches a critical amount at frequencies in the ultraviolet section of the Spectrum of Light.

This critical energy level of the ultraviolet photons, enabled them to eject electrons from the outer band of the atom.
 
As a consequence, this model of light waves appeared to explain the Photo Electric effect.
 
However, if the frequency in Plank's formula that is expressed in cycles per second, is replaced by a single cycle, then Plank's formula states that every frequency in the Spectrum of Light has the same amount of kinetic energy and its value is Plank's constant.
   
As a consequence, every single wavelengths has the same amount of kinetic energy, which explains why all light photons in the Spectrum of light, travel at the same speed.

The conundrums therefore, involves resolving the conflict as to whether single light quanta have kinetic energy that increases with frequency, as implied by Plank's formula or whether each frequency in the spectrum of light, has the same quantum of kinetic energy, which explains why every photon travels at the constant speed of light.

To resolve this dilemma, requires consideration of a properties of the electron, rather than those of the photon.

This property is referred to as the de Broglie's 'particle-wave duality'. Every particle has both a particle mass and a particle wavelength.

In particular, the wavelength of the electron has been measured to be 10-7 metres and lies in the 'ultraviolet' segment of the Spectrum of Light.

This coincidence between the de Broglie wavelength of the electron and the photoelectric effect occurring in the same ultraviolet region of the Spectrum of Light, implies that a link exists between the two phenomena.

This link can be explained by modifying de Broglie's particle-wave duality concept.

Instead, particles of matter, such as the electron and the proton, have a magnetic core particle, which has a magnetic field ring circling around it at the speed of light.

The core of the particle provides the mass and magnetic capability of the particle, with its spin-up/spin-down states, whereas the circling magnetic ring provides the wave property of the particle.

What is different from de Broglie's concept is that the magnetic field ring is not integrated with its core particle, but can be physically ejected away from its location around its magnetic core by an applied external force, in particular, magnetic repulsion.
 
Once released from its core particle, the magnetic ring becomes a particle of kinetic energy in its own right, moving through space in a straight line at the speed of light, with its circling ring tracing out a sinusoidal pattern of movement.

As such, they can be referred to as a 'magnetic wave'.

The common wavelength of the magnetic ultra-violet wave and the electron's magnetic ring around its core, enables the kinetic energy to be transferred to the electron, ejecting it out of its location in the valence band of the atom.

The kinetic energy is transferred from the magnetic wave to the electron's magnetic ring by magnetic repulsion.
 
But the repelling force depends upon the two magnetic rings re-orientating themselves to meet in the same plane, with their spins rotating in the same clockwise or anticlockwise direction.

This being the case, the electron will be ejected from its location in the atom and the magnetic wave will be deflected away onto a different course through the metal.

But if the two rings meet rotating in opposite directions, then the magnetic wave and the electrons ring will attract each other, placing the captured magnetic wave around the electron's magnetic core.
This places the electron into an energised state.

Magnetic waves of larger or smaller diameter, such as gamma rays and  radio waves, do not magnetically attach to an electron, passing straight through or around it.

However, light with shorter wavelengths can eject electrons from the inner bands of the atom, if their wavelength match the de Broglie wavelength of the electrons in the inner bands of the metallic atom.
 
The combination of the modified interpretation of de Broglie's concept of particle-wave duality, which gives an explanation for the photoelectric effect, coupled to the fact that all light photons travel at the same speed, whatever their wavelength, the conundrum is resolved in their favour.

However, over a fixed interval of time, the shorter wavelengths will deliver proportionately more energy, as explained in Plank's formula, simply because they deliver more photons, each with Plank's constant of energy, during that interval of time.
Title: Re: On de Broglie's concept of particle-wave duality and the photoelectric effect.
Post by: Bored chemist on 26/05/2019 17:00:43
This was called the 'Ultraviolet Catastrophe',
No it wasn't.
The ultraviolet catastrophe is something totally different.
But light rays have no mass and hence their energy is equivalent to their speed.

No i's not. They all travel at the same speed, but they carry different energies.
The aim of this article is to propose an alternative explanation to this conundrum of the photoelectric effect.
There is no "conundrum".It's just that you don't understand it.

Max Plank quantified the relationship between the frequency of light and its energy, by measuring the energy carried by light waves of different frequencies.
No he didn't.
However, if the frequency in Plank's formula that is expressed in cycles per second, is replaced by Einstein's single cycle,
That's not what Einstein said.

I could go on,
You have posted lots of nonsense- stuff that's not even close to correct.

Why would anyone imagine that your input here is useful?
Title: Re: On de Broglie's concept of particle-wave duality and the photoelectric effect.
Post by: RTCPhysics on 26/05/2019 19:23:41
Thanks.