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On the Lighter Side => New Theories => Topic started by: suhail jalbout on 15/12/2019 09:03:15

Title: Protoplanetary Disc Push-Pull Ripple Hypothesis
Post by: suhail jalbout on 15/12/2019 09:03:15
Protoplanetary Disc Push-Pull Ripple Hypothesis
By Suhail Jalbout

In this article, I wish to address the following questions:

1. Why were the outside planets made of gas while the inner planets from matter?
2. Why were most of the planets formed, to a certain degree, in a geometric progression?

The nebular school has two theories. The first posits that very early in time, a huge disc shaped nebula existed in space. The disc rotated around its center and, due to gravitation, material was drawn inwards to form a huge sphere. This globular body heated up, ignited, and became a new star. The materials leftover around the star’s equator were also in the form of discs. The number of discs was equal to the number of planets. Due to gravitation, the planets and the moons were formed from the relevant disc material.

The second nebular theory follows the same line of logic but says that the nebula was not originally in the form of a disc but that it was a huge cloud. Its central region, however, began to draw material inwards due to its gravitational pull. This caused the cloud to close on itself and heat the material at its core. As this occurred, it began to spin and flatten, eventually becoming a huge disc. Due to increased gravitational forces at the center, a huge globular body was formed there. As the density of the sphere at the core of the disc increased, it heated up, began to glow, and, eventually, became a star. The leftover was in the shape of a huge disc or wheel at the Sun’s equator. Small clumps of matter began to form until the wheel contained billions of solid objects. Large clumps swallowed smaller ones and eventually the planets and their moons were formed.

Many astronomers nowadays favor the second nebular theory. To answer my initial questions, I shall try to explain the events that may have happened after the cloud nebula was converted into a sphere with a huge disc around its equator.

I believe that to form more than one solar planet, the disc should have been converted into many rings so that the number of rings equal the number of planets. So, how is this possible? There are at least two factors that may contribute to the formation of rings, namely energy ripples and gravitational ripples.

As we know, our Sun is a nuclear station that has been active since the time it was born some 4.6 billion years ago. As a result of its nuclear reaction, large amounts of matter are ejected from the Sun into space. This activity is known, has been photographed during eclipses, and is thus a well-established fact. During high solar activity, the effect of its ejection causes disturbances in our communication systems and shutdown of electrical facilities in certain areas on the Earth. So, what happened just before the newly formed sphere ignited to become our Sun?

The process of converting the sphere into a nuclear station commences at the core. This reaction expands from the core until it approaches the surface of the sphere. Because of its huge surface area, the nuclear process progresses in a chain reaction until the whole sphere glows and become our Sun. As a result, billions of tons of matter eject from the surface of the sphere in a sequence. Some of the ejected matter is dispersed in space; others fall back on the sphere while those emitted from a large area around its equator goes through the disc that surround the sphere. Each circular emission from the latter creates a very powerful energy ripple in the disc; the speed of the emission being very close to the speed of light. Since energy and mass are interrelated, the energy ripple can be considered as a gigantic force pushing some of the material of the disc away from the sphere.

In addition to the energy ripples, there are gravitational ripples that are also produced by the sphere. The sequential push of matter in the disc changes the gravitational balance between the sphere and the disc. This is equivalent to having gravitational ripples transmitted from the sphere in the same sequence as the energy ripples. The gravitational ripple will pull the leftover material in the disc towards the sphere. Consequently, the first circular energy and gravitational ripples will propagate throughout the disc. The former will push some of the material of the disc away from the sphere while the latter will pull the leftover material in the disc immediately afterwards towards the sphere. These powerful push-pull forces will detach material from the disc and form a circular ring at its extreme limits. Because the disc loses part of its mass, after the first ring is formed, the gravitational force of the sphere will shrink the disc until it’s centrifugal and centripetal forces equalize.

When the second ejection of matter is transmitted from the sphere, the resulting energy and gravitational ripples will also create a second ring, at the edge of the remaining disc, following the same procedure. The new remaining portion of the disc will shrink again due to the gravitation force of the sphere. This process of push-pull will repeat itself on the portions of the disc until the ejected matter from the sphere cannot produce any more rings. The created rings will be in a dynamic state. Each ring will expand and contract until all the forces stabilize thus ending in a steady state condition. Since gas is lighter than small particles of matter, a large percentage of the disc’s gas is displaced by the ripples to the outer rings while the small particles of matter are positioned in the inner rings. The gravitational pull of the sphere is almost constant while the mass of the disc is a variable. As the disc is reduced in size, its material becomes more and more concentrated leading to a decrease in its shrinking rate. Thus, the process of contracting the material in the disc, after the formation of each ring, follows to a certain degree a geometric regression. The following site gives a pictorial representation of my hypothesis:

http://oz.plymouth.edu/~sci_ed/Turski/Courses/Earth_Science/Intro.html

The number of effective ripples that our Sun produced is 10. Hence, the disc was separated into 10 rings which I believe is a by-product of the size, property, and mass of our nebula. The planets were formed from the rings in accordance with the second nebular theory. As expected, the outer planets are formed from mainly ice and gases while the inner planets are formed from mainly solid matter. In addition, the distribution of the planets around the Sun follows to a certain degree a geometric progression. The formed planets are: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Bode (asteroid belt), Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Planeteroid, please refer to my OP in this Forum:  Revising Bode’s Law – “Planeteroid”.