I once read about rocks that were dated to 3.2 billion years by five different methods with perfect agreement, allowing for the small uncertainties in each.
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Your error is in thinking that the universe began as a point, which is a common mistake - it was actually infinite at the BB. The light originated 13 billion light-years away, which is why it took 13 billion years to get here!
However, if it happened 520m years after the big bang and given that we assume that every point in space and time was in the same place at the Big Bang,....
I have to say though I have never really felt comfortable that the Universe can be potentially expanding faster then the speed of light and yet at the same time is infinite!I also have trouble with the idea that we can be standing still in our frame, a distant galaxy is also standing still in its own frame, yet the space in between is expanding! How can nothingness expand?
Is it really necessary that for the Big Bang theory to work there had to be nothing before?No it isn't, and I have never understood why people equate the BB with the origin of the Universe.
To state that it happened everywhere at once would be like saying the Universe is infinite which it is not.
in the more general case, the object attracts things towards its centre of gravity whatever shape it is.That is not true. Suppose we have a dumbell shape, ie two equal spheres connected by a light rod. The COG is the mid point of the rod, but an object near one of the spheres will be attracted towards it, not towards the COG. In general there is no easy solution.
I have tried using two spheres, bearing in mind that the Moon rotates clockwise and the Earth anti-clockwise, but am still unable to grasp the concept.That is not true - the Earth's spin, the Moon's spin, and the Moon's orbit around the Earth are all anti-clockwise when seen from above the North pole. That is why you are confused.