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**New Theories / What exactly is gravity**

« **on:**23/06/2019 17:49:31 »

HOW GRAVITY WORKS:

Closed volumes with mass: All closed volumes such as elementary particles Proton(s), neutron(s) and electron(s) pushes their surroundings and produces convex curvature of spacetime. Their internal spacetime "pushes" the surrounding spacetime to make room. The density of spacetime around the closed volume increases, and the latter has difficulty to move. As a result, a "mass effect" appears, i.e. an effect having all the characteristics of mass. Since spacetime has properties of elasticity, as per Einstein it exerts a pressure on the surface of closed volumes. The mass component [M] can be extracted from the pressure [M/LT2] by simple mathematical operations. This leads to a 4D expression of the mass: m = f(x,y,z,t)

Open Volumes, massless: It is just a vacuum, but sometimes found in various forms such as the volume of orbitals or the space between atoms. These volumes exist but they are "porous" regarding spacetime. More exactly, they are subject to variations of spacetime but they do not curve spacetime themselves. Therefore, open volumes are massless since no curvature means no mass

If we replace the closed volume by two or more closed volumes, the pressure exerted by spacetime on these volumes tends to bring them closer to each other. The result is equivalent to an attraction. For example, a pressure on one side of a sheet of paper is equivalent to an attraction on the other side. In both cases, the sheet is curved.

Gravitation is not an attractive force between masses, but a pressure force exerted by spacetime on closed volumes that tends to bring them closer to each other.

How Gravity works:

It is true that all elementary particles pushes their surroundings and produces convex curvature. If we replace two or more closed volumes, pressure against them increases and the same was experimentally proved.

First of all, we have to remember that this experiment was done in a Gravity field only. Gravity is already influencing each and every particle and Gravity is of “matter blind”. We are testing Gravity effect on closed volume in a Gravity field.

Suppose if a closed volume has to “curve the spacetime” means its internal energy must come out. So each and every closed volume must be exited with energy to do so. Isn’t it appears something extra-ordinary and unbelievable.

Here, we are looking at one side of the coin only. There is potential energy stored on this Earth. It is creating pressure/force on all closed volumes. Excess energy, emitted by the closed volume comes out and pushes the outside energy, which appears as curvature. “THIS IS THE CURVATURE”.

However it is true that energy is of object oriented. Since all masses are its objects it start collecting/pooling against it and creates pressure which is known as “mass effect”. It mainly depends on the availability of energy in the open area.

“Gravity is not an attractive force between masses but pressure force exerted by spacetime”.

Unless there is pooling/concentration of energy against mass gravity is impossible. Water particles are raising due to radiation and these particles moves so high that it curves the space. When these particles joins with other particles, due to gravity or geodesics, becomes heavier and creates pressure on the energy and “mass effect” comes out.

Gravity as Curved Spacetime

Einstein eventually identified the property of spacetime which is responsible for gravity as its curvature. Space and time in Einstein's universe are no longer flat (as implicitly assumed by Newton) but can pushed and pulled, stretched and warped by matter. Gravity feels strongest where spacetime is most curved, and it vanishes where spacetime is flat. This is the core of Einstein's theory of general relativity, which is often summed up in words as follows: "matter tells spacetime how to curve, and curved spacetime tells matter how to move". A standard way to illustrate this idea is to place a bowling ball (representing a massive object such as the sun) onto a stretched rubber sheet (representing spacetime). If a marble is placed onto the rubber sheet, it will roll toward the bowling ball, and may even be put into "orbit" around the bowling ball. This occurs, not because the smaller mass is "attracted" by a force emanating from the larger one, but because it is traveling along a surface which has been deformed by the presence of the larger mass. In the same way gravitation in Einstein's theory arises not as a force propagating through spacetime, but rather as a feature of spacetime itself. According to Einstein, your weight on earth is due to the fact that your body is traveling through warped spacetime!

As we have seen, matter does not simply pull on other matter across empty space, as Newton had imagined. Rather matter distorts space-time and it is this distorted space-time that in turn affects other matter. Objects (including planets, like the Earth, for instance) fly freely under their own inertia through warped space-time, following curved paths because this is the shortest possible path (or geodesic) in warped space-time.

This, in a nutshell, then, is the General Theory of Relativity, and its central premise is that the curvature of space-time is directly determined by the distribution of matter and energy contained within it. What complicates things, however, is that the distribution of matter and energy is in turn governed by the curvature of space, leading to a feedback loop and a lot of very complex mathematics. Thus, the presence of mass/energy determines the geometry of space, and the geometry of space determines the motion of mass/energy.

About General theory of relativity:

: "matter tells spacetime how to curve, and curved spacetime tells matter how to move". This is the central premise of Einstein’s general theory of relativity. Actually curvature of spacetime by the closed volume is the base for this. When a small particle curves the space what about huge masses such as Earth. “According to Einstein, your weight on earth is due to the fact that your body is traveling through warped spacetime” .

Earth is not rotating against gravity but gravity itself hooked Earth. Here Earth is moving means it is not Earth alone, things existing on the Earth, gravity field everything in one unit. Spacetime is warped not due to spinning of Earth. There is strong potential energy on this Earth and it is due to mass effect, warping things on the Earth. Here comparison to cylindrical carnival ride to Earth is not so correct. Cylindrical carnival is moving in a gravity field. As the carnival moves, at the edges gravity weakens and climate warps the edges.

As per Newton, "it follows that a moving body has no determinate velocity and no definite line in which it moves".

In fact curvature is only against the mass and there are no curved paths. Imagine empty space - in our case, a two-dimensional plane - with no forces acting between the bodies floating around. If there are no forces, then classical mechanics and Einstein's mechanics of special relativity are in agreement: Under these circumstances, bodies move along the straightest possible lines.

In flat, empty space-time, small test panrticles follow straight lines.

Ok, let us imagine that there is 2d space or empty space. Suppose small test particles A and B have started their journey in empty space. As there is no Gravity or curved space nothing can stop them. Let us analyse in detail. Suppose if we detonate an atom bomb, energy is freed. Nothing can stop movement of energy. There is no scope for chain reaction. Each atom detonated, electrons, protons, neutrons comes out freely and makes their way. Here there is no scope for E=MC2.

Here, in 2d space or empty space, light is impossible. If switch an torch light, it never gives you any light. Potential energy stored within cell comes out, but, since it is empty, light particles moves out freely.

2d Space or empty space exists in between two solar systems only.

Suppose if we enter our solar system, 4d space time, energy and dust particles are present everywhere. Here matter curves space time. Here energy is in free state and effects of gravity are absent. Ok, if we detonate an atom bomb, since there is curvature of space, it explodes, however in a slow motion and that too, as there is no pressure or force, chain reaction slows down, area coverage is limited and of course, sudden eddies into the space time is limited and it covers short radius only. Here particle A and B cannot move freely as other particles obstruct them.

If we switch on a torch cell, it gives light but within short radius. Light behaves differently as there is no gravity. Light is not bent by gravity and therefore we have to arrange them near to us.

Einstein’s 4d spacetime:

This is present near to the huge masses such as Earth. A given configuration of matter distorts space-time geometry (not only because of mass, but also with its energy, inner tensions or pressure) and this distorted geometry makes matter move in certain ways. This movement, in turn, changes the matter configuration, and space-time geometry changes correspondingly. Now that space-time geometry is a bit different, it also acts on matter in a different way, matter moves, geometry changes, and so on in an endless dance.

Raise of particles:

This is the key point in creating Gravity in a 4d space time. Our predecessors are having a wrong notion that spin of Earth is paving way for this. We have to keep in mind that Earth is not rotating against gravity, but gravity itself hooked Earth.

Each and every closed volume is undergoing the influence of Gravity, so naturally it comes down to Earth only. But how particle A and B are raising. If we observe nature carefully, it is water particles. Due to radiation water particles are raising and are moving against Gravity. It is paving way for storage of potential energy on this Earth. If the energy start pooling or concentrating at a particular place, water evaporates and start moving into the space. If the pressure or force increases water particles and other dust particles moves to new height and it appears that space time is curved. Meanwhile it is paving way for further accumulation of potential energy. Particles raising from Earth at different places joins with each other and becomes heavier and accelerates downwards. In this way it warps space time of Earth, which is known as Gravity.

E = mc2 is a part of Special Relativity. However, despite the fact that the calculus is quite simple, Modern Physics does not propose a rational explanation of this strange phenomenon.

The Spacetime Model demonstrates that the principle of converting mass to energy is very simple. This principle is shown by the following example.

• Part A

An empty sphere is immerged in a container filled with water. The surface of water is quiet.

• Part B

If the sphere disappears suddenly by a thought experiment, the depression will make eddies which have energy (E = hν). Converting a mass to energy follows the same principle. A closed volume disappears, and is transformed into an open volume. This produces "eddies" in spacetime, which are gamma rays. These gamma rays may be converted into particles such as electrons-positrons pairs, and so on.

About E = mc2

There is Gravity and it is influencing each and every closed volume. Raising of particles have helped in creating potential energy stored on Earth. Due to pressure/force exerted by this potential energy, each and every closed volume is curving the space time.

If we say that closed volumes are curving space time by its internal energy, it is rather irrelevant. If we detonate an atom, energy already present in the space time, potential energy, which created “inward thrust” and it tries to occupy the gap. Now energy freed from the atom, creates “outward thrust”. This action increases radiation within short distance and paves way for chain reaction. Total process is completed within short time. Initially an “inward thrust” is created and later “outward thrust” creates eddies in the space time.

Total energy released by an atom bomb mainly depends on:

01 Internal energy

02 Gravity in a particular place.

Suppose if we detonate the same atom bomb on Moon:

01 Internal energy is same.

02 Gravity is just 1/6th only

Since gravity is weak, curvature of space time by the closed volume is also weak. “eddies” into space time slows down and it spreads up to limited area only.

Suppose if the same atomic bomb is detonated in space, outside Earth’s climate: Here there is sufficient energy but it is not present with any force i.e., free state and thus even though there is inward as well outward thrust explosion is limited.

How Solar system is working:

Big bang is the base for any solar system. When two huge masses faced each other devastating fire started. It resulted in release of huge energy into open area. It is not only Sun but other planets also burnt for lot of period and pumped huge energy. At present Sun is only maintaining this energy base. It is true that energy is of ‘object oriented’.

This energy base is present in the form of rings, like onion rings. We can compare this to rainbow. Since our Solar system is moving to unknown place, energy is moving along these rings.

Ok, suppose an asteroid from 2d space or empty entered our solar system. Energy curves the space time around the asteroid. It all depends on the acceleration or speed with which the asteroid is travelling. Suppose if the mass of the asteroid consists of light atoms than it yields to the energy and start moving along with other planets.

In case, if the asteroid crosses 1st one and enters next one, the 2nd one possess more energy than the 1st one. So naturally curvature around the asteroid increases and creates more pressure. If it yields than naturally it remains within that circle.

Moon is also one such asteroid only. When it entered after crossing mostly 6 lanes, curvature increased and it simply yielded. Moon is having its own Gravity field, so it started spinning against its axis. Any asteroid that enters, initially yields to energy pressure and lose weight and will be thrown to inertial position.

When Moon entered gravity field of Earth, both tug on each other, in fact both are in inertial position. Energy within the lane is moving, it created pressure/force on the curvature and both started rotating against each other and also moved along the lane. In case for any reason if the moon crosses this lane, it becomes independent planet, unless other planet influences it.

In this universe each solar system is independent unit.

Rotation and revolution of planet:

Suppose we have sent a rocket into space. There is potential energy stored in the space. It start concentrating against rocket and curves the spacetime around the rocket and throws it into inertial position. Now rocket is in free state. There is curvature of spacetime but there is no Gravity. This curvature now start interacting with Gravity from Earth and Sun. Strong energy waves coming from Sun pushes it and it start rotating against Earth Gravity waves.

In the case of planets it is different and there is Gravity. Gravity waves will be moving out to far reaching places. Energy rays coming from Sun interacts with these Gravity waves of planet, bents and enters planets atmosphere. Meanwhile a movementum is gained and it starts rotating against its axis.

Yours

Psreddy

Closed volumes with mass: All closed volumes such as elementary particles Proton(s), neutron(s) and electron(s) pushes their surroundings and produces convex curvature of spacetime. Their internal spacetime "pushes" the surrounding spacetime to make room. The density of spacetime around the closed volume increases, and the latter has difficulty to move. As a result, a "mass effect" appears, i.e. an effect having all the characteristics of mass. Since spacetime has properties of elasticity, as per Einstein it exerts a pressure on the surface of closed volumes. The mass component [M] can be extracted from the pressure [M/LT2] by simple mathematical operations. This leads to a 4D expression of the mass: m = f(x,y,z,t)

Open Volumes, massless: It is just a vacuum, but sometimes found in various forms such as the volume of orbitals or the space between atoms. These volumes exist but they are "porous" regarding spacetime. More exactly, they are subject to variations of spacetime but they do not curve spacetime themselves. Therefore, open volumes are massless since no curvature means no mass

If we replace the closed volume by two or more closed volumes, the pressure exerted by spacetime on these volumes tends to bring them closer to each other. The result is equivalent to an attraction. For example, a pressure on one side of a sheet of paper is equivalent to an attraction on the other side. In both cases, the sheet is curved.

Gravitation is not an attractive force between masses, but a pressure force exerted by spacetime on closed volumes that tends to bring them closer to each other.

How Gravity works:

It is true that all elementary particles pushes their surroundings and produces convex curvature. If we replace two or more closed volumes, pressure against them increases and the same was experimentally proved.

First of all, we have to remember that this experiment was done in a Gravity field only. Gravity is already influencing each and every particle and Gravity is of “matter blind”. We are testing Gravity effect on closed volume in a Gravity field.

Suppose if a closed volume has to “curve the spacetime” means its internal energy must come out. So each and every closed volume must be exited with energy to do so. Isn’t it appears something extra-ordinary and unbelievable.

Here, we are looking at one side of the coin only. There is potential energy stored on this Earth. It is creating pressure/force on all closed volumes. Excess energy, emitted by the closed volume comes out and pushes the outside energy, which appears as curvature. “THIS IS THE CURVATURE”.

However it is true that energy is of object oriented. Since all masses are its objects it start collecting/pooling against it and creates pressure which is known as “mass effect”. It mainly depends on the availability of energy in the open area.

“Gravity is not an attractive force between masses but pressure force exerted by spacetime”.

Unless there is pooling/concentration of energy against mass gravity is impossible. Water particles are raising due to radiation and these particles moves so high that it curves the space. When these particles joins with other particles, due to gravity or geodesics, becomes heavier and creates pressure on the energy and “mass effect” comes out.

Gravity as Curved Spacetime

Einstein eventually identified the property of spacetime which is responsible for gravity as its curvature. Space and time in Einstein's universe are no longer flat (as implicitly assumed by Newton) but can pushed and pulled, stretched and warped by matter. Gravity feels strongest where spacetime is most curved, and it vanishes where spacetime is flat. This is the core of Einstein's theory of general relativity, which is often summed up in words as follows: "matter tells spacetime how to curve, and curved spacetime tells matter how to move". A standard way to illustrate this idea is to place a bowling ball (representing a massive object such as the sun) onto a stretched rubber sheet (representing spacetime). If a marble is placed onto the rubber sheet, it will roll toward the bowling ball, and may even be put into "orbit" around the bowling ball. This occurs, not because the smaller mass is "attracted" by a force emanating from the larger one, but because it is traveling along a surface which has been deformed by the presence of the larger mass. In the same way gravitation in Einstein's theory arises not as a force propagating through spacetime, but rather as a feature of spacetime itself. According to Einstein, your weight on earth is due to the fact that your body is traveling through warped spacetime!

As we have seen, matter does not simply pull on other matter across empty space, as Newton had imagined. Rather matter distorts space-time and it is this distorted space-time that in turn affects other matter. Objects (including planets, like the Earth, for instance) fly freely under their own inertia through warped space-time, following curved paths because this is the shortest possible path (or geodesic) in warped space-time.

This, in a nutshell, then, is the General Theory of Relativity, and its central premise is that the curvature of space-time is directly determined by the distribution of matter and energy contained within it. What complicates things, however, is that the distribution of matter and energy is in turn governed by the curvature of space, leading to a feedback loop and a lot of very complex mathematics. Thus, the presence of mass/energy determines the geometry of space, and the geometry of space determines the motion of mass/energy.

About General theory of relativity:

: "matter tells spacetime how to curve, and curved spacetime tells matter how to move". This is the central premise of Einstein’s general theory of relativity. Actually curvature of spacetime by the closed volume is the base for this. When a small particle curves the space what about huge masses such as Earth. “According to Einstein, your weight on earth is due to the fact that your body is traveling through warped spacetime” .

Earth is not rotating against gravity but gravity itself hooked Earth. Here Earth is moving means it is not Earth alone, things existing on the Earth, gravity field everything in one unit. Spacetime is warped not due to spinning of Earth. There is strong potential energy on this Earth and it is due to mass effect, warping things on the Earth. Here comparison to cylindrical carnival ride to Earth is not so correct. Cylindrical carnival is moving in a gravity field. As the carnival moves, at the edges gravity weakens and climate warps the edges.

As per Newton, "it follows that a moving body has no determinate velocity and no definite line in which it moves".

In fact curvature is only against the mass and there are no curved paths. Imagine empty space - in our case, a two-dimensional plane - with no forces acting between the bodies floating around. If there are no forces, then classical mechanics and Einstein's mechanics of special relativity are in agreement: Under these circumstances, bodies move along the straightest possible lines.

In flat, empty space-time, small test panrticles follow straight lines.

Ok, let us imagine that there is 2d space or empty space. Suppose small test particles A and B have started their journey in empty space. As there is no Gravity or curved space nothing can stop them. Let us analyse in detail. Suppose if we detonate an atom bomb, energy is freed. Nothing can stop movement of energy. There is no scope for chain reaction. Each atom detonated, electrons, protons, neutrons comes out freely and makes their way. Here there is no scope for E=MC2.

Here, in 2d space or empty space, light is impossible. If switch an torch light, it never gives you any light. Potential energy stored within cell comes out, but, since it is empty, light particles moves out freely.

2d Space or empty space exists in between two solar systems only.

Suppose if we enter our solar system, 4d space time, energy and dust particles are present everywhere. Here matter curves space time. Here energy is in free state and effects of gravity are absent. Ok, if we detonate an atom bomb, since there is curvature of space, it explodes, however in a slow motion and that too, as there is no pressure or force, chain reaction slows down, area coverage is limited and of course, sudden eddies into the space time is limited and it covers short radius only. Here particle A and B cannot move freely as other particles obstruct them.

If we switch on a torch cell, it gives light but within short radius. Light behaves differently as there is no gravity. Light is not bent by gravity and therefore we have to arrange them near to us.

Einstein’s 4d spacetime:

This is present near to the huge masses such as Earth. A given configuration of matter distorts space-time geometry (not only because of mass, but also with its energy, inner tensions or pressure) and this distorted geometry makes matter move in certain ways. This movement, in turn, changes the matter configuration, and space-time geometry changes correspondingly. Now that space-time geometry is a bit different, it also acts on matter in a different way, matter moves, geometry changes, and so on in an endless dance.

Raise of particles:

This is the key point in creating Gravity in a 4d space time. Our predecessors are having a wrong notion that spin of Earth is paving way for this. We have to keep in mind that Earth is not rotating against gravity, but gravity itself hooked Earth.

Each and every closed volume is undergoing the influence of Gravity, so naturally it comes down to Earth only. But how particle A and B are raising. If we observe nature carefully, it is water particles. Due to radiation water particles are raising and are moving against Gravity. It is paving way for storage of potential energy on this Earth. If the energy start pooling or concentrating at a particular place, water evaporates and start moving into the space. If the pressure or force increases water particles and other dust particles moves to new height and it appears that space time is curved. Meanwhile it is paving way for further accumulation of potential energy. Particles raising from Earth at different places joins with each other and becomes heavier and accelerates downwards. In this way it warps space time of Earth, which is known as Gravity.

**E = mc2 Enigma**E = mc2 is a part of Special Relativity. However, despite the fact that the calculus is quite simple, Modern Physics does not propose a rational explanation of this strange phenomenon.

The Spacetime Model demonstrates that the principle of converting mass to energy is very simple. This principle is shown by the following example.

• Part A

An empty sphere is immerged in a container filled with water. The surface of water is quiet.

• Part B

If the sphere disappears suddenly by a thought experiment, the depression will make eddies which have energy (E = hν). Converting a mass to energy follows the same principle. A closed volume disappears, and is transformed into an open volume. This produces "eddies" in spacetime, which are gamma rays. These gamma rays may be converted into particles such as electrons-positrons pairs, and so on.

About E = mc2

There is Gravity and it is influencing each and every closed volume. Raising of particles have helped in creating potential energy stored on Earth. Due to pressure/force exerted by this potential energy, each and every closed volume is curving the space time.

If we say that closed volumes are curving space time by its internal energy, it is rather irrelevant. If we detonate an atom, energy already present in the space time, potential energy, which created “inward thrust” and it tries to occupy the gap. Now energy freed from the atom, creates “outward thrust”. This action increases radiation within short distance and paves way for chain reaction. Total process is completed within short time. Initially an “inward thrust” is created and later “outward thrust” creates eddies in the space time.

Total energy released by an atom bomb mainly depends on:

01 Internal energy

02 Gravity in a particular place.

Suppose if we detonate the same atom bomb on Moon:

01 Internal energy is same.

02 Gravity is just 1/6th only

Since gravity is weak, curvature of space time by the closed volume is also weak. “eddies” into space time slows down and it spreads up to limited area only.

Suppose if the same atomic bomb is detonated in space, outside Earth’s climate: Here there is sufficient energy but it is not present with any force i.e., free state and thus even though there is inward as well outward thrust explosion is limited.

How Solar system is working:

Big bang is the base for any solar system. When two huge masses faced each other devastating fire started. It resulted in release of huge energy into open area. It is not only Sun but other planets also burnt for lot of period and pumped huge energy. At present Sun is only maintaining this energy base. It is true that energy is of ‘object oriented’.

This energy base is present in the form of rings, like onion rings. We can compare this to rainbow. Since our Solar system is moving to unknown place, energy is moving along these rings.

Ok, suppose an asteroid from 2d space or empty entered our solar system. Energy curves the space time around the asteroid. It all depends on the acceleration or speed with which the asteroid is travelling. Suppose if the mass of the asteroid consists of light atoms than it yields to the energy and start moving along with other planets.

In case, if the asteroid crosses 1st one and enters next one, the 2nd one possess more energy than the 1st one. So naturally curvature around the asteroid increases and creates more pressure. If it yields than naturally it remains within that circle.

Moon is also one such asteroid only. When it entered after crossing mostly 6 lanes, curvature increased and it simply yielded. Moon is having its own Gravity field, so it started spinning against its axis. Any asteroid that enters, initially yields to energy pressure and lose weight and will be thrown to inertial position.

When Moon entered gravity field of Earth, both tug on each other, in fact both are in inertial position. Energy within the lane is moving, it created pressure/force on the curvature and both started rotating against each other and also moved along the lane. In case for any reason if the moon crosses this lane, it becomes independent planet, unless other planet influences it.

In this universe each solar system is independent unit.

Rotation and revolution of planet:

Suppose we have sent a rocket into space. There is potential energy stored in the space. It start concentrating against rocket and curves the spacetime around the rocket and throws it into inertial position. Now rocket is in free state. There is curvature of spacetime but there is no Gravity. This curvature now start interacting with Gravity from Earth and Sun. Strong energy waves coming from Sun pushes it and it start rotating against Earth Gravity waves.

In the case of planets it is different and there is Gravity. Gravity waves will be moving out to far reaching places. Energy rays coming from Sun interacts with these Gravity waves of planet, bents and enters planets atmosphere. Meanwhile a movementum is gained and it starts rotating against its axis.

Yours

Psreddy