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**New Theories / Re: What exactly is gravity**

« **on:**

**Yesterday**at 13:22:44 »

**WHAT EXACTLY IS GRAVITY**:

Gravity, even today, a big puzzle. Newton’s Inverse square law is very clear, for that it is being used in all important practical applications. He claimed that any two masses in the Universe, no matter where they were located or how far apart they were, would instantaneously attract one another via a mutual force known as gravity. The more massive each mass was, the greater the force, and farther away they were (squared), the lesser the force.

The concept of action-at-a-distance, intellectuals did not accept it, how objects located half-a-Universe away suddenly and instantly exert a force on one another?. How could they interact from so far away without anything intervening to mediate it?.

At that time science was not so developed and the identification of existence of Gravity itself is far reaching. Some of the doubts hanged in the mind of Newton also.

In the words of Newton:

“Gravity must be caused by an agent acting constantly according to certain laws; but whether this agent be material or immaterial, I have left to the consideration of my readers”.

Gravity is most accurately described by the general theory of relativity which describes gravity not as a force, but as a consequence of the curvature of spacetime caused by the uneven distribution of mass.

As per Einstein Space is no longer flat as assumed by Newton, it can be pulled, pushed and warped by matter. As per Einstein space is working like fabric. Ok, but what exactly this fabric consists of and how this fabric came into existence. As per Descartes Space is filled with matter. Suppose if it is matter, space time cannot be pulled or pushed and mass cannot curve it.

As per Einstein, curvature mainly depends on some of the parameters:

“Tμν is a mathematical object (a tensor to be precise) which describes material bodies. In that mathematical object, there are some parameters such as the density, the momentum, mass-energy... etc. So it is those parameters that determine 'how much space-time curvature' is around a body. And one of the parameters is of course energy. Therefore, energy do bend space-time”.

The Einstein Field Equation:

Gμν = 8πTμν

On the left side of the equation is a tensor describing the geometry of spacetime — the gravitational field. On the right is the tensor describing the matter and energy density — the source of the gravitational field. The equation shows that spacetime geometry equals mass-energy density when adjusted with the proper units and numerical constants

So, space is filled with mass/energy. Since mass is equated with energy, space is completely filled with energy.

If you want to calculate what the space time curvature at any point in space, General Relativity allows you to do it, but you need to know a few things. You need to know the locations, magnitudes, and distributions of all the masses in the Universe, just as Newton demanded. But you also need information about:

• how those masses are moving and how they have moved over time,

• how all other (non-mass) forms of energy are distributed,

• how the object you’re observing/measuring from is moving in a changing gravitational field,

• and how the spatial curvature is changing over time.

Only with those additional pieces of information can you compute how space is curved for you at a particular location in space and time.

Ok, let us see trampoline analogy.

“Consider a very large trampoline with nothing on the trampoline pad and trampoline pad remains flat and parallel to the ground. Now place a heavy bowling ball at the center of the trampoline pad. The center of the pad will sag downward. If we assume the analogy that the trampoline pad represents space-time, and the bowling ball a gravitating object, then the sagging of the trampoline represents the curvature of space time under the influence of gravity”.

Here we are all concentrating on bowling ball, and the sagging of trampoline pad. Ok, it is one of the best examples that tells how matter curves space time. But we are forgetting, what exactly this trampoline is and the thing by which it is made up of. I am sure that space time fabric is not from nothing. Suppose if it so, then matter cannot curve the space. There is something, which is acting as space fabric. It is of course, matter blind.

In parameters set by Einstein, to measure how much curvature around a body, he is very much clear, it is the density, momentum of mass/energy that precisely decides curvature.

Suppose if we place a satellite in the space. There is huge potential energy and it moves towards the satellite and curves the space time around it. This curvature once again depends on density of mass/energy within that area.

**What is the source for this space fabric**:

Let us see our solar system, Sun is important source of energy and it is pumping huge energy. This energy is spread up to our solar system only. In between two solar systems, there is no any source of energy and thus it is empty.

In our solar system space is completely filled with huge potential energy. A photon released from Sun never travels directly. Space is not empty. A photon freed, pushes existing photons, a chain action. It follows first in, first out method. There is a flow/transfer of energy and it continues. In case, for any reason, if the Sun stops pumping energy, the photon released fails to push the chain and thus it weakens instantly.

**General relativity**:

Einstein’s imagination gave birth to general relativity’s core idea as he gazed out his office window while he was supposed to be evaluating patents. “All of a sudden I was struck by a thought,” Einstein later said. “If a person falls freely, he will certainly not feel his own weight.”

This is great idea. When the person is at the top of the building, there is Gravity. When he comes down to the Earth there is Gravity. In the middle, while falling freely, there is no Gravity at all. There is something in the space which is causing Gravity, fails, while falling freely.

It is true that there is strong curvature against Earth. This curvature once again depends on the distribution of mass/energy within that area. So, in other words there is strong potential energy.

As long as the person is in inertial position there is strong gravity. Potential energy, gripped him by curving the space time around him. When he accelerates downwards, slowly curvature weakens. In other words gravity weakens.

01 It is true that Earth is spinning with lot of speed, still curvature is intact.

02 When Gravity is equated to acceleration, why it is not working in case of Earth.

03 For that almost all the planets are having Gravity and they are accelerating/spinning against their own axis. Why Gravity is not equal to acceleration here.

04 If we place a satellite in the space, it curves the space around it.

05 It will not rotate against its axis, instead it will start rotating against gravity of Earth.

If the satellite start rotating against its axis, it will turn out as a full pledge planet. But it must have certain amount of shield/protection, otherwise, due to acceleration curvature weakens and it will start moving out. Almost all the planets are having similar protection, otherwise curvature will be eroded.

**EQUIVALENCE PRINCIPLE**:

“In 1632, even before Newton published his now-famous work, Galileo Galilei wrote about the relative motion of objects familiar in his time: ships. If you are in a closed room on a ship sailing at a constant speed and the ride is perfectly smooth, objects behave as they would on land. There’s no physical experiment you could conduct to tell whether you’re moving or stationary (assuming you’re not peeking out of a porthole). is there any physical experiment you could do within the confines of your spaceship to tell whether you really were accelerating through space (assuming there were no windows to look out from), or if, instead, you were inside a spaceship stationary on the surface of Earth? Einstein said no—just as Galileo imagined the in distinguishability between a person inside a smooth-sailing ship (confined without windows) and a person on land, Einstein realised that the effects of acceleration and gravity were indistinguishable too”.

It is great observation, indeed, by Galileo.

01 If you are in a closed room, sailing in a ship, one cannot tell, you are moving or stationary on land.

02 If the space ship is accelerating through space, for the space ship, Gravity is equal to acceleration.

03 For the people within cabin, they may not be in a position to tell, whether they are accelerating through space or in inertial position on ground..

04 If Gravity is due to curvature alone, one’s the cabin is closed, Gravity must come down dramatically. But it is not happening so.

05 So, Curvature/Gravity can be packed and moved. There is Gravity within this atmosphere.

06 So, hereby we can conclude that Curvature which is nothing but Energy, is already present with lot of pressure, can be packed or moved.

08 If we create vacuum, space cabin, curvature is not lost. By creating vacuum, we are removing air and particles there in. But we cannot remove energy. So energy still curves the space time.

09 Suppose, if the space ship is in space, if we close the cabin of the space ship, as there is no Gravity, it packs the same.

This is the reason, there is in distinguishability between a person inside a smooth sailing ship and one in inertial position on Earth. The cabin of space ship is locked in a gravity field and the cabin is filled with potential energy, nothing but gravity. For the space ship gravity is equal to acceleration.

**But for the people inside the cabin, gravity is not equal to acceleration, but it is equal to windows****HOW GRAVITY WORKS**:

When the apple fell on the ground, Newton thought Earth is pulling things towards it. As per Newton every mass in the universe attract every other mass and named this attraction as “Gravity”.

By the dawn of 20th century, science developed a lot. For Einstein, patent office thought, “free fall”, a game changer. If a person dives from highest place, temporarily he will transform away from Gravity. This is one of the important effects of gravity. Einstein equated acceleration to Gravity.

As per General theory of relativity, gravity is not a force, but as a consequence of the curvature of spacetime caused by the uneven distribution of mass/energy. To decide, curvature at a place, there are some parameters such as the density, the momentum, mass-energy... etc. So, it is those parameters that determine 'how much space-time curvature' is around a body. And one of the parameters is of course energy. Therefore, energy do bend space-time.

So, as per General relativity energy at a place decides curvature. Finally, it is the energy working as medium or agent.

So, here there is strong potential energy stored on this Earth. We are sending rockets to space. Space time around them is also curved, but there is no Gravity.

Suppose if we say that there is huge potential energy stored on this Earth, there must be a source. Sun is the important source, however there are limitations and it comes in day time only. It is true that energy moves from high to low and thus unless there is protection, total energy moves away during night time. But there is protection, which is not allowing energy entering our atmosphere to escape that much easily.

Due to curvature, radiation is raising and water particles are raising against gravity. Water particles are divided further and further and becomes so light that they move against gravity. If the curvature increases, water particles are pushed to farther height. These particles joins other particles, becomes heavier and start accelerating towards earth, creating pressure on energy.

Gravity on any planet mainly depends on potential energy stored therein. It is true that all the masses curves the space time around them. However Gravity mainly depends on the strength of frame and potential energy stored there in.

As long as the apple is in the tree, potential energy developed a strong curvature. It is true that Gravity is matter blind. There is strong curvature against Earth. Both apple and Earth have their own curvatures. Unless there is pressure/force both will remain in their places. Space is exerting pressure/force against both of them. However curvature of Earth and apple tug on each other and exerts opposite force. Earth is a huge mass when compared to apple, there is flow of energy towards Earth, a part of which bents towards curvature of apple, creates pressure and pushes it towards Earth.

**EFFECTS OF GRAVITY**:

Extra-ordinary brain of Einstein wonderfully predicted some of the important effects of Gravity such as light bending, time dilation etc.

The Einstein Field Equation:

Gμν = 8πTμν

On the left side of the equation is a tensor describing the geometry of space time — the gravitational field. On the right is the tensor describing the matter and energy density — the source of the gravitational field.

By this, we can conclude that there is huge potential energy stored on this Earth. This potential energy had its influence on things done by us, research etc.

For that it is true that there is huge potential energy in our solar system also. But it is not created within short time. Whatever energy being pumped by Sun, at present is just additional only. Additional energy simply charges the existing energy and thus light.

Even the curved space time is nothing but potential energy only. There is huge potential energy on this Earth. Sun energy entering our Earth’s space, is simply additional only and it charges existing energy and thus light. On Moon, curved space time or Gravity is weak and in other words potential energy. Additional energy is of the same, but potential energy is weak.

Since energy density is high on Earth additional energy creates wonders. In case, let us assume that there is no potential energy on Earth, if an atom bomb is exploded, additional energy generated thereby, moves out unabated, no lighting, waves. Though additional energy, through atomic explosion is small, potential energy in the space time plays key role.

Even in the case of electric bulb, torch light, we are of the opinion that total energy is coming from the source. But it is untrue. Even before, switching on electric bulb, there is strong curvature against the space time of the bulb. Small amount of energy, additional, released there from pushes the existing energy, in other words, charges it and thus light. It is untrue to say that total energy is coming from source.

1)

**SOURCES OF ADDITIONAL ENERGY ON EARTH**:

A) SUN:

Sun is one of the important sources of additional energy to Earth. Sun energy is simply, not complete, and it is only additional only. There is strong curvature against Earth’s space time, in other words energy density. Sun energy entering our Earth’s space time, pushes existing energy, in other words charges it, resulting in light.

B) ATOMIC EXPLOSION:

Whatever appearing is deceptive. Energy released due to atomic explosion is additional energy only. As long as the atomic bomb is in original position, keeping so much energy how it is stable. Total energy is coming out only after explosion. If the space is empty, additional energy cannot do wonders. Space time of the each and every atom is curved, in other words strong energy density. When an atom is split and energy is released, it only pushes existing Potential energy. Here speed of light, C2 has no role. Yield of energy mainly depends on:

1) Density of energy in the space time.

2) Additional energy released there from.

B) LIGHT:

If we switch on a torchlight, do total energy coming from the torch light. What about the huge potential energy present in the space. Energy coming or released from torch light is very, very small. It pushes and charges existing energy, which is known as light. Suppose if the space time is empty, additional energy moves out, no chance of charging and thus light.

Even in the case of electric bulb also, it is one of the important sources of additional energy. Total energy is not coming from the bulb. Here, the basic difference is, we are drawing electrons from the space time at one place and releasing them at another place, though balance is nil, it is also additional energy only.

C) FIRE:

Fire is no more mysterious one. It is also one of the important sources of additional energy.

**WORKING OF SOLAR SYSTEM**:

At present we are of the opinion that Gravity is keeping planets in order. We have already discussed that space fabric is nothing but potential energy stored in the Solar System.

How this potential energy is created and stored in the solar system. Without this energy, space fabric is immaterial. It is true that “Energy is neither created nor destroyed” it can only be modified into one form to other. Each second energy generated by Sun is just additional only. In fact Sun has no capacity to create this space fabric.

The atmosphere of the Sun consists of 3 layers the photosphere, the chromosphere and the corona. Energy produced from Sun is transferred from the core through the successive layers. I propose that these layers extend up to the end of Solar system and energy transfers from one layer to the other and each subsequent layer is weakest when compared to previous one.

Planets exist within these layers and no planet crosses or moves to other layer.

Suppose if we place a satellite in the space. Energy curves the space time around it and throws it into inertial position. Energy within these layers are moving and it pushes it. There is a flow of energy towards Earth and it drags the satellite towards Earth. However energy flowing in the layer pushes it and it start going round the Earth continuously.

Yours

Psreddy

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