Friday 13 October 2017 Seaforth Everything An engineering interpretation
Everything comprises the only viable perpetuum mobile we can conceive. The perpetuum mobile blows energy bubbles continuously, forever, from our point of view. The primordial vacuum is actually an infinite amount of bubble mix whose elasticity is the only physical constant. The elasticity is shared between four bosons, the Higgs, the photon, the graviton, and the boson of time. The universal constant is a four-dimensional matrix that regulates the speed of light, and the photon/gravity/mass conversion ratios. The primordial vacuum is a perfectly homogenous soup continuously balancing everything and nothing. It is a precision balance of matter and ‘anti’-matter, space and ‘anti’-space, gravity and ‘anti’-gravity, time and ‘anti’-time. The Higgs boson regulates the blowing of energy bubbles, of which our universe is one.
The imagination needed to grasp the above summary will allow those of us who have been privileged enough to see it, to understand the movie of Arthur Clarke’s “2001 – A Space Oddysey”. The rectangular monolithic prism of rock in the movie should have been a cubic prism of neutrons, the ultimate and most perfect material form of energy. The above summary provides an explanation of why time travel will not be feasible for any material objects, as only pure photon energy can oscillate through the dimensionless zeros of energy bubbles as well as through the two-dimensional black holes where the left and right handed matter and anti-matter universes pass through each other in completing their journeys along their matching arrows of time.
Fully interpreting the summary above should provide material for countless religious sermons, and many a scientific, mathematical and philosophical paper. Our bubble contains enough energy to last about 28 billion years or so, to create life as we know it, and grow to a diameter of 14 billion light-years or so. The dimensionless and almost frozen strings, dots and toroids shivering in the Planck-dimensioned zone of uncertainty around the theoretical zero of everything are the balancing fulcrum point for the four dimensions of space-time. The strings, dots, and toroids, having shrunk all the way down to Planck dimensioned objects, are turning themselves inside out, before being injected with pure photon energy and blown up into spherical and toroidal bubbles that will expand at the speed of light through four-dimensional space-time. As twinned left and right halves of their bubble/toroid pairs, they will reach their maximum spatial extents at half their individual matched time periods of oscillation. At half their combined time periods, they will inflate into twice their individual spatial extent, before shrinking back along their anti-time axes to their zero point. The twinned half universes thus pass forwards and backwards along their arrows of time, cyclically, always adding up to zero net energy over time.
This perfect perpetuum moblie will demonstrate string and brane theory, and unite the quantum and gravitational theories.
Engineers are often good at building models, and love playing with them. They also spend a lot of time trying to build real things from drawings and specifications produced by designers. If, like me, they battled through undergrad maths, they appreciate simple toys that show basic ideas in 3D. The five demonstration models I find useful, are a tiny dot (dimension 0, the Higgs boson spin 0 zone, a zero energy state, not quite absolutely zero degrees Kelvin, the beginning and end of each cycle of time, which is actually a fuzzy cloud of jittery quantum strings around zero, because of quantum uncertainty); a soap bubble disk (dimension 1, the photon spin 1 energy oscillation zone, where magnetic and electric energy oscillate between their maxima and minima, while advancing and retreating through time zero along the arrow of time ); a soap bubble (dimension 2, the graviton spin 3 zone, where big and small bubbles appear and mostly pop quickly, before any resonance can start); a springy Mobius Band and a springy wire hoop (tools for imagining dimension 3, the Klein Bottle domain of our universe, the spin 4 zone traversed by each cycle of our matter-antimatter zero total energy universe. If we give the springy hoop three twists it will show the shape of the locomotive track depicted in Stephen Hawking’s illustration of the arrow of time, imagined as folded back on its origin to show it as one-way). Five simple toys to show the four dimensions our universe needs for its matter-antimatter existence in time. (The fifth dimension is all in the mind, just an extra tool for playing privileged geometry observer delegate.)
The soap bubble toy is Stephen Hawking’s walnut before opening. It is better considered as a smoke ring or torus that is rolling along the arrow of time while expanding in size until its inner radius shrinks to zero. The critical energy quantity to achieve inflation is a very large quantity, and being injected rapidly to a very tiny volume of toroidal space raises the temperature to incredible levels. As the inner radius of the torus reaches zero it becomes a very high elastic stress point, which snaps and is the cause of inflation to the spherical bubble shape. The closed walnut. We need our privileged observer’s 5D spectacles adjusted to see the walnut’s bottom shell pushed up the arrow of time diameter of our universe to occupy the same space as the top shell. The circumference of the now well-entangled matter and antimatter universes is the turning point halfway between the beginning and end points of the cycle, which are now at a single pole, an almost dimensionless quantum dot, jittering with uncertainty, and ready to cause the next pulse of resonance.
If we read Stephen Hawking’s books, we find all we need to interpret our universe, provided we accept that the arrow of time is symmetrical about zero. Really. Then, applying the constraint of keeping to the law of conservation of energy, one has to conclude that the primordial vacuum has two energy ‘poles’ – infinite energy, and zero energy. And our universe is a zero net energy resonance phenomenon, between these poles, in five dimensions. As an observer in the 5th dimension, the views one gets of our universe can be sketched on two-dimensional paper, as elevations viewed from ten different directions, which are the minus and plus time directions, the three space directions (up-down, east-west, and forward-backward), and any other pair of directions we choose in our privileged observer position in our imaginary hyperspace.
It remains to point out that the Klein Bottle’s ballooning from toroidal to spherical during the inflation event will result in rapid cooling, allowing condensation of matter-antimatter particle pairs such as quark-antiquark pairs, and electron-positron pairs, which come in triplet-symmetry and twin-symmetry configurations and forward-backward time directions. Those that don’t part ways immediately will annihilate, sending half their combined photon energy in each direction along the arrow of time, thus in zero balance. Those that part ways quickly enough survive as matter and antimatter condensed energy, as well as photon energy. The latent energy of photon to mass phase-change is on very different scales, the very massive quarks and antiquarks curling space-time tightly around themselves as they form protons, neutrons, and so on in matter and antimatter forms, by grouping in their twos and threes, while electron-positron pairs entangle in twos only.
As we have begun to see what looks like the repulsive side of gravity, we must be close to the periphery of the walnut half shells, either about to turn round for the big shrink phase, or just after turning around. Our matter-antimatter universe should have about 14 billion years to go before arriving at ground zero and the new beginning.
The engineers working on ITER and the LHC presumably have all the above fully accounted for in their designs? I don’t have the maths to check anything they are doing. Perhaps it is all explained on the internet already?
Alan M’s conjecture – in a nutshell As at 2017 09 23
As of now, the most concise way to present the conjecture is to say that our universe has two halves, one (the anti-half) containing all the mass and photon energy thought to be missing, and the other (the pro-half we live in) containing all the mass and photon energy we can see and detect from our vantage point on earth. We have to accept that the anti-half is travelling away from the origin (of both halves) along the negative arrow of time, while the pro-half is travelling away from the origin (of both halves) along the positive arrow of time. In both halves, the inhabitants will see and experience their own environment in the same way, meaning the two half-universes have the same laws of physics, and stick closely together, separated by the distance ct, a variable function of time t, multiplied by the constant c, the velocity of photons in the vacuum (the vacuum being the ‘missing’ luminiferous aether, truly not there, but all-pervading). (No wonder nobody ever detected any aether.) For the post-inflation epoch, the two half-universes are best imagined as the nutshell halves as depicted in Stephen Hawking’s book “The universe in a nutshell”, in its final illustration of the universe in an otherwise empty walnut. The best vantage point for observing our two-halves universe clearly requires consciousness and a brain able to imagine a 5-dimensional hyperspace surrounding the two nutshell halves. The half-branes meet in two places to form a Klein Bottle. The halves join at their peripheries (just out of range of our most powerful optical telescopes) and at the common “big bang – big crunch” point they share in space-time. Their common origin and end point is the beginning and end of time and matter for the Klein Bottle. At their identical big bang and big crunch point in space-time, their peripheries have shrunk to zero, and the whole cycle will repeat as they disappear into the point of dimensionless, absolute zero temperature, literally frozen in the vacuum. A combination of the Plank scale and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle would explain the source of the minute perturbations that stir the dimensionless strings to vibrate and kick off the next big bang, in which the strings acquire dimensions as they start releasing the residual tension between the zero energy of the vacuum, and the infinite potential energy that must exist in hyperspace to explain Einstein’s cosmological constant dilemma. Of all the particle-antiparticle pairs popping into existence and failing to annihilate in the required very small time allowed, only those that have three-axis symmetry have the potential to expand into baby universes, and of those, only the toroidal string based ones are likely to allow in enough vacuum energy to inflate very rapidly to viable universes. Before inflating, the toroidal baby universes are steadily blown up by the injected energy charge from the vacuum, until the inner radius
This ‘conclusion’ seems to explain a lot of mysteries unearthed by scientists and mathematicians so far. Some of the thoughts behind the above summary are discussed in the rest of this post. Apologies for not editing it more thoroughly, which may have something to do with Parkinson’s law.
Stephen Hawkings picture of the universe (see figure 8.1 in the 2008 update of his “A brief history of time”, first published in 1988), would be a nice way to view the universe in 5 dimensional hyperspace, full of 4 dimensional galaxies each with its own wormhole (we call them black holes) between its matter half and its antimatter half. It would be in hyperspace that the steadily growing amounts of matter and antimatter of the universe could warp all the galaxy time lines sufficiently to close on themselves at the equator of hyperspace so that the spring tensions start pulling everything together from the maximum extension points of the time arrows. At this point in space-time, currently just beyond range of our most powerful telescopes, gravity starts acting repulsively, from our matterverse point of view. From an antimatterverse point of view, gravity turns from acting repulsively to acting attractively, inevitably ending in the big crunch as depicted in figure 8.1 of the book.
More light can be cast on where the ‘missing’ energy is in our universe, and on the unification of physics, if we look at the bosons that drive everything in the universe. I may have missed something, but there only seem to be three that are talked about. We have the Higgs boson, with zero spin; we have the photon, with spin 1; and we have the graviton, with spin 2. Shouldn’t there be a boson, with spin 3? After all, if we agree that our universe needs at least four dimensions, we might expect there to be four basic bosons, surely? I see the gluon is talked about as the fourth boson, but it is only supposed to act like a particle with mass, and a spin of one, and then at very short range, so it doesn’t fit with my simple engineer’s view of things.
The Higgs boson seems to be responsible for balancing the universe’s energy components to add up to a total of zero at all times, to comply with the law of energy conservation. Also much talked about are the boson for universe’s mass energy components identified by Einstein (ie gravitons), and the boson for the universe’s electromagnetic energy components identified by Maxwell (photons). But what about the energy stored in the tension along the bi-directional arrow of time, between the matter and anti-matter halves of the universe? Doesn’t that need a boson we might call Hooke’s boson, responsible for the spring constant that regulates the (never-ending?) oscillations of the universe between the (eternal?) cyclic big bangs and big crunches? It might have a short range cousin we could call a gluon, or the way gluons act only at very short distances might just be caused by intense warping of space time between quarks, which are very odd particles with enormous mass. Very strong magnets obviously warp space time into really impressively tiny zones of attractive and repulsive energy, by aligning the spins of practically all the electrons in alloys of iron and neodymium.
Could this (missing? Or simply not appreciated yet?) fourth (or is that fifth?) boson also be responsible for the tremendous spring tension we know exists between the quarks in atomic protons and neutrons? If so, wouldn’t Hooke’s boson provide yet another clue to the solution of the unification of physics?
A fifth boson like a Hooke’s boson might call for a fifth dimension, which we could include what we might call hyperspace. Stephen Hawkings picture of the universe (see figure 8.1 in the 2008 update of his “A brief history of time”, first published in 1988), would be a nice way to view the universe in 5 dimensional hyperspace, full of 4 dimensional galaxies each with its own wormhole (we call them black holes) between its matter half and its antimatter half. It would be in hyperspace that the steadily growing amounts of matter and antimatter of the universe could warp all the galaxy time lines sufficiently to close on themselves at the equator of hyperspace so that the spring tensions start pulling everything together from the maximum extension points of the time arrows. At this point in space-time, currently just beyond range of our most powerful telescopes, gravity starts acting repulsively, from our matterverse point of view. From an antimatterverse point of view, gravity turns from acting repulsively to acting attractively, inevitably ending in the big crunch as depicted in figure 8.1 of the book.
The period of oscillation of the universe in hyperspace between big bangs and big crunches would depend on the amount of virtual particles that are not successfully annihilated sufficiently quickly to keep their local obligation of maintaining zero energy balance locally. They wander off into their own paddocks, matter into the matterverse and antimatter into the antimatterverse, via their local (or is that any) black wormhole, which probably looks like a quasar in the entangled other universe they enter.
Note that the wormholes would not be suitable for anything material to indulge in time travel. The black wormholes are the ultimate shredders of matter, which is converted back into pure energy of photon momentum. It emerges into the entangled half universe as more or less energetic gamma rays. How energetic the gamma rays (cosmic rays) are, depends on the amounts of mass shredded to date and transported through the black wormholes previously in the cycle.
So, to sum up in more detail, Alan M’s conjecture includes the following:
The dark energy that is said to be missing is not missing at all. It is simply hidden from our sight by all the black holes in our universe. The energy we can see is on our side of all those black holes. The hidden energy is on the other side of them. On our side of the black holes is what we call a world of matter. On the other side of the black holes is what we call antimatter, with the M and AM halves kept in perfect zero energy balance, cyclically through time, while the two half-universes continually condensing pure photon momentum energy into mass energy and photon energy, which we detect in the M half of our universe by the emergence of Hawking radiation from black holes. When we create anti-matter such as positrons in the M half of our universe, the energy-balancing electrons travelling backwards along the time axis as explained by Richard Feynman, will appear in the AM half of our universe from the black hole connecting M and AM halves. The black hole is also the balancing point for all the matter/anti-matter photon energy that arises from the annihilation of the short-lives particle/anti-particle pairs continually popping in and out of existence in each universe.
Every black hole is at the origin of an arrow of time for the galaxy that encircles it. From our point of view, time stands still in the plane of every black hole. In a four-dimensional universe like ours, the arrow or axis of the time dimension extends forwards from the zero point into our matter half, and backwards from the zero point into the antimatter half, and is orthogonal to the two-dimensional black hole. The time zero event horizons of all black holes define the beginnings of time for their galaxies.
All the arrows of time are progressively curved by the accumulated matter and antimatter, until they close on themselves in hyperspace at the end of time for that cycle. So the end points of time for all the galaxies are defined by the outer circumference of a space-time toroid. The top and bottom of each toroid will be matched equatorial circles, which mark the turning points in space-time at which our expanding matter/antimatter universes stop expanding and begin contracting for the big crunch.
The mass energy of our universe is Einstein’s E = mc^2. This is the total mass energy of the matter and anti-matter components, of which the entangled matterverses and antimatterverses each hold half of it.
Similarly, Maxwell’s electromagnetic energy in the matter half of our universe oscillates in time between magnetic and electric tensions in space (the lumeniferous aether). Maxwell showed us the spring constants for the magnetic and electric fields as they oscillate between their maxima and minima, while travelling along their time arrows at the speed of light, which he postulated as a function of the magnetic permeability and the electrical permittivity of free space (for “full speed” light), or at lower speeds, as moderated by any intervening matter with differing dielectric and diamagnetic properties. Again, the energy component we see in these oscillations is half the total. B^2/2µ and ½ εE^2, if I recall correctly, are the respective peak magnetic and electric energy quantities oscillating in each entangled half universe. Whether in a matterverse or in an antimatterverse, in both cases the energy is positive and adds to the total photon energy shifting cyclically from magnetic storage to electric storage and back in their local space-time.
As far as the spring tension energy along the arrows of time is concerned, that too is oscillating and is shared equally, half and half, between matterverse and antimatterverse. Oscillating energy summing to zero for each cycle is evaluated by its root mean square (the mean value of the square of the energy) over an integral number of cycles. For pure sinusoidal functions of time, the rms value is peak amplitude divided by 1,414 (ie square root of 2) or 0,707 times peak value.
The mathematicians and scientists will probably find that the observed energy “unbalances” fit well with the 4% accounted for and the 95% thought to be unaccounted for, with the expanding space-time zone reaching 13,8 exp 10^9 years at half-life, which the contracting phase will have to match. The arrows of time in forward and reverse directions will have to fit a diameter of hyperspace of about 28 Exp 10^9 years.
AlanM’s conjecture has been the basis of a profitable South African enterprise for decades
AlanM’s conjecture in a nutshell: The negative axis of the arrow of time is as real as the positive, and means that we can sense the (not) missing ‘dark’energy, but never see it.
The conjecture is the actual explanation of the (dark) Emperor’s (not) New Clothes, made of antimatter, which he has worn since (our universe’s) time began, and will wear until (our universe’s) time ends, literally. The clothes are invisible in our part of our universe (ie the matter part) because the clothes are travelling, with the wearer, away from us along the negative time vector which leads our universe to its eventual inevitable disappearance in the ‘big crunch’ as our cosmic energy balance achieves equilibrium and starts another cycle of the zero sum game. The only imaginary thing about our universe is its sustainability. Ultimate Sustainability (US) is looking a really shaky concept, folks.
The simplest possible statement of what is new in AlanM’s conjecture is that what Professor Hawking has long referred to as the ‘imaginary’ dimension in which time goes in reverse is actually very real, and that is where the missing energy, in both its purest (ie photon momentum) and simplest (ie matter) forms, is hidden from our gaze, but not from our energy balance calculations.
South Africans have been selling antimatter, which is mass energy travelling backwards along the negative axis of our time dimension, for many decades. Across False Bay from my home in South Africa is a nuclear accelerator site which I visited with my final year engineering classmates at UCT in 1960. Every day the operators sell positrons for cancer scans. These positrons annihilate the first electrons they meet, a process which takes a few hours to complete, and a CT scanner detects the pure gamma ray energy travelling in both the negative and positive directions along the time axis of the annihilating electron-positron pair. When the two tangle, or get hitched by their annihilation, their energy has been returned to the vast energy storage unit we call "the vacuum of space time". On their space-time scale of things, they have restored their energy balance to zero, as required by energy conservation law. QED. AlanM
The theory of everything – All is nothing, and Nothing All. Forever ? I just found a use for the fifth dimension. We can call its domain hyperspace, where the arrows of time can set off in any direction, as long as they close on themselves. It is needed to accommodate infinity and zero, the poles of the space time equation of everything. Hyperspace is spherical and we could call it the universe of universes. Multi-dimensional sinusoidal oscillations rule everything. Every black hole is a balancing point (a zero) of the arrow of time belonging to a four dimensional universe. There has to be an infinity of possible arrows of time, along which universes can emerge cyclically. As the arrows of time always close on themselves in every four-dimensional universe that achieves inflation, it is likely that hyperspace extends forever, in the sense that spherical surfaces are unbounded. Black holes are the ultimate shredding machines. Everything shrinks back to zero at the origins of space-time they represent. Everything includes all matter, but photon energy, being pure momentum, emerges into the big bang of another universe (or is that another set of hyperverses?). Because all is nothing, and nothing is all in the hyperverse(s?), then at points of origin (black holes), all is zero-dimensional oscillating strings, which explains the (infinitely?) high energy of the vacuum. The vacuum is all and nothing simultaneously, seething with quanta of pure photon momentum, which only need a small energy fluctuation to start another universe bubble growing. Whether it will inflate or not will depend on its shape, which could be a sphere, a worm, or a torus. Being a worm doesn’t look like an inflateable case, but maybe someone can take that on review? This looks like a fun model of everything there is, for all of us to play with. People pondering a whole lot of things from spooky quantum entanglement action at a distance, to various mathematical conundra, might find it useful. The folks running the Large Hadron Collider and those working on ITER might get a few pointers? They work in toroidal spaces, after all. There seem to be plenty more questions for naked scientist questioners to ask. Time to go back to bed. Good day and good night all. Alan
Thanks for the questions - they help so much with getting to the point, one of my major disabilities. There isn't any missing mass or energy at all - it is just that although its effects have been detected, no-one seems able to find it. We live in the object we want to weigh, and the balance weights are in the other half of our universe, the bit moving backwards in time while we go forwards. To achieve proper balance, we have to realise that Einstein's mc^2 mass is half in reversing time and half in our time. Maxwell's photon energy is also half in reverse gear timewise, but this is not just imaginary energy and time, it actually adds to the total energy of our universe. Which means the total mass and energy balance is twice as much as everyone seems to have thought up to now. It is no coincidence that Einstein's mass is about 4% of the total. The sinusoidally varying photon and graviton energy reversing in time is the other 96% of the total picture. Its rms value is peak amplitude divided by square root of 2, and both halves of the sine wave add to the energy total. So the massless photon and graviton energy reversing in time adds up to 1,414/2 or 70,7% of the picture. The graviton energy goes into bending the rather stiff space-time spring, whose curvature we detect as gravity, and the photon energy is the remaining 69% of the puzzle. A pair of magnets will show how fiercely magnetic energy bends space-time, and a comb, a silk handkerchief, and a few pieces of paper, allow appreciation of the similar effect of electrical attraction. A soap bubble kit shows how to add a third space dimension to a two-dimensional 'brane'. If you imagine a torus like a tyre tube being steadily inflated until the hole closes up totally, and imagine the stress of the tube pressure divided by zero area turning the tube into a sphere, you will see how an expanding initially toroidal universe suddenly experiences very rapid inflation and the cooling that is needed to condense about 4% of the pure photon energy of our big bang, into mass-bearing particles. I think it all fits together so well, I should call it "AlanM's Assertion". But whether it soars or sinks is up to the Naked Scientists Forum.
Could the missing dark energy & mass be in a nearby anti-universe, in time-reversal, so our and their net energy and mass sum to zero?
Not being much of a scientist myself, I have to call this Alan M’s conjecture, posted here for all and sundry to shoot down in flames. Or maybe to solve?
According to thermodynamics 1 at UCT in 1963, conservation of energy in any isolated system is a fundamental concept, if I remember that correctly.
If we picture the big bang as emerging through a naked singularity in the void, in the energy form of a huge amount of pure photon momentum, it has only one way to keep at zero the energy of the new isolated system it has escaped into. The bigger the quantum of energy emerging, the shorter the time it has to act. So it has to split in two, one half of it must become ‘negative’ energy, while the other half becomes ‘positive’energy. Given the amount of photon and matter energy we see in our universe, the split that produced the negative energy mirror of our universe must have happened in the shortest possible time scale. Some energy, some explosion, as Winston Churchill might have said.
Seeing as photons, gravitons, and Higgs bosons are alleged to be their own anti-quanta, the only way to turn into negative energy, it seems, is for the paired positive and negative universes to set off in exactly opposite paths through the time dimension of space-time.
Once we have this model to play with, I think proper scientists will be able to fine tune the whole idea. It would mean Fred Hoyle was at least half right when he put forward his idea that matter emerges spontaneously in empty space. He just omitted to mention the balancing amount of anti-matter in the other half of the paired universes, going backward in time.
We would need to explore the way the two universes remain paired and entangled at a distance in space time. Being separated by the time dimension only, is the distance between them ct, or 2ct? Would their paired existence sort out the Einstein-Born disputes about the Deity playing dice with the universe? Is it because the energy of two balanced universes must remain zero, that E=mc^2 ? Are the naked singularities Fred Hoyle called black holes pinning the paired universes together by means of Hawking radiation?
Was the very short energy burst we call ínflation’ fuelled by photon phase-change from the energy of massless momentum condensing into the kinetic energy of particles with mass, courtesy of Higgs boson intervention?
Are the twinned universes a toroidal structure in space time? As continual emergence of matter in one and anti-matter in the other keeps increasing the curvature of space-time, how long can the toroidal twins keep expanding until gravitational tension starts them moving back towards each other for the final crunch when they disappear back into the void?
And, because we are beginning to notice the repulsive side of gravity, does it mean that the ever-increasing energy of the ‘spring tension’ between the paired universes is starting to overcome their momentum along the time dimension?
As usual, there seem to more questions than answers here. I do need a lot of help. Many thanks to the Naked Scientists for making it possible to ask them.