# Naked Science Forum

## General Science => General Science => Topic started by: neilep on 05/11/2006 18:08:17

Title: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 05/11/2006 18:08:17
This might be a dead duck but in my never ending attempt to mix Scince with fun then this might be of interest and a bit of fun !...or not !

You can use scientific terms, science people (surnames only yes? )of all fields ....anything !!!...as long as it has a scientific connection.

I'll go first.

ASTRONOMY....so...the next entry begins with ' B ' for which I will also do.

So Each person writes ONE entry beginning with the next letter of the alphabet proceeding from the previous post !!

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 05/11/2006 18:09:32
BROWNIAN MOTION
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 05/11/2006 18:30:33
Bionics?
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: ukmicky on 05/11/2006 18:33:49
Baryonic matter
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 05/11/2006 18:40:41
Botanics
Biology
Biochemistry
Blood cells
B-lymphocytes
B-cell precursors
preB-Lymphoblastic leukemia
B cell mitogens in mycoplasma
Barrels of cod liver oil to supplement leukemic patients' diet.

ikod
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 05/11/2006 18:57:03
Oh Dear !!...AFTER my post should have been a word bginning withe letter C, then after than an entry with D....when we get to Z, it just starts at A again !!
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 05/11/2006 18:57:27
Climate
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 05/11/2006 18:57:36
Dopplar
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 05/11/2006 18:58:43
Einstein      (getting the idea ?)..LOL !!

So, the next post begins with an F !!
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 05/11/2006 18:59:36
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 05/11/2006 19:15:38
Genetics
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 05/11/2006 19:19:09
Hydrogen powered fuel vehicals? I don't know!!LOL
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 05/11/2006 19:19:58
Interactive sciences
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 05/11/2006 19:20:42
Jet powered engines
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 05/11/2006 20:21:13
Kirlian Photography
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 05/11/2006 20:21:36
Kod!
oh...no:
Kinetics (enzymes)

ikod
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 05/11/2006 20:24:48
Kod!
oh...no:
Kinetics (enzymes)

ikod

Sir...L comes after K !! [:)] [:)] [:)] [:)] [:)] [:)] [:)]
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 05/11/2006 20:51:19
luciferase
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: ukmicky on 05/11/2006 21:08:36
M Theory
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 05/11/2006 21:17:25
Nitrogen
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 05/11/2006 21:21:21
Ohm, George Simon
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 05/11/2006 22:37:01
Paleontology
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Bass on 05/11/2006 23:23:45
Quaternary
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Soul Surfer on 05/11/2006 23:33:08
Ribonucleic Acid   (RNA)
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 05/11/2006 23:41:17
sub atomic nuclear fusion (Is that real)don't know where I heard it!
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: ukmicky on 05/11/2006 23:46:31
Thermodynamics
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 05/11/2006 23:49:45
Uvula
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 06/11/2006 00:17:50
vacuum gauge
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: ukmicky on 06/11/2006 01:17:22
webers law
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: ukmicky on 06/11/2006 01:20:30
x-rays
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: ukmicky on 06/11/2006 01:21:57
Who can think of a y
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Ema on 06/11/2006 01:26:58
Yeast
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 06/11/2006 02:01:11
zymogen
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: another_someone on 06/11/2006 02:13:33
Who can think of a y

I can think of a 'why' - will that do?

OK, you can always go for Yttrium (chemical symbol 'Y').
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 06/11/2006 02:42:52
Antimony
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 06/11/2006 02:52:33
Benjamin Franklin
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Carolyn on 06/11/2006 03:27:29
compare

Carolyn
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 06/11/2006 03:41:28
DNA
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Carolyn on 06/11/2006 03:47:53
ecosystem
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 06/11/2006 04:15:16
forensics
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: another_someone on 06/11/2006 04:23:06
Antimony

Arsenic, Arachnid, Air, Anti-matter, Antibody, Archimedes, Aspherical lens, Abberation, Anterior (e.g. anterior lobe), Autoimmune, Ascorbic Acid, Alloy, Aerofoil, Aspect ratio,  ATP (adenosine triphosphate), adrenaline, atrophy, apex.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: another_someone on 06/11/2006 04:23:52
compare

Carolyn

Compare Carolyn to what?
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 06/11/2006 04:30:47
gravity
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 06/11/2006 04:31:33
forensics

Hydrogen
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 06/11/2006 04:32:58
Ions
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 06/11/2006 04:37:42
Janus................................................One of Saturn's Moons

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 06/11/2006 04:43:14
Kilograms
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: moonfire on 06/11/2006 07:01:10
laser
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: moonfire on 06/11/2006 07:02:43
mineralogy
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: moonfire on 06/11/2006 07:04:14
nuclear
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 06/11/2006 07:09:44
oncology
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: moonfire on 06/11/2006 07:16:59
palentology
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: moonfire on 06/11/2006 07:17:14
quantum physics....geez, I forgot to add a word  aaagghh!
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: moonfire on 06/11/2006 07:17:23
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 06/11/2006 07:42:31
satellites and space probes
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 06/11/2006 08:47:11
tachometer
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 06/11/2006 09:04:03
ultracentrifuge
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: lightarrow on 06/11/2006 12:40:29
Velocity
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: ukmicky on 06/11/2006 15:03:38
The dreaded y again
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Ema on 06/11/2006 15:33:24
Y-chromosome.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: ROBERT on 06/11/2006 16:03:05
Zygote

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: science_guy on 06/11/2006 16:06:35
absorbtion
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 06/11/2006 19:29:15
Barometer
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 06/11/2006 22:07:23
COD LIVER OIL!!!!!!

...I was just passing by, believe me.

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 06/11/2006 23:46:18
Density
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 07/11/2006 02:40:24
Flare stars
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Mjhavok on 07/11/2006 02:46:49
Karen you missed out E.

Electriciy.

I will do G also

Gravity
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 07/11/2006 02:59:23
Helium
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 07/11/2006 03:03:56
Sorry I did! Yikes..

ionosphere
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Mjhavok on 07/11/2006 04:00:26
Jejunum
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 07/11/2006 04:03:44
Kuiper Belt
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: another_someone on 07/11/2006 04:22:22
Lithium, Lithosphere, Lumens, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibnitz
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 07/11/2006 04:30:37
Magnetosheath
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Mjhavok on 07/11/2006 05:17:11
non-cyclic photophosphorylation
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 07/11/2006 05:26:01
Occultation
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 07/11/2006 08:20:09
Plasma transfusions

ikod
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: lightarrow on 07/11/2006 08:22:29
Q-bit (it's the quantum-bit of information).
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 07/11/2006 08:33:19
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 07/11/2006 08:58:48
Serum Factors

ikod
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 07/11/2006 09:10:46
Tychonic theory
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 07/11/2006 11:06:38
Unknown aetiology

ikod
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: chris on 07/11/2006 11:47:24
Valency
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Carol-A on 07/11/2006 12:02:07
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Mjhavok on 07/11/2006 14:44:16
Zirconium, Zinc, Z-Line
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: lightarrow on 07/11/2006 14:58:00
Absorption
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 07/11/2006 17:09:58
absorption has been cited before...

Aplastic anemia: autoimmune aspecific aspects aknowledged...

ikod
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 07/11/2006 17:38:23
"Big Bang"
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 07/11/2006 17:50:55
What happened to ' X' and ' y ' ?

Catalyst

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: eric l on 07/11/2006 17:58:43
What happened to ' X' and ' y ' ?

you mean : "WHY are they EXcluded ?"
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 07/11/2006 18:04:09
What happened to ' X' and ' y ' ?

you mean :

"WHY are they EXcluded ?"

LOL..that's clever Eric ! [:)]

Diagnositc

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 07/11/2006 18:29:20
Ehrlich Paul (1854-1915)
A German scientist who won the 1908 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. He is noted for his work in hematology, immunology, and chemotherapy. Ehrlich predicted autoimmunity and called it "horror autotoxicus". He coined the term "chemotherapy". The idea of a "magic bullet" is also his, and he is credited with the first empirical observation of the blood-brain barrier.

ikod
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: cranial_implant on 07/11/2006 22:24:01
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: chris on 07/11/2006 22:56:49
[electron] Ground state
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: ukmicky on 07/11/2006 23:25:10
fission -  fusion
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: ukmicky on 07/11/2006 23:25:42
Gamma-ray Spectrometry
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 08/11/2006 00:18:48
Humidity- The amount of water vapour in the air !
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Mjhavok on 08/11/2006 03:57:03
Ion Channels
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Mjhavok on 08/11/2006 03:58:32
Juxtaglomerulus apparatus
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Mjhavok on 08/11/2006 03:59:10
Killer T Cells
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Mjhavok on 08/11/2006 03:59:52
Lactic Acid
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Mjhavok on 08/11/2006 04:01:35
McArdles Disease
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Mjhavok on 08/11/2006 04:01:45
Nanotechnology
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Mjhavok on 08/11/2006 04:02:07
Oogenesis
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Mjhavok on 08/11/2006 04:02:21
Protein Kinase
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Mjhavok on 08/11/2006 04:03:09
Queen Bee
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Mjhavok on 08/11/2006 04:04:13
rRNA (Ribosomal RNA)
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Mjhavok on 08/11/2006 04:04:25
Shingles
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Mjhavok on 08/11/2006 04:04:54
Tulerimia
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Mjhavok on 08/11/2006 04:06:19
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Mjhavok on 08/11/2006 04:07:01
Vulva (0.1 second it took me to think of that :-S)
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Mjhavok on 08/11/2006 04:07:29
Wild Type
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Mjhavok on 08/11/2006 04:07:59
Zebra Fish

Hooorah for me.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 08/11/2006 05:54:27
micrometeorite
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: eric l on 08/11/2006 12:11:18
micrometeorite
Is that with X or Y or maybe A ?
Back to XANTHAN GUM
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 08/11/2006 16:08:14
Yersinia pestis

...a really naughty bug

ikod
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 09/11/2006 08:59:31
Zubenelchemale (Northern Claw) star
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 09/11/2006 19:13:00
Aviation Safety

...see "the Shanghai Report" in NKSforum!

ikod
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 09/11/2006 23:28:11
Brown Dwarf

: Astronomy
a cold, dark star that is too small to initiate the nuclear reactions that generate heat and light
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: ukmicky on 09/11/2006 23:54:16
Cytosine

Is one of the 5 main nucleobases used in storing and transporting genetic information within a cell in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA. It is a pyrimidine derivative, with a heterocyclic aromatic ring and two substituents attached (an amine group at position 4 and a keto group at position 2). The nucleoside of cytosine is cytidine. In Watson-Crick base pairing, it forms three hydrogen bonds with guanine.

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 10/11/2006 02:57:28
Deoxyribonucleic acid

(DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the biological development of a cellular form of life or a virus. All known cellular life and some viruses have DNAs. DNA is a long polymer of nucleotides (a polynucleotide) that encodes the sequence of amino acid residues in proteins, using the genetic code.

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 10/11/2006 03:36:04
Epimetheus (satalite of SAturn)
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 10/11/2006 09:11:25
ikod
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Ema on 10/11/2006 13:08:07
G

Galanin
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: chris on 10/11/2006 13:58:43
Herpesvirus
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 10/11/2006 14:38:39
Intergalactic Tramp!( a globular cluster that has managed to escape from the Galaxy)
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 10/11/2006 20:56:56
Jenner Edward (1749-1823).
...after training in London and a period as an army surgeon, spent his whole career as a country doctor in his native county of Gloucestershire in the West of England.
His research was based on careful case-studies and clinical observation more than a hundred years before scientists could explain the viruses themselves. So successful did his innovation prove that by 1840 the British government had banned alternative preventive treatments against smallpox.
"Vaccination," the word Jenner invented for his treatment (from the Latin vacca, a cow), was adopted by Pasteur for immunization against any disease.
...
http://www.discoveriesinmedicine.com/images/mdis_0000_0002_0_img0093.jpg
ikod

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 11/11/2006 05:17:22
kiloparsec: 1000 parsecs, or 3260 light years.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 11/11/2006 08:58:08
Lindt James

SCURVY AND VITAMIN C DISCOVERY

...before vitamin C and its importance for the organism were determined, scurvy was considered an epidemic disease in some regions of Europe.
The most common symptoms of the disease are: fatigue, muscular and joint pain, spontaneous hemorrhage in gums and skin that take a long time to heal.
For a long time, scurvy was a disease of unknown origins. It was considered one of the illnesses of the Middle Ages, which particularly afflicted crews of ships that performed long trips at the time. Because of the epidemics in the ships, scurvy was attributed to the most curious origins, such as, for example, that the disease was a result of "corrupted" blood, or due to the cold temperatures of the sea, or even because of the green wood used to build boats. The Spanish navigators referred to it as "Pest of the Ships", the Portuguese called it "the disease of Luanda", and the British as "Pest of the Seas".
Fear and deaths caused by scurvy led it to be treated as a contagious disease during more than 250 years and contributed to a number of curious treatments to get rid of it.
(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.abecitrus.com.br%2Fenglish%2Fnews%2Fimages%2Fnota_escorbuto.jpg&hash=55747462be4d2e0f7de100027cb831a4)
Those treatments were used without success until a physician of the British navy James Lindt (1716-1794), began his experiments with diseased crews. Because of sailors' and soldiers' diet during their military campaigns, and the fact that in general they were not fed with sufficient quantities of Vitamin C, because fresh fruit and vegetables did not resist long sea voyages, they had gum bleeding, loose teeth, hemorrhages, painful joints, lethargy and bruises that did not heal, which were the symptoms of scurvy. James Lindt chose twelve sailors affected by the disease and administered to them six different diets, to verify their evolution. Lindt discovered that only the group that received lemon and orange juice as part of the diet evolved favorably from their condition. Although the causal agent of scurvy was not identified (absence of vitamin C), its cure became known and sailors of the British Fleet were nicknamed "limely", or lemon drinkers. The medicine for scurvy was rapidly adopted in other countries.

Scurvy, which attacked millions of persons from the Ancient Egypt to the end of the 19th Century, causing the death of more than 2 million sailors between 1500 and 1900, influence the course of History. Despite the discovery of how scurvy could be cured - which was disclosed in the book " A Study of Scurvy", written by James Lindt in 1753, in which he stated that orange and lemon were effective medicine against the disease - vitamin C isolation and the identification of its deficiency as the cause of scurvy appeared much later.

http://www.abecitrus.com.br/english/news/news_escorbuto_fev05.html
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 11/11/2006 15:57:59
Magnetohydrodynamics
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 11/11/2006 21:02:33
Neisseria meningitidis

http://www.uv.es/~vicalegr/CLindex/CLsemiologia/F1.JPG

ikod

O...O...Odd liver oil!
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 12/11/2006 00:17:40
orthogenesis
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: ukmicky on 12/11/2006 05:32:23
paleontology
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 12/11/2006 11:29:54
Quantum chromodynamics
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Mjhavok on 12/11/2006 17:58:09
Rabies
Rabies virus
Recombinant DNA
Red Algae
Reductive tricarboxylic acid
Refractive Index
Rennin
Reoviridae
Replicase
Reserve polymer
Resistance factor
Retinitis
Rhinovirus
Rhodotorula rubra
Riboflavin
Rubella virus
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 12/11/2006 18:23:25
subduction zone
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 12/11/2006 18:51:41
Telemetry:......   Any of certain devices or attachments for determining distances by measuring the angle subtending a known distance.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 12/11/2006 18:57:48
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Mjhavok on 12/11/2006 19:19:43
Vasoconstriction
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 12/11/2006 19:30:25
Waveform means the shape and form of a signal, such as a wave moving across the surface of water, or the vibration of a plucked string.

In many cases the medium in which the wave is being propagated does not permit a direct visual image of the form. In these cases, the term 'waveform' refers to the shape of a graph of the varying quantity against time or distance. An instrument called an oscilloscope can be used to pictorially represent the wave as a repeating image on a CRT or LCD screen.

By extension of the above, the term 'waveform' is now also used loosely to describe the shape of the graph of any varying quantity against time.
Contents
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 12/11/2006 21:52:03
Zeppelin

Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin

Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin was the inventor of the rigid airship, or dirigible balloon. He was born July 8, 1838, in Konstanz, Prussia, and educated at the Ludwigsburg Military Academy and the University of Tübingen. He entered the Prussian army in 1858. Zeppelin went to the United States in 1863 to work as a military observer for the Union army in the American Civil War and later explored the headwaters of the Mississippi River, making his first balloon flight while he was in Minnesota. He served in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71, and retired in 1891 with the rank of brigadier general.
http://www.centennialofflight.gov/essay/Dictionary/Zeppelin/DI48G1.jpg

ikod

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 12/11/2006 22:15:50
Australopithecine- An "Ape-man" of the genus Australopithecus, which preceeded humans of the genus Homo.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Mjhavok on 13/11/2006 03:42:44
Beta Blockers
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 13/11/2006 05:08:44
Covalent compound- A compound formed of discrete molecules.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 13/11/2006 13:20:23
D-Dimer dosage

...fibrinogen degradation products in plasma.
High levels indicate disseminated intravascular coagulation or massive thrombosis.
(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fjuno.ucsd.edu%2Fimages%2Fdoolittle-ill2bg.jpg&hash=b7ee3effb2c4bd36465a246a46a3e233)
http://juno.ucsd.edu/images/doolittle-ill2bg.jpg
ikod
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Mjhavok on 13/11/2006 14:40:46
Encephalitis
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: science_guy on 13/11/2006 16:25:47
fallopian tube
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 13/11/2006 17:56:12
Greaves Mel
(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.icr.ac.uk%2Fresearch%2Fresearch_profiles%2F2875.jpg&hash=316e51b81885877a314dd31387694a41)
http://www.icr.ac.uk/research/research_profiles/2875.jpg
Professor of Cell Biology
Aetiology of Childhood Leukaemia Team
Section of Haemato-oncology
Brookes-Lawley Building, Sutton,  U.K.

ikod
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 13/11/2006 18:45:58
Halitosis, oral malodor (scientific term), breath odor, or most commonly bad breath are terms used to describe noticeably unpleasant odors exhaled in breathing.

Transient bad breath is a very common temporary condition caused by such things as oral dryness, stress, hunger (ketosis), eating certain foods such as garlic and onions, smoking, or poor oral hygiene. "Morning breath" is a common example of transient bad breath. Transient bad breath gradually disappears on its own, with the aid of chewing gum or brushing one's teeth. Chronic bad breath is a more serious and persistent condition affecting up to 25% of the population in varying degrees. It can negatively impact the individual's personal and business relationships, leading to poor self-esteem and increased stress. This condition is usually caused by persistent overpopulation of certain types of oral bacteria, primarily streptococcus mutans, and requires specialised treatment. Xerostomia (dry mouth syndrome) will increase bad breath problems.

Fetor hepaticus is a type of severely bad breath caused by chronic liver failure.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 13/11/2006 22:22:46
Immunoglobulin G
(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.science-projects.com%2FIgG.GIF&hash=9770aca668beef855616d1c5f7b9bcd2)
(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fen.wikipedia.org%2Fwiki%2FIgG&hash=12c30f3a30c6b464363a75f9a6dbae3a)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IgG
ikod
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 14/11/2006 00:44:39
Joule:..........The joule (symbol: J) is the SI unit of energy, which is defined as the potential to do work. The joule has base units of kg·m²/s² = N·m. The base unit conversion can be remembered using the equation E = mc2, where E is in joules, m is in kilograms, and c is the speed of light in meters per second.

Definition

The joule is a derived unit defined as Joules the work done or energy required to exert a force of one newton for a distance of one metre, so the same quantity may be referred to as a newton metre or newton-metre with the symbol N·m. However, the newton metre is usually used as a measure of work.

As a rough guide, 1 joule is the absolute minimum amount of energy required to lift a one kilogram object up by a height of 10 centimetres on the surface of the Earth.

One joule is also:

* The work required to move an electric charge of one coulomb through an electrical potential difference of one volt; or one coulomb volt, with the symbol C·V.
* The work done to produce power of one watt continuously for one second; or one watt second (compare kilowatt-hour), with the symbol W·s
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 14/11/2006 07:19:11
Kirkwood gaps; Regions in the belt of Asteroids between mars and Jupiter in which almost no asteroids move.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: lgic on 14/11/2006 15:54:53
L
Ligand gated ion channel

Proteins that span the extracellular membranes of cells, especially neurons and muscle. The protein contains a pore that is opened when it binds ligand (usually a neurotransmitter). When the pore opens, it makes a channel connecting the inside of the of cell with whatever is outside the cell. Ions can cross into or out of the cell, depending on their concentration gradients, the voltage, and the ionic selectivity of the pore, and the result is chemical communication. Examples are nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, GABA receptors, glycine receptors and some serotonin receptors.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: science_guy on 14/11/2006 16:08:02
mars
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 14/11/2006 16:23:24
Nanotechnology- Technology on the molecular scale.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 14/11/2006 16:43:35
Oscilloscope

An oscilloscope (sometimes abbreviated CRO, for cathode-ray oscilloscope, or commonly just scope or O-scope) is a piece of electronic test equipment that allows signal voltages to be viewed, usually as a two-dimensional graph of one or more electrical potential differences (vertical axis) plotted as a function of time or of some other voltage (horizontal axis)

A Tektronix model 475A portable analogue oscilloscope, a very typical instrument of the late 1970s. This dual-trace, dual-sweep instrument had a horizontal bandwidth of 250 MHz, a maximum vertical sensitivity of 5 mV per division, and maximum (unmagnified) horizontal sweep speed of 10 ns per division. The vertical controls are on the left with Channel 1 above and Channel 2 below. The horizontal sweep controls are on the right with the Main Trigger above and the Delayed Trigger below. The CRT controls are below the screen. The metal loop to the lower right of the screen provided a calibration signal for voltage and current probes.

[ Invalid Attachment ]

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 14/11/2006 17:24:24
Prokaryote-A single-celled organism with no distinct nucleus.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 14/11/2006 21:06:48
Quasar...
(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fcsep10.phys.utk.edu%2Fastr162%2Flect%2Factive%2Fjnb2.gif&hash=c9c35d93881938b15cc189737eefdbdf)
http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr162/lect/active/jnb2.gif

ikod most of the time
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Mjhavok on 14/11/2006 22:36:34
Ribonucleic Acid
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 14/11/2006 23:08:19
von Szent-gyorgy Albert
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1937
(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.bibl.u-szeged.hu%2Fha%2Ftudomany%2Fszgyorgy.jpg&hash=2f7bc513a7bfe2ac7434689468bf2953)
http://www.bibl.u-szeged.hu/ha/tudomany/szgyorgy.jpg
"For his discoveries in connection with
the biological combustion processes,
with special reference to vitamin C
and the catalysis of fumaric acid"

ikod

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 15/11/2006 00:04:47
Tentacles can refer to the elongated flexible organs that are present in some animals, especially invertebrates, and sometimes to the hairs of the leaves of some insectivorous plants. Usually, they are used for feeding, feeling and grasping. Anatomically, they work like other muscular hydrostats.

[ Invalid Attachment ]
Cuttlefish with 2 tentacles and 8 arms

[ Invalid Attachment ]
Leaf and tentacle movement on D. capensis
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 15/11/2006 05:34:57
NICE PHOTO!

UMBRA: (1) The dark inner portion of a sunspot. (2) The maincone of a shadow cast by a planet or the moon.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 15/11/2006 09:04:24
Von Braun Wernher

ikod
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 15/11/2006 15:32:45
Wikipedia is a multi-lingual, Web-based free content encyclopedia project. The name Wikipedia is a portmanteau of the words wiki and encyclopedia. Wikipedia is written collaboratively by volunteers, allowing most articles to be changed by almost anyone with access to the Web site. Wikipedia's main servers are in Tampa, Florida, with additional servers in Amsterdam and Seoul.

Wikipedia was launched as an English language project on January 15, 2001, as a complement to the expert-written and now defunct Nupedia, and now is operated by the non-profit Wikimedia Foundation. It was created by Larry Sanger and Jimmy Wales; Sanger resigned from both Nupedia and Wikipedia on March 1, 2002. Wales has described Wikipedia as "an effort to create and distribute a multi-lingual free encyclopedia of the highest possible quality to every single person on the planet in their own language".[1]

[ Invalid Attachment ]
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 15/11/2006 15:34:20
X-band

A band of radio frequencies extending from 5200 to 10 900 MHz
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 15/11/2006 15:37:52
The Y chromosome is the sex-determining chromosomes in humans and most other mammals. In mammals, it contains the gene SRY, which triggers testis development, thus determining maleness.

[ Invalid Attachment ]

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 15/11/2006 15:58:34
Zodiacal constellations:The 12 constellations used in astrology.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Mjhavok on 15/11/2006 16:45:15
Alpha Helix

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.columbia.edu%2Fcu%2Fbiology%2Fcourses%2Fc2005%2Fimages%2F3levelpro.4.p.jpg&hash=e3f31ff338cfa71a3147de5f45f64b3a)

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nd.edu%2F%7Easeriann%2Fahelix.gif&hash=1f9cecc57275584acfe5e93f678d3586)
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 15/11/2006 17:16:27
Cool!

Big Crunch-A possible future reversal of the big bang.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 15/11/2006 17:44:35
Clostridium tetani

www.humanillnesses.com/original/images/hdc_0001_0003_0_img0264.jpg
http://medinfo.ufl.edu/year2/mmid/bms5300/images/a5.jpg

ikod
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 16/11/2006 03:34:47
Doppler shift-The "police siren" effect,when waves propagated by a moving body have their wavelength stretched as the body moves away.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Mjhavok on 16/11/2006 11:33:21
Endotoxin or Exotoxin
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 16/11/2006 16:27:53
Flocculi: Patches on the suns surface based on the principal of the spectrascope. Bright Flocculi are composed of calcium, dark flocculi are made up of hydrogen.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 16/11/2006 19:13:42
GVHD - Graft Versus Host Disease
(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nhl-info.de%2Finfopool%2Fimages%2FGraftVersusHost1.jpg&hash=382a1fbfa34562d14d5e2d8183bf71b6)

acute and chronic reactions of donor's
T-lymphocytes against recipient's cells:
skin, gut, liver, CNS, eyes...

It could be easily prevented by removing
T-lymphocytes from the stem cell graft...
but if you do that, the probability of
either recurrence of leukemia or graft failure
increases significantly.

A new debilitating disease seems to keep
stalling the previous ailment.

ikod
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 16/11/2006 19:51:01
Helioseismology

The study of the Sun's interior by measuring oscillations (ripples) as they appear at the surface. The oscillations are caused by sound waves that originate at different depths inside the Sun. By measuring their travel times and the distance they travel, scientists can study conditions in the Sun's interior.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 17/11/2006 06:32:14
Ionosphere: The region above the stratasphere,from about 65 miles up to about 800 kilometres. Ionization  of the atoms in this region produces layers which reflect radio waves , making long-range communication over the earth possible. Solar events have effects upon the ionosphere, and produce ioospheric storms;on occasion, radio communication is interrupted.(Phiips Atlas Of The Universe Sir Patrick Moore )
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 17/11/2006 11:10:33
Rita Levi Montalcini

http://cordis.europa.eu/news/images/20061114_4.jpg
http://www.med.unibs.it/~airc/ngf.gif

Nobel Prize 1986.

ikod
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 17/11/2006 13:34:01
Mitosis - The type of cell division that creates two identical cells.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 17/11/2006 15:24:02
Narcolepsy is a neurological condition most characterized by Excessive Daytime Sleepiness (EDS), episodes of sleep and disorder of REM or rapid eye movement sleep. It is a type of dyssomnia.(sleep disorder)
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: science_guy on 17/11/2006 16:32:06
optometrist
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 17/11/2006 16:51:14
Paleomagnetism - A record of the Earth's magnetic field preserved in ancient rocks at the time of their formation.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 17/11/2006 17:13:29
Quenching effect

...Methanol intoxication increased lipid peroxidation and depleted the free radical scavenging enzyme systems. The free radical quenching effect of vitamin E ...

from:  Free radical changes in methanol toxicity
http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=14669114

ikod
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 18/11/2006 04:04:37
Ribosomes- The sites of protein synthesis in a cell.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 18/11/2006 09:19:57
Sesame seeds
sesame butter
sesaminol
sesamolin
(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.grainfieldsaustralia.com%2FUS%2Fingredients%2Fgraphics%2Fsesame-seeds.gif&hash=03bd101309b60ba5dc3507972787e61c)
http://www.grainfieldsaustralia.com/US/ingredients/graphics/sesame-seeds.gif

Sesaminol from sesame seed induces apoptosis in human lymphoid leukemia Molt 4B cells.
Miyahara Y, Hibasami H, Katsuzaki H, et al.

The exposure of human lymphoid leukemia Molt 4B cells to sesaminol, a component of sesame oil led to both growth inhibition and the induction of apoptosis. Morphological change showing apoptotic bodies was observed in the cells treated with sesaminol. The fragmentation of DNA by sesaminol to oligonucleosomal-sized fragments that are characteristics of apoptosis was observed to be concentration- and time-dependent. These findings suggest that growth inhibition of Molt 4B cells by sesaminol results from the induction of apoptosis in the cells.

Int J Mol Med. 2001 May;7(5):485-8.

ikod

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 18/11/2006 09:34:05
Taxonomy- The science of classifing living and distinct organisms.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 18/11/2006 09:56:29
Ubiquinone

ikod
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 18/11/2006 17:18:12
Variale Stars:Stars which fluctuate in brightness over short periods ot time.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 19/11/2006 21:57:20
weight - the force on an object due to the gravitational pull of a planet or other heavenly body
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 19/11/2006 22:35:41
X-rays
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 20/11/2006 00:34:18
Yeast replicative plasmid (YRp)

A yeast vector that carries a chromosomal origin of replication.

http://www.sci.sdsu.edu/~smaloy/Glossary/Y.html

ikod
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 20/11/2006 01:45:32
Zodiacal Light: the twelve costellations used in astrology.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 20/11/2006 16:36:57
Amastigotes

(Leishmania donovani)

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.brown.edu%2FCourses%2FBio_160%2FProjects2000%2FLeishmaniasis%2Famastigotes.jpg&hash=2473a1dffc4fc70b935a0d7433e98202)
http://www.brown.edu/Courses/Bio_160/Projects2000/Leishmaniasis/amastigotes.jpg

...In order to develop a successful parasitic relationship with its host, the leishmania must evade both the innate and adaptive immune responses. When leishmania first enters the human body, it is in the promastigote form. Promastigotes are engulfed by macrophages but are resistant to proteolysis and degradation in the phagosome. Once inside the macrophage, the organism is termed an amastigote. By continuing to live inside the macrophage, leishmania effectively avoids the humoral branch of the immune system. During each of the steps described, the protozoa evade and at times manipulate the human immune system and avoid digestion.
http://www.brown.edu/Courses/Bio_160/Projects2000/Leishmaniasis/immune.html
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 20/11/2006 16:45:40
Bolide: A brilliant meteor, which may explode during its decent through the earths atmosphere.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 20/11/2006 16:48:35
Corydoras

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.bollmoraakvarieklubb.org%2Fimages%2Fm_fisk%2Fcorydoras%2520julii.JPG&hash=b26344665421129a99d84b7d9aca70e0)
http://www.bollmoraakvarieklubb.org/images/m_fisk/corydoras%20julii.JPG
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 20/11/2006 17:05:21
Diurnal motion: The apparent daily rotation of the sky from east to west. It is due to the real rotation of the earth from west to east.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: science_guy on 20/11/2006 17:15:07
Earth
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 20/11/2006 17:33:04
Fibonacci numbers: An infinite sequence of numbers in which each number is the sum of the previous two numbers: 1,1,2,3,5,8, etc.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 20/11/2006 19:41:25
Gastric ulcer

Helicobacter pylori

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.pathguy.com%2Flectures%2Fnejm_h_pylori.gif&hash=84fdfd491e32bc5eebdd2bd9fd643866)
http://www.pathguy.com/lectures/nejm_h_pylori.gif
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 21/11/2006 07:30:32
Isotope: Any of two or more forms of an element having the same or very closely related chemical propertiesand the same atomic number but different atomic weights (or mass numbers)[U 235, U 238, and U 239 are three isotopes  of Uranium.] Different isotopes of an element have different numbers of neutrons in their atomic nuclei.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 22/11/2006 14:34:58
Jeune disease

Thoracic dystrophy of the newborn
(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.stevensorenson.com%2Fresidents6%2Fbbbbb.JPG&hash=10be842273c8b8987b8a7e95c00c981e)
http://www.stevensorenson.com/residents6/bbbbb.JPG
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 22/11/2006 16:36:34
What happened to 'H'

Kinetic art is art that moves, or appears to move.

Kinetic energy, in scientific terms, is the energy possessed by a body by virtue of its motion, including the atomic level as in heat.

In kinetic art the motion may be physical, as in the kinetic sculpture of Naum Gabo and mobiles of Alexander Calder, or implied, as in the Op art paintings of Bridget Riley and others.

The kinetic art vogue peaked from the middle 1960s to the middle 1970s.

[ Invalid Attachment ]
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 22/11/2006 17:33:38
This was been it my friendo Neilepus! G and H combined in a special occasion...
Gastric ulcer and...

Helicobacter pylori

...they always go together, but it took almost half a century to 'discover' this association.
(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.pathguy.com%2Flectures%2Fnejm_h_pylori.gif&hash=84fdfd491e32bc5eebdd2bd9fd643866)
http://www.pathguy.com/lectures/nejm_h_pylori.gif
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 22/11/2006 17:59:17
Lyot filter (monochromatic filter): A device used for observing the suns prominenses and other features of solar atmosphere, without the necessity of waiting for a total eclipse.It was invented by the french astronomer B. Lyot.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 22/11/2006 18:38:43
Marconi Guglielmo   (1874-1937)

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fperso.orange.fr%2Ftitanic%2Fimages%2Fmarconi.jpg&hash=26ae0c5fdecfca07bbe638261535197b)
http://perso.orange.fr/titanic/images/marconi.jpg

...and human communication took off.

Nobel Prize 1909 (Physics)
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 22/11/2006 19:24:36
Neutrino: A fundamental Partical which has no mass and no electric charge-which makes them extremely difficult to detect!
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 22/11/2006 19:37:20
Onchocerciasis
(River blindness)

A disease occurring in tropical Africa and Central America, transmitted by black flies and caused by infestation with filariform nematodes of the genus Onchocerca, especially O. volvulus, and characterized by nodular swellings on the skin and lesions of the eyes. Also called river blindness, volvulosis.
(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.vetmed.ucdavis.edu%2Fcourses%2Fvet_eyes%2Fimages%2Fs-7377p.jpg&hash=1042fed73d16d02ed6a20a69ab46f0bc)
http://www.vetmed.ucdavis.edu/courses/vet_eyes/eye_path/epath_s_7377.html

arrow = parasite, arrowhead = normal conjunctival epithelial cell, N = neutrophils
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 22/11/2006 19:53:37
Perigee: The point in the orbit of the moon or an artificial satellite at which the body is closest to the earth. The most distant point is the apogee.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 22/11/2006 23:24:31
Quackery?

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.lung.ca%2Ftb%2Fimages%2Ffull_archive%2F006_codLiverOil.jpg&hash=ab69c998b71e9d651a87d5b572202eb4)
http://www.lung.ca/tb/images/full_archive/006_codLiverOil.jpg

...Near the beginning of TB treatment in sanatoria, it became known that the sun helped to kill TB bacteria (see heliotherapy). When the Sun's UV rays hit human skin, vitamin D is produced. Naturally, when cod fish were found to be rich in vitamin D, it followed that their oil was sold as "liquid sunshine" (this was a real advertisement in the Valley Echo, March 1944). Cod Liver Oil is still used in "traditional" medicine today, and as an important dietary supplement, but no real evidence exists that it helps to cure tuberculosis.

http://www.lung.ca/tb/tbhistory/treatment/

Toll-like receptor triggering of a vitamin D-mediated human antimicrobial response.

Liu PT, Stenger S, Li H et al.
In innate immune responses, activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) triggers direct antimicrobial activity against intracellular bacteria, which in murine, but not human, monocytes and macrophages is mediated principally by nitric oxide. We report here that TLR activation of human macrophages up-regulated expression of the vitamin D receptor and the vitamin D-1-hydroxylase genes, leading to induction of the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin and killing of intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We also observed that sera from African-American individuals, known to have increased susceptibility to tuberculosis, had low 25-hydroxyvitamin D and were inefficient in supporting cathelicidin messenger RNA induction. These data support a link between TLRs and vitamin D-mediated innate immunity and suggest that differences in ability of human populations to produce vitamin D may contribute to susceptibility to microbial infection.
Science. 2006 Mar 24;311(5768):1770-3. Epub 2006 Feb 23.

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 23/11/2006 02:22:12
Reflection: The bouncing of a wave off a surface or boundry.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 23/11/2006 17:30:34
Staphylococcus aureus.

http://www.cassiopeaonline.it/immagini/staphylococcus_bacterium.jpg

ikod
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 23/11/2006 17:52:29
OOOOH Pretty!LOL

Thermodynamics: The study of heat flow!

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 23/11/2006 19:20:50
Urticaria

http://www.your-doctor.net/images/dermatology/urticaria/urticaria_neck.jpg

ikod
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 23/11/2006 20:06:08
Velocity

The velocity of an object is simply its speed in a particular direction. Since velocity is defined as a vector, both speed and direction are required to define it.
Contents
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 23/11/2006 20:33:42
Wave particle duality- paradoxical behavior of light as both a wave and a partical, which applies to all forms of electromagnetic radiation as well as matter.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: ukmicky on 23/11/2006 21:53:55
X-RAY Imaging
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 23/11/2006 22:13:51
Year- Time taken for the earth to go round the sun once! In every day life it is taken to be 365 days. (366 days in leap year.) (1) sidereal year: The true revelution period of the Earth : 365.26 days, or 365 days 6 hours 9 minutes 10 seconds. Etc.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 23/11/2006 23:22:30
Zinc deficiency

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.icddrb.org%2Fimages%2FP1010010.jpg&hash=af916637f9076ec9a6ff490a9800bda1)
http://www.icddrb.org/activity/index.jsp?activityObjectID=558

Longitudinal Incident Case Study of Caretakers and Providers:
An Adequacy Performance Evaluation of Scaling up Zinc in Bangladesh Rural and Urban Populations
.

Zinc deficiency has been found to be widespread among children in developing countries, and occurs in most of Latin America, Africa, the Middle East and South Asia. Although the theoretical basis for a potential role of zinc in cellular growth and in the function of the immune system has been postulated for quite some time, actual convincing evidence for its importance for child health has come from randomized controlled trials of zinc treatment or supplementation over the past decade. Children between 6 months and 5 years of age who receive zinc for the treatment of a diarrheal illness (20 mg/day for 10 days) recover faster, have a 30% reduction in the likelihood of developing prolonged diarrhoea, and have an estimated 50% reduction in non-injury mortality over the next 6 months.

Some of the potential constraints to the use of zinc on a large scale should be recognized, since some of these have hampered the more wide scale use of zinc in public health programs.  Firstly, unlike vitamin A, zinc is not stored in the body, and it was thought that this micronutrient would have to be administered on a daily basis.  From a practical viewpoint, daily supplements with zinc tablets to young children would seem impossible and thus the decision was to introduce zinc as a 10 day treatment. A second theoretical concern is the interaction that can occur between the absorption of zinc and certain other micronutrients, especially copper and iron.  An understanding of these interactions is important when considering daily supplementation, but these interactions are much less relevant when considering a brief course of treatment for a diarrhoeal illness.

A concern that this project also intends to address is that of equity. Most new health interventions are preferentially used by the more well-to-do, but the poor often do not have access to the new technologies. This project intends to monitor and make corrections for the inequities (e.g. by gender or income) that might otherwise occur. ICDDR,B will undertake evaluations to verify that the poorest of the poor will be benefiting from the program.

The treatment protocol to be scaled up in Bangladesh is a 10 day course of 20 mg of zinc daily provided as a dispersible tablet. The tablets are converted from a solid tablet to syrup with the addition of a few drops of water. The tablets will be packaged and sold in a 10 tablet blister pack.  The choice of a 10 day treatment is based upon expectations regarding the expected length of compliance (to be monitored) and current production patterns and technology which are set at 10 days.

The purpose of this protocol is to evaluate the overall performance and impact of the national scaling up exercise in two sub-districts of Bangladesh, one rural, the other urban.
....

ikod
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: ukmicky on 24/11/2006 00:09:31
Aequeosalinocalcalinoceraceoaluminosocupreovitriolic :)

scientific word describing the spa waters at Bath, England, is attributed to Dr Edward Strother (1675-1737)[11].
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 24/11/2006 00:19:55
Base=A substance that disolves in water to form an alkali.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 24/11/2006 10:42:56
Codeine

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.biopsychiatry.com%2Fcodeine%2Fcodeine.jpg&hash=32220c18c438b574565ae7a566f208c6)
http://www.biopsychiatry.com/codeine/codeine.jpg

ikod
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 24/11/2006 17:19:03
Dichotomy: The exact half-phase of Mercury, Venus or the Moon.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 24/11/2006 18:42:45
Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)

Herpes virus, pathogen in infectious mononucleosis

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww-ermm.cbcu.cam.ac.uk%2Ffig001mcl.gif&hash=97d10341f2a3d39a4d02219f01d9d181)
http://www-ermm.cbcu.cam.ac.uk/fig001mcl.gif

ikod

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 24/11/2006 18:50:02
Faculae: Bright temporary patches on the surface of the sun, usually (although not always) associated with sunspots.Faculae frequentlyappear in a position near which a spot group is about to appear, and may persist for some time in a region of a group which has disappeared.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 24/11/2006 19:04:59
Galileo Galilei  (1564-1642)

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Funiverse-review.ca%2FI08-24-Galileo.jpg&hash=d38e06a1716898539478a4833238b993)
http://universe-review.ca/I08-24-Galileo.jpg

ikod
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 24/11/2006 19:15:13
Halcyon is a genus of the tree kingfishers, near passerine birds in the family Halcyonidae.

[ Invalid Attachment ]

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 24/11/2006 19:17:02
Iko

Wonderful poster and lover of all things COD !!!  [;)]
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 24/11/2006 19:23:23
Iceland spar: A transparent colorless calcite, found especially in Iceland:it is used by opticians for makingdouble refracting prisms.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 24/11/2006 19:25:41
Too much honour, dear friendo Neilepus,
but actually I should spend my time 'surfing'
through parents websites (do they have any?),
instead of playing around here!

Lindberg Charles Augustus Jr. (1902-1974)
(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.humble.k12.tx.us%2Fnutrition%2FClipart%2FCalendar%2FLindberg.jpg&hash=d769dbe3275d7e1e031a9a0163346f17)
http://www.humble.k12.tx.us/nutrition/Clipart/Calendar/Lindberg.jpg
...known as "Lucky Lindy" and "The Lone Eagle", was an American aviator famous for piloting the first solo non-stop flight across the Atlantic Ocean in 1927.

Some believe Lindbergh tarnished his good name by his leadership in the movement to keep the US out of World War II. He was a great advocate for the peace movement and the peaceful resolution of conflict with Germany.

ikod
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 24/11/2006 19:32:48
Millibar: A unit which is used as a measure of atmospheric pressure. It is equal to 1000 dynes per square centimetre. The standard atmospheric pressure is  1013.25 millibars (75.97 centimetres of mercury).
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 24/11/2006 19:41:01
Nutrition Science

Nutritional supplement:

http://www.jmgkids.us/index.k2?did=2016&sectionID=2016

ikod
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 24/11/2006 20:16:02
Occulltation: The covering up of one celestial body by another. Thus the moon may pass in front of a star or ( occasionally) a planet; A planet may occult a star; and there have been cases when one planet has occulted another- for instance, Venus occulted Mars in 1950. Strickly speaking, solar eclipses are occultations of the Sun by the Moon.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 24/11/2006 22:47:52
Paragonimiasis

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fpathmicro.med.sc.edu%2Fparasitology%2FParagonimus-lc.gif&hash=148029436f8b9fbe09b74f06ba94d6e1)
http://pathmicro.med.sc.edu/parasitology/Paragonimus-lc.gif

Paragonimus westermani (Lung Fluke)

Epidemiology
Lung fluke is most commonly encountered in parts of Asia, Africa and South America.
Morphology
It is a plump reddish brown oval worm measuring 10 by 4 mm. The ovum measures 85 by 55 micrometers
Life cycle
Lung fluke infects man (and domestic carnivores) when crabmeat infested with encysted metacercaria is consumed. The metacercaria reach the small intestine, exit their shell and bore their way, as young flukes, through the intestinal wall, through the thoracic diaphragm and penetrate the lung. There, they become enclosed in 1 to 2 cm cysts and reach maturity. The eggs are found in the sputum or, if swallowed, in the feces, 2 to 3 months after infection. The eggs, when introduced in fresh water produce a miracidia which penetrates the suitable snail. In the snail they develop into cercaria which break out in water and penetrate gills, muscle or viscera of fresh water crabs and become encysted in flesh as metacercaria.
Symptoms
The fluke provokes the development of a fibrous tissue capsule with bloody purulent material containing eggs. There is inflammatory infiltrate around the capsule. The symptoms include a dry cough, followed by production of blood stained rusty brown sputum. Pulmonary pain and pleurisy may develop. Worms may migrate to the brain where they lay eggs and cause a granulomatous abscess resulting in symptoms similar to epilepsy.
Diagnosis
Diagnosis is based on history and symptoms. Eggs are found in rust colored sputum, often being examined for tuberculosis.
Treatment and control
Praziquantel taken orally is quite effective. Adequate cooking of crustaceans is a preventive measure. Improved sanitary conditions have lowered the infection rate in endemic areas.
from:  http://pathmicro.med.sc.edu/parasitology/trematodes.htm

ikod
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Mjhavok on 26/11/2006 17:52:32
Schistosomiasis

I did a talk on this subject and I think it went well. Amazing how nervous you think you will be doing a talk. Once I went over it with my partner a few times I was actually confident and couldn't wait to do it :-D.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 26/11/2006 18:18:53
No Q OR R? [;)]

Tension (mechanics)

Tension is a reaction force applied by a stretched string (rope or a similar object) on the objects which stretch it. The direction of the force of tension is parallel to the string, towards the string.

Tension exists also inside the string itself: if the string is considered to be composed of two parts, tension is the force which the two parts of the string apply on each other. The amount of tension in the string determines whether it will break, as well as its vibrational properties, which are used in musical instruments.

The magnitude of the force of tension typically increases with the amount of stretching. For small stretching, the force is often described by Hooke's law.

String-like objects in relativistic theories, such as the strings used in some models of interactions between quarks, or those used in the modern string theory, also possess tension. These strings are analyzed in terms of their world sheet, and the energy is then typically proportional to the length of the string. As a result, the tension in such strings is independent of the amount of stretching.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 26/11/2006 18:33:08
Uranium
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 26/11/2006 19:13:35
Von Willebrand Factor
http://www.soe.ucsc.edu/classes/bme220/Spring05/homework1/alexgw/vwf/vwf-2-highlit-cys.jpg

Von Willebrand factor (VWF) is a protein that is involved in blood clotting after injury to a blood vessel. When a vessel is torn, platelet cells collect in the cut region and create a fibrous mesh that seals off the area and stops further bleeding. The VWF serves two major functions: it helps attach platelets to the site of blood vessel injury, and it helps transport the "factor VIII" (factor 8) clotting protein to the site of injury.

There are several inherited genetic disorders related to abnormal function of VWF. Symptoms may be similar to those of hemophilia, although the underlying causes are different. Some forms of VWF are quite mild and may remain undiagnosed, while others are more like hemophilia and result in serious bleeding and blood clotting problems.
http://www.soe.ucsc.edu/classes/bme220/Spring05/homework1/alexgw/

ikod
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 26/11/2006 19:18:19
Wallace Alfred Russel

Alfred Russel Wallace, OM, FRS (January 8, 1823 – November 7, 1913) was a Welsh naturalist, explorer, geographer, anthropologist and biologist. He independently proposed a theory of natural selection which prompted Charles Darwin to publish his own more developed and researched theory sooner than he had intended. Wallace is sometimes called the "father of biogeography".

[ Invalid Attachment ]
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Mjhavok on 26/11/2006 21:14:14
No Q OR R? [;)]

Tension (mechanics)

Tension is a reaction force applied by a stretched string (rope or a similar object) on the objects which stretch it. The direction of the force of tension is parallel to the string, towards the string.

Tension exists also inside the string itself: if the string is considered to be composed of two parts, tension is the force which the two parts of the string apply on each other. The amount of tension in the string determines whether it will break, as well as its vibrational properties, which are used in musical instruments.

The magnitude of the force of tension typically increases with the amount of stretching. For small stretching, the force is often described by Hooke's law.

String-like objects in relativistic theories, such as the strings used in some models of interactions between quarks, or those used in the modern string theory, also possess tension. These strings are analyzed in terms of their world sheet, and the energy is then typically proportional to the length of the string. As a result, the tension in such strings is independent of the amount of stretching.

I'm sure they where there when I posted. Oh well.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 27/11/2006 00:51:02
X-Chromosomes
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: ukmicky on 27/11/2006 02:26:13
Y-chromosomes :)
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 27/11/2006 08:17:23
Zener effect

Zener diode

http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/Hbase/solids/imgsol/diod10.gif

The Zener Effect
With the application of sufficient reverse voltage, a p-n junction will experience a rapid avalanche breakdown and conduct current in the reverse direction. Valence electrons which break free under the influence of the applied electric field can be accelerated enough that they can knock loose other electrons and the subsequent collisions quickly become an avalanche. When this process is taking place, very small changes in voltage can cause very large changes in current. The breakdown process depends upon the applied electric field, so by changing the thickness of the layer to which the voltage is applied, zener diodes can be formed which break down at voltages from about 4 volts to several hundred volts.
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/Hbase/solids/zener.html

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Mjhavok on 27/11/2006 10:59:36
ATP
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 27/11/2006 12:08:09
"Boole, George (1815-64)was an English mathmatician who became a professor at QueensCollege, Cork. He set out to devise an algebraic formula for logic by replacing logical statements by set-collections of mathematical objects." (quote Taken from a "Brief history of Science" consultant editor John Gribbin, Published by "The ivy press limited 1998")
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 27/11/2006 18:39:37
Code (genetic)

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.codefun.com%2FImages%2FGenetic%2FComputerSymbols9d.jpg&hash=333475e2367dd6f008d62c94f4b48c62)
http://www.codefun.com/Images/Genetic/ComputerSymbols9d.jpg

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Ffig.cox.miami.edu%2F%7Ecmallery%2F150%2Fgene%2Fc7.17.26.summary.jpg&hash=0687004439dc8c442424dc02a30f8e8e)
http://fig.cox.miami.edu/~cmallery/150/gene/c7.17.26.summary.jpg

ikod
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 27/11/2006 22:38:36
Diuretic

A diuretic (colloquially called a water pill) is any drug or herb that elevates the rate of bodily urine excretion (diuresis). Diuretics also decrease the extracellular fluid (ECF) volume, and are primarily used to produce a negative extracellular fluid balance. Caffeine, cranberry juice and alcohol are all weak diuretics.

Uses

In medicine, diuretics are used to treat heart failure, liver cirrhosis, hypertension and certain kidney diseases. Diuretics alleviate the symptoms of these diseases by causing sodium and water loss through the urine. As urine is produced by the kidney, sodium and water – which cause edema related to the disease – move into the blood to replace the volume lost as urine, thereby reducing the pathological edema. Some diuretics, such as acetazolamide, help to make the urine more alkaline and are helpful in increasing excretion of substances such as aspirin in cases of overdose or poisoning.

The antihypertensive actions of some diuretics (thiazides and loop diuretics in particular) are independent of their diuretic effect. That is, the reduction in blood pressure is not due to decreased blood volume resulting from increased urine production, but occurs through other mechanisms and at lower doses than that required to produce diuresis. Indapamide was specifically designed with this is mind, and has a larger therapeutic window for hypertension (without pronounced diuresis) than most other diuretics.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Mjhavok on 27/11/2006 23:18:07
Erythromycin
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 28/11/2006 13:21:57
Evolution
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 28/11/2006 13:25:14
Fossil Record: the Evidence of past life preserved in a fossil form.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 28/11/2006 19:02:28
Garlic antifungal intravenous  preparations
(Allium sativum)

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.foodmuseum.com%2Fimages%2Fgarlic1.jpg&hash=9fba075a5c980e0f68b74af66b4c9b03)
http://www.foodmuseum.com/images/garlic1.jpg

Enhanced diallyl trisulfide has in vitro synergy with amphotericin B against Cryptococcus neoformans.
Shen J, Davis LE, Wallace JM, Cai Y, Lawson LD.
Department of Microbiology, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, USA.

Although amphotericin B remains the drug of choice for systemic fungal infections, its use is limited by considerable side effects. In The Peoples' Republic of China, commercial Allium sativum derived compounds are widely used as an antifungal drug to treat systemic fungal infections. To evaluate the scientific merit of using A. sativum derived compounds as antifungal agents, we studied a Chinese commercial preparation, allitridium. This preparation contained mainly diallyl trisulfide as confirmed by high performance liquid chromatography. Allitridium, with and without amphotericin B, was tested to determine its efficacy in killing three isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the commercial preparation was 50 micrograms/ml and the minimum fungicidal concentration was 100 micrograms/ml against 1 x 10(5) organisms of C. neoformans. In addition, the commercial preparation was shown to be synergistic with amphotericin B in the in vitro killing of C. neoformans. This study demonstrates that diallyl trisulfide and other polysulfides possess potent in vitro fungicidal effects and their activity is synergistic with amphotericin B. These observations lend laboratory support for the treatment of cryptococcal infections with both amphotericin B and the Chinese commercial preparation.

Planta Med. 1996 Oct;62(5):415-8.

Unfortunately these data had not been confirmed...yet.

ikod
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Mjhavok on 28/11/2006 22:24:11
Hydrophobic interactions
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 28/11/2006 23:06:33
I band

The I band is the range of radio frequencies from 8 GHz to 10 GHz in the electromagnetic spectrum. This is equal to wave lengths between 3.75 cm and 3 cm. The I band is in the SHF range of the radio spectrum.

The I band lies in the X band of the older classification system.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 29/11/2006 02:37:10
Jupiter
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 29/11/2006 12:14:25
Klinefelter syndrome

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.aafp.org%2Fafp%2F20051201%2F2259_f1.jpg&hash=75376f8bfba69327d25464397142892a)
http://www.aafp.org/afp/20051201/2259_f1.jpg

Klinefelter syndrome is caused by an additional X chromosome in males (47,XXY). Clinical findings are nonspecific during childhood; thus, the diagnosis commonly is made during adolescence or adulthood in males who have small testes with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and gynecomastia. Virtually all men with Klinefelter syndrome are infertile.
Epidemiology
Approximately one in 1,000 boys is born with an additional X chromosome-47,XXY, the karyotype that causes Klinefelter syndrome.
This karyotype is detected at or before birth in 10 percent of affected boys, and it is found during adulthood in 25 percent of affected men. Almost all men with a 47,XXY karyotype will be infertile; Klinefelter syndrome accounts for 3 percent of male infertility. Klinefelter syndrome is common in infertile men with oligospermia or azoospermia (5 to 10 percent).

ikod
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: science_guy on 29/11/2006 16:13:59
Ligaments.

How dare you post porn on this site iko! [::)][;)]
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 29/11/2006 17:57:46
MALTomas
(Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissue lymphomas)

A type of slow growing gastrointestinal lymphomas called MALTomas (Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissue) had been treated by standard chemotherapy (CHOP protocol...what a name for a chemotherapy!) until the end of the last century.
There was no suggestion about the origin of this clonal expansion of lymphoid cells in the gut. So the following action had to be blind and toxic.

But in the middle of the '80s two smart researchers from Australia, Barry J. Marshall and J. Robin Warren (Nobel Prize 2005) started their battle: they tried to demonstrate that a common bacteria, Helicobacter pylori, was the major cause of gastroduodenal ulcers in humans.
A standard antibiotic treatment was able to eradicate the bacteria,  allowing the ulcers (wounds in the mucosa) to heal spontaneously.

They initially got veggies and bananas at medical meetings, nevertheless they went on collecting more and more evidence to prove the "infectious theory" of peptic ulcer.  It had to be tough. Medicine is highly conservative for various reasons, and for a long time infectious diseases had been strictly defined: one bacteria, one disease.  Helicobacter pylori is very common in humans...but just few of us develop ulcers.   That was just enough to keep stalling any bright theory for years.
Finally H.p. eradication became the standard treatment.
Now there is growing evidence that persistent Helicobacter infection and continuous release of toxic substances for years, could be one of the causes of stomach cancer.
"...tumors: wounds that never healed..."

"...leukemia&lymphoma: infections never resolved..."
Shortly after it was found that the majority of the patients with MALT lymphomas were carrying H.p. and that eradication therapy alone was able to induce a spontaneous regression of the tumors. It was obviously too good to be true, so over the years some patients were found to be resistant to antibiotic treatment (2-3 weeks, no chemo!) and their lymphomas where identified as more advanced, with more chromosomal damage, unable to stop growing even when the bacterial stimuli were removed by eradication treatment.

iko NKSforum topic: "New cancer theory"

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 29/11/2006 18:32:18
Nano

..........- is a prefix (symbol n) in the SI system of units denoting a factor of 10−9. It is often used in prefixing time and length units encountered in electronics and computer systems, like 30 nanoseconds (symbol ns) and 100 nanometres (nm). It was confirmed in 1960 and comes from the Greek νᾶνος, meaning dwarf.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 29/11/2006 18:39:07
Organic chemistry: The chemistry of carbon compounds!
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 29/11/2006 19:15:16
Picod

..........- is a prefix (symbol p) in the SI system of units denoting a factor of 10E−12. It is often used in prefixing time and length units encountered in electronics and computer systems, like 30 picoseconds (symbol ps) and 100 picometres (pm).
"Pico" means tiny, little, and it comes from Spanish.

ikod  (Cut&Paste Master!)
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 05/12/2006 18:58:22
...anybody queing?
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 12/12/2006 00:22:29
...anybody queing?

Quasar
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quasar

Artist's impression of quasar GB1508................ [ Invalid Attachment ]

A quasar (contraction of QUASi-stellAR radio source) is an astronomical source of electromagnetic energy, including light, which shows a very high redshift. The scientific consensus is that this high redshift is the result of Hubble's law. This implies that quasars are very distant. To be observable at that distance, the energy output of quasars must dwarf that of almost every known astrophysical phenomenon with the exception of comparatively short-lived supernovae and gamma-ray bursts. They may readily release energy in levels equal to the output of hundreds of average galaxies combined. The output of light is equivalent to one trillion suns.

In optical telescopes, most quasars look like single points of light (i.e. point source) although some are seen to be the centers of active galaxies.

Some quasars display rapid changes in luminosity, which implies that they are small (an object cannot change faster than the time it takes light to travel from one end to the other; but see quasar J1819+3845 for another explanation). The highest redshift currently known for a quasar is 6.4. [1]

Quasars are believed to be powered by accretion of material onto supermassive black holes in the nuclei of distant galaxies, making these luminous versions of the general class of objects known as active galaxies. No other currently known mechanism appears able to explain the vast energy output and rapid variability.

Knowledge of quasars is advancing rapidly. As recently as the 1990's there was no clear consensus as to their origin.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: ukmicky on 12/12/2006 03:19:52
And i suppose you took that one yourself
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Mjhavok on 12/12/2006 04:18:52
RFLP (restriction fragment length
polymorphism)
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 12/12/2006 05:23:51
And i suppose you took that one yourself

Boy, I am just so pleased that my old Brownie camera still worked at the end of my very long poll from Earth.  [:)]
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 12/12/2006 05:26:32
Sextant

A sextant is a measuring instrument generally used to measure the angle of elevation of a celestial object above the horizon. Making this measurement is known as sighting the object, shooting the object or taking a sight. The angle, and the time when it was measured, can be used to calculate a position line on a nautical or aeronautical chart. A common use of the sextant is to sight the sun at noon to find one's latitude. See celestial navigation for more discussion. Held horizontally, the sextant can be used to measure the angle between any two objects, such as between two lighthouses, which will, similarly, allow for calculation of a line of position on a chart.

The scale of a sextant has a length of 1/6 of a full circle; 60°, hence the sextant's name. An octant is a similar device with a shorter scale, (1/8 of a circle, or 45°) and a quadrant is one with a longer scale (90°).

Sir Isaac Newton invented the principle of the doubly reflecting navigation instrument, but never published it. Two men independently rediscovered the sextant around 1730: John Hadley (1682-1744), an English mathematician, and Thomas Godfrey (1704-1749), an American inventor. The sextant, along with the octant, replaced the astrolabe as the main instruments for navigation.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sextant

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Mjhavok on 12/12/2006 05:50:35
Telophase
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 12/12/2006 07:06:21
Uranium
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 12/12/2006 18:06:00
Wernicke encephalopathy

Wernicke encephalopathy is a serious disorder caused by thiamine (vitamin B-1) deficiency. Dr Carl Wernicke, a Polish neurologist, described it in 1881 as a triad of acute mental confusion, ataxia, and ophthalmoplegia. Korsakoff amnestic syndrome is a late neuropsychiatric manifestation of Wernicke encephalopathy with memory loss and confabulation; hence, the condition is referred to as Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome or psychosis. It is most often seen in alcoholics, but it can be seen in disorders associated with malnutrition and also in patients on long-term hemodialysis or with AIDS. The disease is frequently unrecognized and is likely more prevalent than commonly supposed.
...
Emergency Department Care: Wernicke encephalopathy must be viewed as a medical emergency, even if other competing diagnoses of CNS processes are being considered. Because the condition is potentially reversible, institution of treatment is indicated in patients exhibiting any combination of symptoms and signs, particularly if the patient is in a high-risk population. Onset of the disease may be acute, subacute, or chronic.

Although as little as 2 mg of thiamine may be enough to reverse symptoms, the dose of thiamine required to prevent or treat Wernicke encephalopathy in most alcoholic patients may be as high as greater than 500 mg given once or twice daily parenterally. Thiamine solution should be fresh, since old solutions may be inactive. Ataxia and acute confusional state may resolve dramatically, although improvement may not be noted for days or months.

http://www.emedicine.com/emerg/topic642.htm

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 12/12/2006 22:41:12
How about a 'v ' ?

Verruca

Plantar warts (verrucæ pedis; VP - also commonly referred to as a verruca) are warts caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV). They are small lesions that appear on the sole of the foot (hence the name, from Latin planta pedis, the sole of the foot) and are typically cauliflower-esque in appearance. They may have small black specks within them that ooze blood when the surface is shaved; these are abnormal capillaries. Though plantar wart refers specifically to HPV infection on the sole of the foot, infection by the virus is possible anywhere on the body and common especially on the palm of the hand, where the appearance of the wart is often exactly as described above for plantar warts. Due to pressure on the soles of the feet, a layer of hard skin forms over the wart. A plantar wart may or may not be painful. It can be spread in communal showers, around swimming pools, sharing shoes, etc.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 12/12/2006 22:47:15
Xygote

Neilepedia reference:

Word created to fill in a gap at the ' X' stage in an A-Z thread of science stuff !

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 13/12/2006 03:55:35
HEE HEE HEE! LOL!

YOUNG, John (astronaut)
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: JimBob on 13/12/2006 04:34:55
NEIL !!!!

No need for a fill for "X" - Xenon, an elemental gas, will work just fine and there are quite a few other science things. I'll try to think when I wake in the AM to fill in a partial list.

You can have the credit for Zygote.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 13/12/2006 05:03:51
NEIL !!!!

No need for a fill for "X" - Xenon, an elemental gas, will work just fine and there are quite a few other science things. I'll try to think when I wake in the AM to fill in a partial list.

You can have the credit for Zygote.

Sir....I am honored!!..It's possible that some of the words you compile may already have been used here..but I suppose some  'letters ' will demand repetition of certain words.

Thanks Jimmy Boy !!
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 13/12/2006 05:36:19
Absolute Zero- Zero Kelvin (-273*C)
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 13/12/2006 15:08:01
Barium meal

[ Invalid Attachment ]
Preprepared Barium Sulfate suspension for oral consumption

A barium meal, also known as an upper gastrointestinal series is a procedure in which radiographs of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum are taken after barium sulfate is ingested by a patient. Barium meals are useful in the diagnosis of structural and motility abnormalities of the foregut.

There are two varieties of barium meal, these being single and double contrast meals. A single contrast meal uses only barium, a radiopaque (or positive) contrast medium, to image the upper gastrointestinal tract while a double contrast meal uses barium as well as a radiolucent (or negative) contrast medium such as room air, nitrogen, or carbon dioxide. The double contrast meal has the advantage of demonstrating mucosal details and is much more useful as a diagnostic test allowing the detection of small mucosal lesions such as diverticula or polyps.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 13/12/2006 16:45:18
OH YUCK!! I HATE THOSE THINGS!

Chirality- The ability of an molecule to exist in two mirror-image forms, with different properties.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 13/12/2006 18:09:44
Diode
1889  (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.scienceandsociety.co.uk%2FPix%2FSCI%2F47%2F10324047_T.JPG&hash=0f075fa802b7754f9bba4b63700eaf3c)   (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.cjseymour.plus.com%2Felec%2Fvalves%2FVDIODE.jpg&hash=3713a82831be10ef0d3338f639b77872)
http://www.scienceandsociety.co.uk/Pix/SCI/47/10324047_T.JPG
http://www.cjseymour.plus.com/elec/valves/VDIODE.jpg
ikod

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Mjhavok on 13/12/2006 19:01:29
Electromagnetopolymorphiclaserwavebeam

No wait I mean Elephant.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: kalimna on 13/12/2006 22:16:13
Fourier-transform thingummywotsits. You know, that whole splitting up combined waveforms into their/its constituent parts.....

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 13/12/2006 22:50:25
Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is the most important carbohydrate in biology. The cell uses it as a source of energy and metabolic intermediate. Glucose is one of the main products of photosynthesis and starts cellular respiration in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

Two isomers of the aldohexose sugars are known as glucose, only one of which (D-glucose) is biologically active. This form (D-glucose) is often referred to as dextrose (dextrose monohydrate), especially in the food industry. This article deals with the D-form of glucose. The mirror-image of the molecule, L-glucose, cannot be used by cells.

[ Invalid Attachment ]
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 14/12/2006 13:53:25
Homeotic genes (hox genes)- The genes that determine developement and body plan.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Mjhavok on 14/12/2006 17:24:36
Iodine
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: kalimna on 14/12/2006 19:19:56
Jeroboam - as in large bottle of wine, particularly champagne. And with the fermenting of primarily carbohydrate into alcohol, along with several flavour, colouring and preserving reactions - wine is very scientific indeed :)

I apologise. It has been a long day.

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 14/12/2006 23:45:53
Kwashiorkor

Kwashiorkor

Classifications and external resources
Kwashiorkor sufferers show signs of thinning hair, edema, inadequate growth, and weight loss. The stomatitis on the pictured infant indicate an accompanying Vitamin B deficiency.
Many of the children in this photograph from a Nigerian orphanage in the late 1960's show symptoms of malnutrition, with four in particular illustrating the gray-blond hair symptomatic of kwashiorkor.
Kwashiorkor is a type of childhood malnutrition with controversial causes, but commonly believed to be caused by insufficient protein intake. British pediatrician Cicely D. Williams introduced the name into international scientific circles in her 1935 Lancet article[1]. The name is derived from one of the Kwa languages of coastal Ghana and means "the one who is displaced" reflecting the development of the condition in the older child who has been weaned from the breast once a new sibling is born.
When a child is nursing, it receives certain amino acids vital to growth from its mother's milk. When the child is weaned, if the diet that replaces the milk is high in starches and carbohydrates, and deficient in protein (as is common in parts of the world where the bulk of the diet consists of starchy vegetables, or where famine has struck), the child may develop kwashiorkor.
Symptoms of kwashiorkor include a swollen abdomen, reddish discoloration of the hair and depigmented skin. The swollen abdomen is generally attributed to two causes: ascites due to altered oncotic pressure as a result of hypoalbuminemia (low albumin in the blood) and grossly enlarged liver due to fatty liver. This fatty change occurs because of the lack of apolipoproteins which transport lipids from the liver to tissues throughout the body. Additionally, the child has a miserable appearance with a "bull-dog" face. Generally, the disease can be treated by adding food energy and protein to the diet; however, mortality can be as high as 60% and it can have a long-term impact on a child's physical growth and, in severe cases, affect mental development.

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: ukmicky on 15/12/2006 00:02:51
Light an effect :)
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: ukmicky on 15/12/2006 00:03:52
The longest  Scientific name for an enzyme which has  been cited  in multiple scientific journals:

methionylglutaminylarginyltyrosylglutamylserylleucylphenylal
anylalanylglutaminylleucyllysylglutamylarginyllysylglutamylg
lycylalanylphenylalanylvalylprolylphenylalanylvalylthreonyll
eucylglycylaspartylprolylglycylisoleucylglutamylglutaminylse
rylleucyllysylisoleucylaspartylthreonylleucylisoleucylglutam
ylalanylglycylalanylaspartylalanylleucylglutamylleucylglycyl
isoleucylprolylphenylalanylserylaspartylprolylleucylalanylas
partylglycylprolylthreonylisoleucylglutaminylasparaginylalan
ylthreonylleucylarginylalanylphenylalanylalanylalanylglycylv
alylthreonylprolylalanylglutaminylcysteinylphenylalanylgluta
mylmethionylleucylalanylleucylisoleucylarginylglutaminyllysy
lhistidylprolylthreonylisoleucylprolylisoleucylglycylleucyll
eucylmethionyltyrosylalanylasparaginylleucylvalylphenylalany
lasparaginyllysylglycylisoleucylaspartylglutamylphenylalanyl
tyrosylalanylglutaminylcysteinylglutamyllysylvalylglycylvaly
laspartylserylvalylleucylvalylalanylaspartylvalylprolylvalyl
glutaminylglutamylserylalanylprolylphenylalanylarginylglutam
inylalanylalanylleucylarginylhistidylasparaginylvalylalanylp
rolylisoleucylphenylalanylisoleucylcysteinylprolylprolylaspa
rtylalanylaspartylaspartylaspartylleucylleucylarginylglutami
nylisoleucylalanylseryltyrosylglycylarginylglycyltyrosylthre
onyltyrosylleucylleucylserylarginylalanylglycylvalylthreonyl
glycylalanylglutamylasparaginylarginylalanylalanylleucylprol
ylleucylasparaginylhistidylleucylvalylalanyllysylleucyllysyl
glutamyltyrosylasparaginylalanylalanylprolylprolylleucylglut
aminylglycylphenylalanylglycylisoleucylserylalanylprolylaspa
rtylglutaminylvalyllysylalanylalanylisoleucylaspartylalanylg
lycylalanylalanylglycylalanylisoleucylserylglycylserylalanyl
isoleucylvalyllysylisoleucylisoleucylglutamylglutaminylhisti
dylasparaginylisoleucylglutamylprolylglutamyllysylmethionyll
eucylalanylalanylleucyllysylvalylphenylalanylvalylglutaminyl
prolylmethionyllysylalanylalanylthreonylarginylserine

This is the expanded name for a tryptophan compound made up of 267 amino acids described with the following chemical composition:

C1289, H2051, N343, O375,S8

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: kalimna on 15/12/2006 00:33:29
Neodymium - a rare earth with a nice-sounding name......
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 15/12/2006 11:56:23
Osler William   (12 July 1849 – 29 December 1919)

http://www.historicalmedicalart.com/images/swo_mat_lg.jpg
http://www.nndb.com/people/564/000024492/osler129.jpg

Biography

William Osler was born in a remote part of Ontario known as Bond Head. He spent a year at Trinity College in Ontario before deciding on a career in medicine. He attended the Toronto Medical College for two years and in 1872 received his M.D. degree from McGill University in Montreal. Like many of his fellow physicians trained in Canada, Osler went abroad for postgraduate study. He studied in London, Berlin, and Vienna before returning to Canada in 1874 and joining the medical faculty at McGill. A year later he was promoted to professor. Osler was elected a fellow of the British Royal College of Physicians in 1883, one of only two Canadian fellows at that time. In 1884 he left Montreal for Philadelphia to become professor of clinical medicine at the University of Pennsylvania.

John S. Billings recruited William Osler in 1888 to be physician-in-chief of the soon-to-open Johns Hopkins Hospital and professor of medicine at the planned school of medicine. Osler was the second appointed member of the original four medical faculty, following William H. Welch and preceding Howard A. Kelly and William S. Halsted. He revolutionized the medical curriculum of the United States and Canada, synthesizing the best of the English and German systems. Osler adapted the English system to egalitarian American principles by teaching all medical students at the bedside. He believed that students learned best by doing and clinical instruction should therefore begin with the patient and end with the patient. Books and lectures were supportive tools to this end. The same principles applied to the laboratory, and all students were expected to do some work in the bacteriology laboratory. Osler introduced the German postgraduate training system, instituting one year of general internship followed by several years of residency with increasing clinical responsibilities.

William Osler’s book, The Principles and Practice of Medicine, first published in 1892, supported his imaginative new curriculum. It was based upon the advances in medical science of the previous fifty years and remained the standard text on clinical medicine for the next forty years.
Osler, a superb diagnostician and clinician, was greatly esteemed by his peers in this country and abroad. In 1905 he accepted the Regius Professorship of Medicine at Oxford University, at the time the most prestigious medical appointment in the English-speaking world. He left Maryland with warm feelings for Hopkins knowing that his sixteen years spent had laid a solid foundation for the future of Hopkins medical education.

From: 1993 McCall, Nancy, ed. The Portrait Collect
http://www.medicalarchives.jhmi.edu/osler/biography.htm

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 15/12/2006 16:43:08
Michael, you missed an ' a ' back there !

Photosynthesis (photo=light, synthesis=putting together), generally, is the synthesis of sugar from light, carbon dioxide and water, with oxygen as a waste product. It is arguably the most important biochemical pathway known; nearly all life depends on it. It is an extremely complex process, comprised of many coordinated biochemical reactions. It occurs in higher plants, algae, some bacteria, and some protists, organisms collectively referred to as photoautotrophs.

[ Invalid Attachment ]
The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants.

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 15/12/2006 18:10:24
Question marks ???
There are plenty of those in Science!

No, no good... [;D]

Quinolone, alkaloids

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.genome.jp%2FFig%2Fcompound%2FC05079.gif&hash=62df6e04067c1851835cebd84b9295ca)   (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fmicro.magnet.fsu.edu%2Fprimer%2Ftechniques%2Fpolarized%2Fgallery%2Fimages%2Fnalidixicacid20xsmall.jpg&hash=6bbe06bf6381221d0b30b51c5657e078)   (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.axxora.com%2Ffiles%2Fformula%2FLKT-L5749.gif&hash=60f4ddb12ea2a7a6c6164e7ea850970b)
http://www.genome.jp/Fig/compound/C05079.gif
http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/techniques/polarized/gallery/images/nalidixicacid20xsmall.jpg
http://www.axxora.com/files/formula/LKT-L5749.gif

...The quinolones are a family of broad-spectrum antibiotics. The parent of the group is nalidixic acid. The majority of quinolones in clinical use belong to the subset of fluoroquinolones, which have a fluoro group attached the central ring system.

more from wikipedia:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quinolone
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: kalimna on 15/12/2006 18:13:52
Roentgen..... as in all things x-ray....
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Mjhavok on 15/12/2006 19:17:01
Sporangia
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 15/12/2006 21:32:44
Tetracycline

History

Tetracycline was first discovered by Lloyd Conover in the research departments of Pfizer. The patent for Tetracycline was first issued in 1950 (patent number 2,624,354). Tetracycline sparked the development of many chemically altered antibiotics and in doing so has proved to be one of the most important discoveries made in the field of antibiotics

from wikipedia:   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tetracycline

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 15/12/2006 21:52:31
Uvula of urinary bladder5

The mucous membrane immediately behind the internal urethral orifice presents a slight elevation, the uvula of urinary bladder, caused by the middle lobe of the prostate.

[ Invalid Attachment ]
Vertical section of bladder, penis,
and urethra. (Uvula not labeled,
but would be present in bladder,
at region labeled "neck".)
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 15/12/2006 23:00:47
Vancomycin

http://www.science-education.org/images/van_med.gif

Vancomycin is a powerful, chlorine-containing antibiotic drug that often works when all other antibiotics fail. It has been called the "antibiotic of last-resort," having saved the lives of patients suffering from serious, stubborn bacterial illnesses. Although few of us will ever have a need for it, it is a very good thing that vancomycin is available.

Scientists know that nature is a rich chemical laboratory from which many useful medicines may be derived. Vancomycin, like many other healing drugs, is a product of nature. It is produced by the soil bacteria, Streptomyces orientalis, originally found in India and Indonesia over forty years ago. The chemical formula for vancomycin, C66H75Cl2N9O24, shows that it is a large molecule.

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 16/12/2006 04:45:10
Wankel, Felix

Prof.hc.Dr.Ing.e.h. Felix Heinrich Wankel (August 13, 1902–October 9, 1988) was the German inventor of the Wankel engine.

Wankel was born in Lahr, Germany, in the upper Rhine Valley. Since his mother was widowed in World War I, Wankel received no university education or even an apprenticeship. However he was able to teach himself technical subjects and conceived the idea of the Wankel engine in 1924. In the 1930s, he had a disagreement with Adolf Hitler, and was imprisoned by the Nazis for some months. During World War II, he developed seals and rotary valves for German air force aircraft and navy torpedoes. After the war, he was imprisoned by the Allies for some months, his laboratory was closed, his work confiscated, and he was prohibited from doing more work. In 1951, he began development of the engine at NSU (NSU Motorenwerke AG), leading to the first running prototype in 1957. His Wankel engine design was first licensed by Curtiss Wright in New Jersey. Mazda in Japan solved the chatter marks problem. The engine has been successfully used by Mazda in several generations of their RX-series of coupés.

In later years, Wankel was granted an honorary Doctorate of Engineering (Dr.-Ing.). He was known for his championing of animal rights and opposition to the use of animals in testing. He never had a driver's license.

[ Invalid Attachment ]
Wankel Engine in Deutsches
Museum Munich, Germany

How it works

The Wankel cycle. The "A" marks one of the three apexes of the rotor. The "B" marks the eccentric shaft, turning three times for every revolution of the rotor.

In the Wankel engine, the four strokes of a typical Otto cycle engine are arranged sequentially around an oval, unlike the reciprocating motion of a piston engine. In the basic single rotor Wankel engine, a single oval (technically an epitrochoid) housing surrounds a three-sided rotor (similar to a Reuleaux triangle, but with the middle of each side a bit more flattened) which turns and moves within the housing. The sides of the rotor seal against the sides of the housing, and the corners of the rotor seal against the inner periphery of the housing, dividing it into three combustion chambers.

As the rotor turns, its motion and the shape of the housing cause each side of the rotor to get closer and farther from the wall of the housing, compressing and expanding the combustion chamber similarly to the "strokes" in a reciprocating engine. However, whereas a normal four stroke cycle engine produces one combustion stroke per cylinder for every two revolutions (that is, one half power stroke per revolution per cylinder) each combustion chamber of each rotor in the Wankel generates one combustion 'stroke' per revolution (that is, three power strokes per rotor revolution). Since the Wankel output shaft is geared to spin at three times the rotor speed, this becomes one combustion 'stroke' per output shaft revolution per rotor, twice as many as the four-stroke piston engine, and similar to the output of a two stroke cycle engine. Thus, power output of a Wankel engine is generally higher than that of a four-stroke piston engine of similar engine displacement in a similar state of tune, and higher than that of a four-stroke piston engine of similar physical dimensions and weight. Wankel engines also generally have a much higher redline than a similarly sized reciprocating engine since the strokes are completed with a rotary motion as opposed to a reciprocating engine which must use connecting rods and a crankshaft to convert reciprocating motion into rotary motion.

National agencies which tax automobiles according to displacement and regulatory bodies in automobile racing variously consider the Wankel engine to be equivalent to a four-stroke engine of 1.5 to 2 times the displacement; some racing regulatory agencies view it as offering so pronounced an advantage that they ban it altogether.[citation needed]

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 16/12/2006 07:18:11
Xanthine- A white, crystalline nitrogenous compound,C5,H4, N4, 02, that decomposes into Ethel alcohol and carbon disulfide at 24*C.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 16/12/2006 09:04:33
Yohimbine

Yohimbine

Yohimbine, also known under the outdated names quebrachin, aphrodin, corynine, yohimvetol, and hydroergotocin, is the principal alkaloid of the bark of the West-African tree Pausinystalia yohimbe Pierre (formerly Corynanthe yohimbe), family Rubiaceae (Madder family). There are 31 other yohimbane alkaloids found in Yohimbe.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yohimbine

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 16/12/2006 17:33:33
Zonal flow

Zonal flow is a meteorological term meaning that the general flow pattern is west to east along the earth's latitude lines (the opposite of meridional flow). Extratropical cyclones in this environment tend to be weaker, moving faster and producing relatively little impact on local weather.

[ Invalid Attachment ]
A zonal flow regime. Note the dominant
west-to-east flow as shown in the 500
hPa height pattern.

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 16/12/2006 17:57:09
Archea-Primitive single-celled prokaryotic organisms resembling bacteria.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 16/12/2006 23:22:52
Bessis Marcel     (1917-1994)

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Finfodoc.inserm.fr%2Fhistoire%2FHistoire.nsf%2F%28WWWHommes%29%2F131AAFBB33FDE6E180256DCC004E0E56%2F%24FILE%2FBessis.jpg&hash=3d387750296e21fb7635f0432771d54c)                           (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.canalu.fr%2Fcanalu%2Fimg%2F10%2Fimg_627691714.jpg&hash=8a8629fa4e5f53099d2135a0d3aa4e97)

Inserm actualités 1994

Marcel Bessis vient de nous quitter. De la campagne d'Italie à la première rémission des leucémies aiguës, tel pourrait être le titre du chapitre initial de l'oeuvre de Marcel Bessis. C'est pendant la campagne d'Italie qu'il avait proposé de traiter les blessés victimes de graves écrasements musculaires par le grand échange du sang, l'exsanguino-transfusion. C'est à l'hôpital Saint-Antoine que, un des tout premiers, il traite par l'exsanguino-transfusion les nouveau-nés victimes de la maladie hémolytique par conflit Rhésus. D'où de pénétrantes études sur cette maladie du nouveau-né qu'il reproduit chez le raton, qu'il retrouve chez le muleton du Poitou, victime des anticorps anti-baudet sécrétés par la mère jument. C'est enfin, en novembre 1947, à l'hôpital Herold, pour la première fois dans l'histoire des leucémies, la rémission complète d'une leucémie aiguë obtenue par l'exsanguino-transfusion, début d'un long combat.
Cependant, Marcel Bessis, se consacrant entièrement au laboratoire, devenait le pionnier des nouvelles méthodes microscopiques. Il applique la microscopie électronique à l'étude des structures des cellules sanguines normales et leucémiques. Il reconnaît, décrit des formes, des structures nouvelles. Surtout, il met au point la microcinématrographie accélérée en contraste de phase. Il passe de l'anatomie à la physiologie. Il crée littéralement l'écologie, l'éthologie des cellules sanguines, reconnaissant les informations qui couvent à l'intérieur de la cellule, d'organelle en organelle, de mitochondries en centriole. C'est ainsi qu'on lui doit la première description du nécrotaxis, de cette mort cellulaire qui inspire actuellement de nombreux travaux.

Marcel Bessis, comme les grands hommes de sciences, a su constamment allier la rigueur technique à une réflexion générale philosophique dont témoignent des essais sur l'histoire de la recherche scientifique, la créativité dans l'art et la science, la définition du soi et du non-soi.
Cette oeuvre, très étroitement liée à celle des chercheurs de l'Inserm, a été accomplie à l'Institut de pathologie cellulaire de l'hôpital de Bicêtre, puis au Centre d'écologie des cellules du sang à la Salpêtrière.
Membre de nombreuses académies et sociétés savantes étrangères, Marcel Bessis avait été élu en 1979 membre de l'Académie des Sciences.

Professeur Jean Bernard

http://infodoc.inserm.fr/histoire/Histoire.nsf/(WWWReponses)/5AFB06BDC8B13BE480256DCC004EBFBF?OpenDocument&Infos

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 17/12/2006 19:48:32
Clavicle

In human anatomy, the clavicle or collar bone is classified as a long bone that makes up part of the shoulder girdle (pectoral girdle). It receives its name from the Latin clavicula ("little key") because the bone rotates along its axis like a key when the shoulder is abducted. (This movement is palpable with the opposite hand). In some people, particularly females who may have less fat in this region, the location of the bone is clearly visible as it creates a bulge in the skin.

Clavicles are found in many tetrapods but tend to be rudimentary or absent in those using their forelimbs primarily for support or running and present where the forelimbs are used for grasping or brachiation.

[ Invalid Attachment ]

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 17/12/2006 21:54:10
Delta-aminolaevulinic acid dehydratase

http://pir.georgetown.edu/pirwww/images/pdb/1H7Nx500c.jpg

Lead has no known biological role in the body. The toxicity comes from its ability to mimic other biologically important metals, the most notable of which are calcium, iron and zinc. Lead is able to bind to and interact with the same proteins and molecules as these metals, but after displacement, those molecules function differently and fail to carry out the same reactions, such as in producing enzymes necessary for certain biological processes.

Most lead poisoning symptoms are thought to occur by interfering with an essential enzyme Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, or ALAD. ALAD is a zinc-binding protein which is important in the biosynthesis of heme, the cofactor found in hemoglobin.
Genetic mutations of ALAD cause the disease porphyria, a disease which was highlighted in the movie The Madness of King George.
Lead poisoning is sometimes mistaken for porphyria but the distinction is that lead poisoning usually causes anemia while true porphyria does not.

more from Wikipedia clicking here:   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lead_poisoning

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 17/12/2006 23:23:27
Earth ........ often referred to as the Earth, Terra, the World or Planet Earth) is the third most distant planet in the solar system from the Sun, and the fifth largest planet. It is also the largest of its planetary system's terrestrial planets, making it the largest solid body in the solar system, and it is the only place in the universe known to humans to support life. It is also the densest planet in the solar system. Widely accepted scientific evidence indicates that the Earth was formed around 4.57 billion years ago[1] and its natural satellite, the Moon, was orbiting it shortly thereafter, around 4.53 billion years ago.

The outer surface is divided into several tectonic plates that gradually migrate across the surface over geologic time spans. The interior of the planet remains active, with a thick layer of convecting yet solid mantle and an iron core that generates a magnetic field. Its atmospheric conditions have been significantly altered by the presence of life forms, which create an ecological balance that modifies the surface conditions. About 71% of the surface is covered in salt-water oceans, and the remainder consists of continents and islands.

There is significant interaction between the Earth and its space environment. The relatively large moon provides ocean tides and has gradually modified the length of the planet's rotation period. A cometary bombardment during the early history of the planet is believed to have played a role in the formation of the oceans. Later, asteroid impacts are understood to have caused significant changes to the surface environment. Long term periodic changes in the orbit of the planet may also be responsible for the ice ages that have covered significant portions of the surface in glacial sheets.

[ Invalid Attachment ]

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 17/12/2006 23:31:20
Faradize- To treat or stimulate with faradic current.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 17/12/2006 23:57:51
Geographic tongue
Geniustrophic tongue
(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.mediscan.co.uk%2Fimages%2FBatch3%2F2331%2F2331t.jpg&hash=64e6a9e419e636f632a07aba5aa12d6a)                                      (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi59.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fg314%2Flalalalalma%2Feinstein-tongue.jpg&hash=51e4a21a4f97c7947853cbb0112dc80c)
http://www.mediscan.co.uk/images/Batch3/2331/2331t.jpg
http://i59.photobucket.com/albums/g314/lalalalalma/einstein-tongue.jpg

Geographic tongue is a relatively common tongue problem that normally responds to topical steroids.  We do not know the cause of geographic tongue and treatment does not permanently cure it.  It does however, provide significant improvement of symptoms.

The safest treatment is topical Lidex gel applied about 4 times daily, just after meals and at bedtime.  A dentist should be able to prescribe it.
There are stronger steroids available but they have side effects.  Some patients with this problem have Zinc deficiency and could have zinc blood levels tested.  If zinc deficiency is found, zinc supplementation really helps.

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 19/12/2006 03:15:22
A cerebral hemisphere (hemispherium cerebrale) is defined as one of the two regions of the brain that are delineated by the body's median plane. The brain can thus be described as being divided into left and right cerebral hemispheres. Each of these hemispheres has an outer layer of grey matter called the cerebral cortex that is supported by an inner layer of white matter. The hemispheres are linked by the corpus callosum, a very large bundle of nerve fibers, and also by other smaller commissures, including the anterior commissure, posterior commissure, and hippocampal commissure. These commissures transfer information between the two hemispheres to coordinate localized functions. The architecture, types of cells, types of neurotransmitters and receptor subtypes are all distributed among the two hemispheres in a markedly asymmetric fashion. However, it must be noted that, while some of these hemispheric distribution differences are consistent across human beings, or even across some species, many observable distribution differences vary from individual to individual within a given species.

[ Invalid Attachment ]
The human brain as viewed from
above, showing the cerebral
hemispheres. The anterior aspect
(front) of the brain is to the right.

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 19/12/2006 03:37:13
inorganic chemistry!
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 19/12/2006 12:16:20
Jarish-Herxheimer reaction

After antibiotic therapy of Lyme disease

...
The Jarish Herxheimer reaction is seen when antibiotics are having a therapeutic effect. There can be a worsening in the symptoms, which may include the periostitis, and the psychiatric and cognitive symptoms. Some patients become very impulsive, aggressive, depressed, and suicidal during a Herxheimer reaction and may require close monitoring during these times.
Progression of symptoms is a significant item. After working with these patients, it is clear there are common patterns in which different symptoms appear in a different sequence. This item is checked when the symptoms are appearing in a sequence that is seen in the progression of Lyme disease, i.e.: it begins with a tick bite, then a bull’s eye rash associated with a flu like illness, then there may be some of the disseminated symptoms such as the joint pain. The cranial nerve symptoms may be seen. Later there is the development of the cognitive symptoms that gradually increase over time. Then the psychiatric symptoms develop later in the course of the illness with an intensification of the cognitive and neurological symptoms. Not every stage is seen in all patients. Although many similarities exist between patients, no two patients display the exact same symptoms; and there are many variants in the manner in which the disease presents. There is some evidence that different clusters of symptoms are associated with different strains of the bacteria, and there are many variants in the manner in which this disease presents.
...
from:  http://www.mentalhealthandillness.com/tnaold.html

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Mjhavok on 19/12/2006 16:10:30
Lipoprotein
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 19/12/2006 23:21:31
Koch Robert   (1843-1910)
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1905

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.educationforum.co.uk%2Fkoch.jpg&hash=135f5f117a42a7160f55fcb07e79e46b)              (https://www.hipusa.com/eTools/webmd/A-Z_Encyclopedia/tuberculosis.jpg)
http://www.educationforum.co.uk/koch.jpg
https://www.hipusa.com/eTools/webmd/A-Z_Encyclopedia/tuberculosis.jpg
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 20/12/2006 01:43:57
Mendeleev ,Dimitri:

(Russian: (8 February 1834 [O.S. 27 January] in Tobolsk – 2 February 1907 [O.S. 20 January] in Saint Petersburg), was a Russian chemist. He is credited as being the primary creator of the first version of the periodic table of elements. Unlike other contributors to the table, Mendeleev predicted the properties of elements yet to be discovered.

[ Invalid Attachment ]
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 20/12/2006 01:49:14
NUMBER THEORY= the study of whole numbers (integers).
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Mjhavok on 20/12/2006 03:31:02
Oligodendrocyte
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 20/12/2006 03:38:15
Protein immunology = The use antibodies to determine the relationships of species. Antibodies specific to one spicies have variable reactions with others depending on their genetic similarity.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 20/12/2006 17:39:46
QUARKS

In particle physics, quarks are one of the two basic constituents of matter (the other Standard Model fermions are the leptons).

Antiparticles of quarks are called antiquarks. Quarks are the only fundamental particles that interact through all four of the fundamental forces. The word was borrowed by Murray Gell-Mann from the book Finnegans Wake by James Joyce, where seabirds give "three quarks", akin to three cheers (probably onomatopoetically imitating a seabird call, like "quack" for ducks).

The names of quark flavours (up, down, strange, charm, bottom, and top) were also chosen arbitrarily based on the need to name them something that could be easily remembered and used.

An important property of quarks is called confinement, which states that individual quarks are not seen because they are always confined inside subatomic particles called hadrons (e.g., protons and neutrons); an exception is the top quark, which decays so quickly that it does not hadronize, and can therefore be observed more directly via its decay products. Confinement began as an experimental observation, and is expected to follow from the modern theory of strong interactions, called quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Although there is no mathematical derivation of confinement in QCD, it is easy to show using lattice gauge theory

[ Invalid Attachment ]
These are the 6 quarks and their
most likely decay modes. Mass
decreases moving from right to left.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 20/12/2006 17:53:14
Radiometric dating = Fiinding a rocks age using the decay rate of radioactive elements in the sample.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 20/12/2006 19:30:43
STI571 - Gleevec - Imatinib Mesilate

by Dr.Brian Druker  (Univ. Oregon USA)

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.sciencewatch.com%2Fmarch-april2003%2Fbrianjdruker.jpg&hash=0da50359b007380bc5a9c91943df8162)         (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.cgmh.org.tw%2Fintr%2Fintr2%2Fc3140%2FSTI571-01.JPG&hash=57f0b2c64a7e90b8c353d94f4d0e9b4a)
http://www.sciencewatch.com/march-april2003/brianjdruker.jpg
http://www.cgmh.org.tw/intr/intr2/c3140/STI571-01.JPG

..."The most important drug
in human oncology in the
last twenty years!"
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 20/12/2006 20:17:28
Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for Tubercle Bacillus) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which most commonly affects the lungs (pulmonary TB) but can also affect the central nervous system, lymphatic system, circulatory system, genitourinary system, bones and joints.

Over one-third of the world's population now has the TB bacterium in their bodies and new infections are occurring at a rate of one per second.[1] Not everyone who is infected develops the disease and asymptomatic latent TB infection is most common. However, one in ten latent infections will progress to active TB disease which, if left untreated, will kill more than half of its victims. In 2004, 14.6 million people had active TB and there were 8.9 million new cases and 1.7 million deaths,[1] mostly in developing countries. A rising number of people in the developed world contract tuberculosis because their immune systems are compromised by immunosuppressive drugs, substance abuse, or HIV/AIDS.

The rise in HIV infection levels and the neglect of TB control programs have caused a resurgence of tuberculosis, and drug-resistant strains of TB are also emerging.[2] The World Health Organization declared TB a global health emergency in 1993, and the Stop TB Partnership proposed a Global Plan to Stop Tuberculosis which aims to save 14 million lives between 2006 and 2015.[3]
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 20/12/2006 20:21:53
Ultra Violet Lights
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 21/12/2006 17:40:29
Vernacular refers to the native language of a country or locality. In general linguistics, it is used to describe local languages as opposed to linguae francae, official standards or global languages. It is sometimes applied to nonstandard dialects of a global language.

In previous centuries scholarly work in Western Europe was typically written in Latin, so the works written in a native language (such as Italian or German) were said to be in the vernacular.

The vernacular is also often contrasted with a liturgical language (in Linguistics, the relationship between these "High" and "Low" languages or varieties of a language is referred to as diglossia). For example, until the 1960s, Latin Rite Roman Catholics held masses in Latin rather than in local vernacular language, to this day the Coptic Church holds liturgies in Coptic; though parts of mass are read in Amharic, the Ethiopian Orthodox Church holds liturgies in Ge'ez, etc. The Reformation was spread by the publication of Bibles and other religious writings in the vernacular, and the reforms of the Second Vatican Council permitted the use of vernacular liturgies in Roman Catholicism.

Similarly, in Hindu culture, traditionally religious or scholarly works were written in Sanskrit long after its use as a spoken language. With the rise of the bhakti movement from the 1100s onwards, religious works started being created in Tamil, Hindi, Kannada, Telugu and many other Indian languages throughout the different regions of India. For example, the Ramayana, one of Hinduism's sacred epics in Sanskrit had vernacular versions such as Ramacharitamanasa, a Hindi version of the Ramayana by the 16th century poet Tulsidas, and Kambaramayanam in Tamil by the poet Kamban.
Contents
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 21/12/2006 19:10:15
Wilson's disease
http://www.scielo.br/img/revistas/anp/v63n1/23622f3.jpg
http://www.kellogg.umich.edu/theeyeshaveit/congenital/images/wilsons-disease.jpg

Wilson's disease

Wilson's Disease is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of copper transport, resulting in copper accumulation and toxicity to the liver and brain. Liver disease is the most common symptom in children; neurological disease is most common in young adults. The cornea of the eye can also be affected: the 'Kayser-Fleischer ring' is a deep copper-colored ring at the periphery of the cornea, and is thought to represent copper deposits.
The gene for Wilson's disease (ATP7B) was mapped to chromosome 13. The sequence of the gene was found to be similar to sections of the gene defective in Menkes disease, another disease caused by defects in copper transport. The similar sequences code for copper-binding regions, which are part of a transmembrane pump called a P-type ATPase that is very similar to the Menkes disease protein.
A homolog to the human ATP7B gene has been mapped to mouse chromosome 8, and an authentic model of the human disease in rat is also available (called the Long-Evans Cinnamon [LEC][ rat). These systems will be useful for studying copper transport and liver pathophysiology, and should help in the development of a therapy for Wilson disease.

from:   http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/disease/Wilson.html

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: JimBob on 21/12/2006 22:49:21
Xerothermic

Said of a hot, dry climate.

[::)]
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: chris on 22/12/2006 23:42:46
Yersinia - Yersinia are a class of bacilli linked to a form of food poisoning and also bubonic plague (Y. pestis).
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 23/12/2006 00:02:20

In broad terms, the zenith is the direction pointing directly above a particular location (perpendicular, orthogonal). Since the concept of being above is itself somewhat vague, scientists define the zenith in more rigorous terms. Specifically, in astronomy, geophysics and related sciences (e.g., meteorology), the zenith at a given point is the local vertical direction pointing away from direction of the force of gravity at that location.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 23/12/2006 00:02:46
Absinthe (also absinth) (IPA English: [ˈæbsɪnθ] IPA French: [ap.sɛ̃t]) is a distilled, highly alcoholic, anise-flavored spirit derived from herbs including the flowers and leaves of the medicinal plant Artemisia absinthium, also called grand wormwood. Although it is sometimes incorrectly called a liqueur, absinthe is not bottled with added sugar and is therefore classified as a liquor or spirit.[1]

Absinthe is often referred to as la Fée Verte ('The Green Fairy') because of its coloring — typically pale or emerald green, but sometimes clear or in rare cases rose red. Due to its high proof and concentration of oils, absintheurs (absinthe drinkers) typically add three to five parts ice-cold water to a dose of absinthe, which causes the drink to turn cloudy (called 'louching'); often the water is used to dissolve added sugar to decrease bitterness. This preparation is considered an important part of the experience of drinking absinthe, so much so that it has become ritualized, complete with special slotted absinthe spoons and other accoutrements. Absinthe's flavor is similar to anise-flavored liqueurs, with a light bitterness and greater complexity imparted by multiple herbs.

Absinthe originated in Switzerland as an elixir but is better known for its popularity in late 19th and early 20th century France, particularly among Parisian artists and writers whose romantic associations with the drink still linger in popular culture. In its heyday, the most popular brand of absinthe worldwide was Pernod Fils. At the height of this popularity, absinthe was portrayed as a dangerously addictive, psychoactive drug; the chemical thujone was blamed for most of its deleterious effects. By 1915, it was banned in a number of European countries and the United States. Even though it was vilified, no evidence shows it to be any more dangerous than ordinary alcohol.[2] A modern absinthe revival began in the 1990s, as countries in the European Union began to reauthorize its manufacture and sale.

[ Invalid Attachment ]
A reservoir glass filled with
a naturally colored verte next
to an absinthe spoon.

I realise this may not be strictly science but I thought I might get away with it based on chemistry and the effect on biology !!
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 23/12/2006 02:54:33
Sounds Fair to me!

Black Dwarf = A dead Star that has exhausted all of it's energy.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 23/12/2006 21:03:20
Codon
(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fevolution.berkeley.edu%2Fevolibrary%2Fimages%2Fevo%2Fcodon_GCA.gif&hash=f601cb0a6384b1212e128c6848275f69)
http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/images/evo/codon_GCA.gif

ikod
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 23/12/2006 21:29:30
Dawkins,Richard = Author of, The Selfish Gene; The Extended Phenotype; The Blind Watchmaker;  River Out Of Eden; and Cimbing Mount Improbable.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 25/12/2006 17:45:57
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.separationsnow.com%2FFCKeditor%2FUserFiles%2FImage%2FspectroscopyNOW_ezines_2006%2FJournal_Articles%2Fmarmoset_140206.jpg&hash=6eff8b94361f1a96916ee301f4e311ee)
http://www.separationsnow.com/FCKeditor/UserFiles/Image/spectroscopyNOW_ezines_2006/Journal_Articles/marmoset_140206.jpg

IL-10 signaling is essential for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-mediated inhibition
of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

Spach KM, Nashold FE, Dittel BN, Hayes CE.
Dept.Nutr.Sciences, College Agricultural & Life Sciences, Univ.Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) results from an aberrant, neuroantigen-specific, T cell-mediated autoimmune response. Because MS prevalence and severity decrease sharply with increasing sunlight exposure, and sunlight supports vitamin D(3) synthesis, we proposed that vitamin D(3) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25-(OH)(2)D(3)) may protect against MS.
In support of this hypothesis, 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) strongly inhibited experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). This inhibition required lymphocytes other than the encephalitogenic T cells. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) might inhibit EAE through the action of IL-10-producing regulatory lymphocytes. We report that vitamin D(3) and 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) strongly inhibited myelin oligodendrocyte peptide (MOG(35-55))-induced EAE in C57BL/6 mice, but completely failed to inhibit EAE in mice with a disrupted IL-10 or IL-10R gene.
Thus, a functional IL-10-IL-10R pathway was essential for 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) to inhibit EAE. The 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) also failed to inhibit EAE in reciprocal, mixed bone marrow chimeras constructed by transferring IL-10-deficient bone marrow into irradiated wild-type mice and vice versa. Thus, 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) may be enhancing an anti-inflammatory loop involving hemopoietic cell-produced IL-10 acting on brain parenchymal cells and vice versa.
If this interpretation is correct, and humans have a similar bidirectional IL-10-dependent loop, then an IL-10-IL-10R pathway defect could abrogate the anti-inflammatory and neuro-protective functions of sunlight and vitamin D(3). In this way, a genetic IL-10-IL-10R pathway defect could interact with an environmental risk factor, vitamin D(3) insufficiency, to increase MS risk and severity.

J Immunol. 2006 Nov 1;177(9):6030-7.

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 26/12/2006 04:44:34
Faraday Michael, FRS (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was an English chemist and physicist (or natural philosopher, in the terminology of that time) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. He established that magnetism could affect rays of light and that there was an underlying relationship between the two phenomena.

Some historians of science refer to him as the best experimentalist in the history of science. It was largely due to his efforts that electricity became viable for use in technology. The SI unit of capacitance, the farad, is named after him, as is the Faraday constant, the charge on a mole of electrons (about 96,485 coulombs). Faraday's law of induction states that a magnetic field changing in time creates a proportional electromotive force.

He held the post of Fullerian Professor of Chemistry at the Royal Institution of Great Britain. Faraday was the first, and most famous, holder of this position to which he was appointed for life.

[ Invalid Attachment ]

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 26/12/2006 05:06:50
Gluons-The quanta of color charge that binds the quarks into nucleons.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 26/12/2006 11:58:44
Heinrich Hertz      (1857-1894)

http://www.nrao.edu/whatisra/images/hertz_tm.jpg
http://www.nrao.edu/whatisra/images/hertz_expt_tm.jpg

In 1888, Heinrich Hertz built an apparatus that could transmit and receive electromagnetic waves of about 5 meters in length. He used a coil to generate a high voltage spark between two electrodes which served as a transmitter. The detector was a loop of wire with a small gap.
A spark at the transmitter produces electromagnetic waves that travel to the detector, producing a spark in the gap.  He showed that the waves were polarized, and that they could interfere with each other, just as predicted by theory.

from:  National Radio Astronomy Observatory
http://www.nrao.edu/whatisra/hist_prehist.shtml

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 26/12/2006 22:27:39
Isambard Kingdom Brunel, FRS (9 April 1806 – 15 September 1859) (IPA: [ˈɪzəmbɑ(ɹ)d ˈkɪŋdəm brʊˈnɛl]), was an English engineer. He is best known for the creation of the Great Western Railway, a series of famous steamships, and numerous important bridges.

Though Brunel's projects were not always successful, they often contained innovative solutions to long-standing engineering problems. During his short career, Brunel achieved many engineering "firsts", including assisting in the building of the first tunnel under a navigable river and development of the first propeller-driven ocean-going iron ship, which was at the time also the largest ship ever built.[1]

Brunel suffered several years of ill health, with kidney problems, before succumbing to a stroke at the age of 53. Brunel was said to smoke up to 40 cigars a day, and get by on only four hours of sleep a night.

In 2006, a major programme of events celebrated his life and work on the bicentenary of his birth under the name Brunel 200.[2]

[ Invalid Attachment ]
The Clifton Suspension
Bridge spans the Avon Gorge,
linking Clifton in Bristol
to Leigh Woods in North Somerset.

[ Invalid Attachment ]

[ Invalid Attachment ]
Bridge, at the time the
largest span for a brick
arch bridge.

[ Invalid Attachment ]
The Royal Albert
Bridge, seen from
Saltash railway station.

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 27/12/2006 04:54:08
Julian Day: A count of the days, starting from 12 noon on Jan. 1rst 4713 BC. Julian days are used by variable star observers, and for the reckonings of phenomena which extend over very long periods of time.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 27/12/2006 14:53:05
Kernicterus

http://rwjms.umdnj.edu/kernicterus/images/image005.jpg
http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/dd/images/homeunit.jpg
http://escuela.med.puc.cl/paginas/Cursos/tercero/AnatomiaPatologica/Imagenes_AP/fotos744-750/750.jpg

Jaundice

About 60% of newborn infants in the United States are jaundiced, that is they look yellow. Jaundice is the yellow coloring of the skin and other tissues. Jaundice can often be seen well in the sclera, the "whites" of the eyes, which look yellow. Many many babies look jaundiced (60%), but they are not deeply jaundiced, not jaundiced below the abdomen, and they act OK - they nurse, they aren't too sleepy, they have normal muscle tone, their cry is normal, they don't arch their backs.

Kernicterus

Kernicterus is a form of brain damage caused by excessive jaundice. The substance which causes jaundice, bilirubin, is so high that it can move out of the blood into brain tissue. When babies begin to be affected by excessive jaundice, when they begin to have brain damage, they become excessively lethargic. They are too sleepy, and they are difficult to arouse - either they don't wake up from sleep easily like a normal baby, or they don't wake up fully, or they can't be kept awake. They have a high-pitched cry, and decreased muscle tone, becoming hypotonic or floppy) with episodes of increased muscle tone (hypertonic) and arching of the head and back backwards. As the damage continues, they may develop fever, may arch their heads back into a very contorted position known as opisthotonus or retrocollis.

from:   http://www.kernicterus.org/

Phototherapy is routinely used
to treat moderate hyperbilirubinemia

Emergency treatment to lower bilirubin
and prevent kernicterus and its sequelae
in very severe cases of newborn jaundice
is a simple transfusion procedure called
blood-exchange or exchange transfusion.

ikod

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 27/12/2006 19:43:01
Lovell , Sir Alfred Charles Bernard         OBE PhD FRS (born 31 August 1913, Oldland Common, Bristol) is a British physicist and radio astronomer. He was the first Director of Jodrell Bank Observatory, from 1945 to 1980.

Born in Oldland Common, Bristol, he studied physics at the University of Bristol, obtaining a Ph.D. in 1936. He worked in the cosmic ray research team at the University of Manchester until the outbreak of World War II, during which he worked for the TRE developing radar systems to be installed in aircraft, for which he received an OBE in 1946.

He attempted to continue cosmic ray work with an ex-military radar unit and following interference from trams on Manchester's Oxford Road moved to Jodrell Bank Observatory, near Goostrey in Cheshire, an outpost of the university's botany department. He was able to show that radar echoes could be obtained from daytime meteor showers. With university funding he constructed the then-largest steerable radio telescope in the world, which now bears his name - the Lovell Telescope. Nearly 50 years later, it remains one of the foremost radio telescopes in the world.

He was knighted in 1961 for his important contributions to the development of radio astronomy, and has a secondary school named after him in his home village of Oldland Common Bristol.[1] A building on the QinetiQ site in Malvern is also named after him.

[ Invalid Attachment ]
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 28/12/2006 09:23:44
Meiosis = The type of cell division that creates reproductive cells, in which genetic material is shuffled by recombination.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 28/12/2006 19:32:10
Narcolepsy is a neurological condition most characterized by Excessive Daytime Sleepiness (EDS), episodes of sleep and disorder of REM or rapid eye movement sleep. It is a type of dyssomnia.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 28/12/2006 19:38:39
Organic Chemistry = The chemistry of carbon compounds.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 28/12/2006 22:06:38
Phototherapy

from neonatal jaundice to psoriasis,
cutaneous GVHD and vitamin D deficiency...

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww-english.tamu.edu%2Fpers%2Ffac%2Fmyers%2Fphototherapy.jpg&hash=551fc2af901dd2a61d75cb316f61761c)    (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.npl.co.uk%2Fpublications%2Fnews%2Fopticalrm%2Fissue16%2Fnew_high_dose_uva1_therapy_system..jpg&hash=e5c90f13c511ebb5264b9c5e23c0b522)       (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fnews.bbc.co.uk%2Fmedia%2Fimages%2F38157000%2Fjpg%2F_38157237_300beach.jpg&hash=4994eeae9cfdaa8af8b083385315aeb2)
http://www-english.tamu.edu/pers/fac/myers/phototherapy.jpg
http://www.npl.co.uk/publications/news/opticalrm/issue16/new_high_dose_uva1_therapy_system..jpg
http://news.bbc.co.uk/media/images/38157000/jpg/_38157237_300beach.jpg

ikod   [^]
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: JimBob on 29/12/2006 04:19:32
Quar - a Welch word for sandstone
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 29/12/2006 10:16:02
Rickets

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.rad.washington.edu%2Fmaintf%2Fcases%2Funk42%2Fimages%2Flegs.jpg&hash=3f824207bb3f87776ddd110ac0076a71)     (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fgraphics.boston.com%2Fbonzai-fba%2FGlobe_Photo%2F2004%2F04%2F20%2F1082464098_6093.jpg&hash=39acace8c37c2806cb5522b0ae319149)     (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.discoveriesinmedicine.com%2Fimages%2Fmdis_0000_0003_0_img0147.jpg&hash=0875bb23e80de105248f02a50b426d8b)     (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.mmaonline.net%2FPublications%2FMNMed2005%2FNovember%2FImages%2Fsun.gif&hash=844fef17c08a93edd025a83988db07bf)
http://graphics.boston.com/bonzai-fba/Globe_Photo/2004/04/20/1082464098_6093.jpg
http://www.discoveriesinmedicine.com/images/mdis_0000_0003_0_img0147.jpg
http://www.mmaonline.net/Publications/MNMed2005/November/Images/sun.gif

ikod   [^]
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 29/12/2006 20:33:13
Science in the broadest sense refers to any system of objective knowledge. In a more restricted sense, science refers to a system of acquiring knowledge based on the scientific method, as well as to the organized body of knowledge humans have gained by such research. This article focuses on the latter sense of the word.

Fields of science are commonly classified along two major lines:

* Natural sciences, which study natural phenomena
* Social sciences, which study human behavior and societies

Whether mathematics is a science is a matter of perspective. It is similar to other sciences in that it is a careful, systematic study of an area of knowledge — specifically, it focuses on a priori knowledge. Mathematics as a whole is vital to the sciences — indeed, major advances in mathematics have often led to major advances in other sciences. Certain aspects of mathematics are indispensable for the formation of hypotheses, theories, and laws, both in discovering and describing how things work (natural sciences) and how people think and act (social sciences).

Science as defined above is sometimes termed pure science in order to differentiate it from applied science, the latter being the application of scientific research to human needs.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 29/12/2006 20:44:13
Tectonic Plates
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 29/12/2006 21:59:48
Urokinase

http://kjronline.org/figure/sv5n2134fig1c.jpg

Urokinase
Urokinase (Abbokinase), also called urokinase-type Plasminogen Activator (uPA), is a serine protease (EC 3.4.21.73). Urokinase was originally isolated from human urine, but is present in several physiological locations, such as blood stream and the extracellular matrix. The primary physiological substrate is plasminogen, which is an inactive zymogen form of the serine protease plasmin.
Activation of plasmin triggers a proteolysis cascade which, depending on the physiological environment participate in thrombolysis or extracellular matrix degradation.
This links urokinase to vascular diseases and cancer.

Clinical applications
Urokinase is used clinically as a thrombolytic agent in the treatment of severe or massive deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, and occluded intravenous or dialysis cannulas. Recently, Alteplase has replaced urokinase as a thrombolytic drug in infarction.

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 02/01/2007 08:50:55
Valency = A figure that describes the number of hydrogen atoms that an atom of any element may combine with.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: eric l on 02/01/2007 10:17:21
Tetonic Plates
I suppose you mean "tectonic plates" - unless you mean "Teutonic plates" which would be something like "German dishes" (such as "Sauerkraut mit Eisbein").
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 02/01/2007 18:25:49
Wheatstone bridge

http://physics.kenyon.edu/EarlyApparatus/Electrical_Measurements/Wheatstone_Bridge/Hampden-Sydney5.jpg
http://www.bbc.co.uk/scotland/education/bitesize/higher/img/physics/elect/resistors/wheatstone.gif
http://www.physics.montana.edu/demonstrations/video/5_electricityandmagnetism/demos/pics/wheatstonebridge2.JPG

Wheatstone Bridge

Curiously enough, the Wheatstone Bridge was not invented by Charles Wheatstone (1802-1875), but by Hunter Christie.
However, Wheatstone was responsible for popularizing the arrangement of four resistors, a battery and a galvanometer, and gave Christie full credit in his 1843 Bakerian Lecture. Wheatstone called the circuit a "Differential Resistance Measurer."
And how to draw Wheatstone's Bridge? Wheatstone himself used the familiar diamond pattern in his Needle Telegraph; it has been suggested that his set of Blue Willow pattern china, with the cross-hatching on the arched bridge forming part of its decorations, suggested the shape to him.

http://physics.kenyon.edu/EarlyApparatus/Electrical_Measurements/Wheatstone_Bridge/Wheatstone_Bridge.html

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 21/01/2007 06:42:31
X -Ray telescopes
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 21/01/2007 17:50:55
Y protein

Changes in neuropeptide Y protein expression
following photothrombotic brain infarction and epileptogenesis

Kharlamov EA, Kharlamov A, Kelly KM.
Department of Neurology, Allegheny-Singer Research Institute, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

This study characterized morphological changes in the cortex and hippocampus of Sprague-Dawley rats following photothrombotic infarction and epileptogenesis with emphasis on the distribution of neuropeptide Y (NPY) expression. Animals were lesioned in the left sensorimotor cortex and compared with age-matched naive and sham-operated controls by immunohistochemical techniques at 1, 3, 7, and 180 days post-lesioning (DPL). NPY immunostaining was assessed by light microscopy and quantified by the optical fractionator technique using unbiased stereological methods. At 1, 3, and 7 DPL, the number of NPY-positive somata in the lesioned cortex was increased significantly compared to controls and the contralateral cortex. At 180 DPL, lesioned epileptic animals with frequent seizure activity demonstrated significant increases of NPY expression in the cortex, CA1, CA3, hilar interneurons, and granule cells of the dentate gyrus. In addition to NPY immunostaining, neuronal degeneration, cell death/cell loss, and astroglial response were assessed with cell-specific markers. Nissl and NeuN staining showed reproducible infarctions at each investigated time point. FJB-positive somata were most abundant in the infarct core at 1 DPL, decreased markedly at 3 DPL, and virtually absent by 7 DPL. Activated astroglia were detected in the cortex and hippocampus following lesioning and the development of seizure activity.
In summary, NPY protein expression and morphological changes following cortical photothrombosis were time-, region-, and pathologic state-dependent. Alterations in NPY expression may reflect reactive or compensatory responses of the rat brain to acute infarction and to the development and expression of epileptic seizures.

Brain Res. 2007 Jan 5;1127(1):151-62.

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Bass on 22/01/2007 01:42:12
Zeolite
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 22/01/2007 03:45:10
Albert Einstein
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: huwston on 23/01/2007 20:42:55
nikola tesla crazy fool. super genious though.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 24/01/2007 04:36:54
Hey what happened to B through M   [???]

Bacteria
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 24/01/2007 08:44:43
Curcumin

the 'panacea' of the new century!
go to 'spicy treatment for malaria'
topic in Physiol.&Med. for details...

ikod
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 24/01/2007 09:48:24
Darwins Theory
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Mjhavok on 24/01/2007 15:23:50
Escherichia coli

The average human gut contains about 1 kg of bacteria
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 24/01/2007 15:32:22
Fish Liver Oil

Liquid Sunshine
(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.lung.ca%2Ftb%2Fimages%2Ffull_archive%2F006_codLiverOil.jpg&hash=ab69c998b71e9d651a87d5b572202eb4)
http://www.lung.ca/tb/images/full_archive/006_codLiverOil.jpg

...Near the beginning of TB treatment in sanatoria, it became known that the sun helped to kill TB bacteria (see heliotherapy). When the Sun's UV rays hit human skin, vitamin D is produced. Naturally, when cod fish were found to be rich in vitamin D, it followed that their oil was sold as "liquid sunshine" (this was a real advertisement in the Valley Echo, March 1944). Cod Liver Oil is still used in "traditional" medicine today, and as an important dietary supplement, but no real evidence exists that it helps to cure tuberculosis.

http://www.lung.ca/tb/tbhistory/treatment/

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 24/01/2007 15:52:43
Gamete - A reproductive cell, either a sperm (male) or ovum (female).
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Bass on 24/01/2007 17:08:49
Heuristics
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 24/01/2007 17:37:49
Isotope
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 24/01/2007 21:53:02
Jumbo Jet
December 12 1969- 747 Flies
(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.historycentral.com%2Fsixty%2FTech%2F747.jpg&hash=9c5a5c866c300d5c2935dc62eb86555a)
http://www.historycentral.com/sixty/Tech/747.jpg

On February 9th the first test flight of a Boeing 747 was flown. The plane was 231 feet long and weighed 710, 000 pounds. The intial version of the plane was designed to carry 374 passengers over 5,700 miles. The plane launched the age of the Jumbo Jet.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Mjhavok on 25/01/2007 01:10:59
Krebs Cycle
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 25/01/2007 04:49:18
Logarithum
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 25/01/2007 08:48:35
Monoclonal Antibody

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nhlcyberfamily.org%2Fimages%2Fantibody2.gif&hash=e13c16442b21acc4ccea8f2a8ef775ff)
http://www.nhlcyberfamily.org/images/antibody2.gif
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 25/01/2007 09:16:06
Nucleic Acid
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 25/01/2007 13:40:22
Osler Rendu Weber disease

Fig.1  Pulmonary arteriogram demonstrates arteriovenous fistulae in left upper lobe and at the base of both lower lobes.

arteriovenous fistulae are abnormal connections
between arteries and veins creating a 'shunt' or
'by-pass' leading to enlargement of blood vessels
and to a consistent risk of rupture and hemorrhage.

Cardiovascular Imaging:  Osler rendu weber disease

(Sir William Osler, 1849 - 1919, Canadian-born American physician; Henri Jules Louis Marie Rendu, 1844 - 1902, French physician and Frederick Parkes Weber, 1863 - 1962, British physician) (also called hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia), autosomal dominant inherited disease, which is readily recognized by mucocutaneous telangiectasias of the tongue, lips and fingertips. Arteriovenous fistulae cause recurrent epistaxis and overt or occult gastrointestinal bleeding. Multiple pulmonary arteriovenous fistulae cause cyanosis, hypoxaemia, polycythaemia and paradoxical embolization.
Chest X-ray may disclose pulmonary nodules or apparent focal consolidation with two large contiguous vessels representing dilated feeding artery and draining vein. Numerous fistulae can produce apparent pulmonary plethora. The size and site of the fistulae can be confirmed by pulmonary arteriography (Fig.1) and closed by transcatheter embolization. Pulmonary fistulae can also be identified with CT and MRI. Because blood flow in the fistulae causes high signal intensity on gradient echo (GRE) images, cine GRE is used for this evaluation. Fistulae can also be shown by contrast enhanced three-dimensional MR angiography. For a general description of the disease, see Osler Rendu Weber disease.

more in:    http://www.medcyclopaedia.com/library/topics/volume_v_2/o/osler_rendu_weber_disease.aspx
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 25/01/2007 15:28:56
What is that in the middle of his chest?? Or is that across his spine on his back or hers..

Photoelectric effect
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 25/01/2007 19:25:40
Q-Fever

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fstandeyo.com%2FNews_Files%2FUN_Images%2FQ.Fever.gif&hash=dbe28c9c5fefe516647f8b7faae0b0cc)    (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fpathy.fujita-hu.ac.jp%2F%7Etsutsumi%2Fimage%2F209%2F4.jpg&hash=1e484b74b87d97a09a3e685c3df73448)
http://standeyo.com/News_Files/UN_Images/Q.Fever.gif
http://pathy.fujita-hu.ac.jp/~tsutsumi/image/209/4.jpg

Q fever: An acute febrile illness due to Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii), a species of bacteria. Q fever is a zoonotic disease (contracted from animals). Aside from sudden onset of fever, there is headache, malaise, and pneumonia but no rash.

The disease was first reported in 1935 in Queensland, Australia. The Q is said not to be for Queensland, but for Query since the cause of the disease was long a query (a question mark).

In 1999, Q fever became a notifiable disease in the United States but reporting is not required in many other countries. Because the disease is underreported, scientists cannot reliably assess how many cases of Q fever have actually occurred worldwide. Many human infections are inapparent

...

continued:  http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=5156

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Mjhavok on 26/01/2007 01:36:11
Ribosomal RNA
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 26/01/2007 17:00:14
Sickle cell anemia

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.humanillnesses.com%2Foriginal%2Fimages%2Fhdc_0001_0003_0_img0235.jpg&hash=c4b2e1c421f485d268daa06ca99c6d0e)
http://www.humanillnesses.com/original/images/hdc_0001_0003_0_img0235.jpg

if you want to read more:   http://www.humanillnesses.com/original/Se-Sy/Sickle-cell-Anemia.html
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 27/01/2007 04:06:20
Tits

The tits, chickadees, and titmice, family Paridae, are a large family of small passerine birds which occur in the northern hemisphere and Africa. Most were formerly in the genus Parus.

These birds are called "chickadees" (onomatopoeic, derived from their distinctive "chick-a dee dee dee" alarm call) or "titmice" in North America, and just "tits" in the rest of the English speaking world. The name titmouse is attested from the 14th century, composed of the Old English name for the bird, mase (Proto-Germanic *maison) and tit, denoting something small. The spelling was influenced by mouse in the 16th century.

These birds are mainly small stocky woodland species with short stout bills. Some have crests. They are adaptable birds, with a mixed diet including seeds and insects. Many species will live around human habitation and come readily to bird feeders for nuts or seed, and learn to take other foods. In England, Great Tits and Blue Tits famously learned to break open the foil caps sealing bottles of milk that had been delivered to homes to get at the cream floating on top.

These are hole-nesting birds laying speckled white eggs.

[ Invalid Attachment ]

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 27/01/2007 04:16:51
Ultra Violet Lights
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 27/01/2007 15:44:40
Vitiligo

http://www.avrf.org/V2_Export/avrf-2005_r22_c1.jpg

What Is Vitiligo?

Vitiligo (vit-ill-EYE-go) is a pigmentation disorder in which melanocytes (the cells that make pigment) in the skin, the mucous membranes (tissues that line the inside of the mouth and nose and genital and rectal areas), and the retina (inner layer of the eyeball) are destroyed. As a result, white patches of skin appear on different parts of the body. The hair that grows in areas affected by vitiligo usually turns white.

The cause of vitiligo is not known, but doctors and researchers have several different theories. One theory is that people develop antibodies that destroy the melanocytes in their own bodies. Another theory is that melanocytes destroy themselves. Finally, some people have reported that a single event such as sunburn or emotional distress triggered vitiligo; however, these events have not been scientifically proven to cause vitiligo.
...

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: JimBob on 27/01/2007 18:57:07
xenolith - a rock fragment foreign to the igneous Rock in which it is embedded.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 27/01/2007 19:22:17
Yellow Oxide
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 27/01/2007 20:24:49
Western Blot

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.funakoshi.co.jp%2Fh_news%2F0507%2Fimgs%2F050719_INB1.jpg&hash=1fe00fe060784bcd2ef2397d6c1282e1)
http://www.funakoshi.co.jp/h_news/0507/imgs/050719_INB1.jpg

Neat picture!
Easy to catch...
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 27/01/2007 20:31:57
Xenon (IPA: /ˈzɛnɒn, ˈziːnɒn/) is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Xe and atomic number 54. A colorless, heavy, odorless noble gas, xenon occurs in the earth's atmosphere in trace amounts and was part of the first noble gas compound synthesized.[1][2]

Notable characteristics

Xenon is a member of the zero-valence elements that are called noble or inert gases, however, "inert" is not a completely accurate description of this chemical series since some noble gas compounds have been synthesized. In a gas filled tube, xenon emits a blue glow when the gas is excited by electrical discharge. Using tens of gigapascals of pressure, xenon has been forced into a metallic phase.[3] Xenon can also form clathrates with water when atoms of it are trapped in a lattice of the water molecules.

[ Invalid Attachment ]
Xenon in shaped Geissler tubes.

This gas is most widely and most famously used in light-emitting devices called Xenon flash lamps, which are used in photographic flashes, stroboscopic lamps, to excite the active medium in lasers which then generate coherent light, to produce laser power for inertial confinement fusion, in bactericidal lamps (rarely), and in certain dermatological uses. Continuous, short-arc, high pressure Xenon arc lamps have a color temperature closely approximating noon sunlight and are used in solar simulators, some projection systems, automotive HID headlights and other specialized uses. They are an excellent source of short wavelength ultraviolet light and they have intense emissions in the near infrared, which are used in some night vision systems. Other uses of Xenon:

* Has been used as a general anaesthetic, though it is expensive. Even so, anesthesia machines that can deliver Xenon are about to appear on the European market.
* In nuclear energy applications it is used in bubble chambers, probes, and in other areas where a high molecular weight and inert nature is a desirable quality.
* Perxenates are used as oxidizing agents in analytical chemistry.
* The isotope Xe-133 is useful as a radioisotope.
* Hyperpolarized MRI of the lungs and other tissues using 129Xe.[4]
* Preferred fuel for Ion propulsion because of high molecular weight, ease of ionization, store as a liquid at near room temperature (but at high pressure) yet easily converts back into a gas to fuel the engine, inert nature makes it environmentally friendly and less corrosive to an ion engine than other fuels such as mercury or cesium. Europe's SMART-1 spacecraft utilized Xenon in its engines.[5]
* Is commonly used in protein crystallography. Applied at high pressure (~600 psi) to a protein crystal, xenon atoms bind in predominantly hydrophobic cavities, often creating a high quality, isomorphous, heavy-atom derivative.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 27/01/2007 22:56:17
Yellowish!

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fpictures.directnews.org.uk%2FLive%2FPhoto4001983.jpg&hash=9abcb6f72d5e435fe45b04642ee340e5)
http://pictures.directnews.org.uk/Live/Photo4001983.jpg
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 28/01/2007 00:35:26
Zantac (Trade Name) for ..........

Ranitidine

Ranitidine (INN) (IPA: [rəˈnɪ tədin]) is a histamine H2-receptor antagonist that inhibits stomach acid production, and commonly used in the treatment of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). It is currently marketed under the trade name Zantac by GlaxoSmithKline in prescription form and by Pfizer in over-the-counter form.

Certain preparations of ranitidine are available over the counter (OTC) in various countries. In the United States, 75 mg and 150 mg tablets are available OTC. In Australia, small packs of 150 mg and 300 mg tablets are Schedule 2 Pharmacy Medicines. Larger doses and pack sizes still require a prescription.

Outside of the United States, ranitidine is combined with bismuth (which acts as a mild antibiotic) as a citrate salt (ranitidine bismuth citrate, Tritec®), to treat Helicobacter pylori infections. This combination is usually given with clarithromycin, another antibiotic.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 28/01/2007 02:52:53
Accretion Tectonics= The science of Continental assembly from fragments of Continental crust.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 28/01/2007 16:02:43
Biology

[ Invalid Attachment ]

Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle

Biology (from Greek Βìο meaning life and Λoγος meaning the study of) is the study of life. Biology encompasses a broad spectrum of academic fields that are often viewed as independent disciplines. However, together they address phenomena related to living organisms (biological phenomena) over a wide range of scales, from biophysics to ecology. It is concerned with the characteristics, classification, and behaviors of organisms, how species come into existence, and the interactions they have with each other and with the natural environment.

Many of the subdisciplines of biology, such as botany, zoology, and medicine are ancient. However, biology as a unified science first developed in the nineteenth century, as scientists discovered that all living things shared certain fundamental characteristics and were best studied as a whole. Today biology is one of the most prominent scientific fields. Over a million papers are published annually in a wide array of biology and medicine journals[1], and biology is a standard subject of instruction at schools and universities around the world.

As such a vast field, biology is divided into a number of subdisciplines. The old division by type of organism remains with botany encompassing the study of plants, zoology the study of animals, microbiology the study of microorganisms, and other similar disciplines. The field is also divided by the scale being studied: molecular biology looks at the fundamental chemistry of life; cellular biology looks a the basic building block of all life the cell; Physiology looks at the internal structure of organism; and ecology looks at how various organisms interrelate.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 28/01/2007 16:07:14
Chirality- The ability of a molecule to exist in two mirror-image forms, with different properties.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 28/01/2007 16:33:01
Desmodromic Valve Control
(Ducati-Italy)

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.engr.colostate.edu%2F%7Edga%2Fme324%2Fhandouts%2Fcam_stuff%2FDucati_desmodromic_cam_animation.gif&hash=5f877befa195f0af557e8b88b76cb2d9)     (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.bevel-enthusiasm.com%2Fimage%2Fparts%2Fdesmoanime.gif&hash=7e48ab2ef65373bc2dbea9498959c04b)     (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.italiaspeed.com%2F2006%2Fmotorsport%2Fothers%2Fducati%2F06_mugello%2F005.jpg&hash=f936aeb868c330de359f5aede4c924bc)
http://www.engr.colostate.edu/~dga/me324/handouts/cam_stuff/Ducati_desmodromic_cam_animation.gif
http://www.bevel-enthusiasm.com/image/parts/desmoanime.gif
http://www.italiaspeed.com/2006/motorsport/others/ducati/06_mugello/005.jpg
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 28/01/2007 16:53:24
Are those duchaties (spelling)

Electrons
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 28/01/2007 17:01:12
Hi Karen,

...the red one (first position!) is a Ducati!
spell Dookattee...or something like this

...this is NOT a pic of iko!
(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.telegraph.co.uk%2Fmotoring%2Fgraphics%2F2001%2F03%2F13%2Femfduc113.jpeg&hash=f3bf06c431dbee87afcae6e25e97b6d7)
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/motoring/graphics/2001/03/13/emfduc113.jpeg

Filariasis (Loa-loa)

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.paru.cas.cz%2Fhelminti%2FNematoda%2FLoa_loa.gif&hash=5d0003b5470e4a1ab4f436b8a4e339fc)
http://www.paru.cas.cz/helminti/Nematoda/Loa_loa.gif

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 28/01/2007 17:07:40
Thanks, the red looks right! Your picture is not opening up!
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 28/01/2007 17:43:05
Geography

Geography (from the Greek words Ge (γη) or Gaea (γαια), both meaning "Earth", and graphein (γραφειν) meaning "to describe" or "to write"or "to map") is the study of the earth and its features and of the distribution of life on the earth, including human life and the effects of human activity.[1] A literal translation would be "to describe the Earth". The first person to use the word "geography" was Eratosthenes (275-195 BCE). Four historical traditions in geographical research are the spatial analysis of natural and human phenomena (geography as a study of distribution), area studies (places and regions), study of man-land relationship, and research in earth sciences. [2] Nonetheless, modern geography is an all-encompassing discipline that foremost seeks to understand the world and all of its human and natural complexities-- not merely where things are, but how they have changed and come to be. It is said to be the "mother of all sciences" and "the synthesizer of knowledge." As "the bridge between the human and physical sciences," geography is divided into two main branches, human geography and physical geography.[3]

[ Invalid Attachment ]
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 28/01/2007 17:48:22
Homeotic genes (hox genes) - The genes that determine development and body plan.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 28/01/2007 18:38:29
Investigation  (Clinical)

http://pictures.directnews.org.uk/Live/Photo4001983.jpg
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 28/01/2007 18:38:51

Isosceles Triangle

[ Invalid Attachment ]

An isosceles triangle is a triangle with (at least) two equal sides. In the figure above, the two equal sides have length b and the remaining side has length a. This property is equivalent to two angles of the triangle being equal. An isosceles triangle therefore has both two equal sides and two equal angles. The name derives from the Greek iso (same) and skelos (leg).

A triangle with all sides equal is called an equilateral triangle, and a triangle with no sides equal is called a scalene triangle. An equilateral triangle is therefore a special case of an isosceles triangle having not just two, but all three sides and angles equal. Another special case of an isosceles triangle is the isosceles right triangle
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 28/01/2007 18:39:30
DOH !!!....I hate it when than happens ..... [;D] [;D] [;D]
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 28/01/2007 18:42:11
Jurrasic Period
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 28/01/2007 18:47:16
Koplik spots

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.imcworldwide.org%2Fcbr%2FL1C_files%2Fimage013.jpg&hash=14a425534a68e3f6111182329121fa34)
http://www.imcworldwide.org/cbr/L1C_files/image013.jpg

Earliest sign of MEASLES

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 28/01/2007 18:53:18
Liposuction
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 28/01/2007 18:56:58
Mammary gland

Mammary glands are the organs that, in the female mammal, produce milk for the sustenance of the young. These exocrine glands are enlarged and modified sweat glands and are the characteristic of mammals which gave the class its name.

[ Invalid Attachment ]

[ Invalid Attachment ]
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 28/01/2007 19:01:49
Neil Armstrong

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.asi.org%2Fimages%2F1999%2Fasi199900081.jpg&hash=4c0b2f77cc7a7ae71620f881587a6e2f)   (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Flettres-histoire.ac-rouen.fr%2Fhistgeo%2Fneil_armstrong.jpg&hash=6250eed6b74355d6f7db737b09c2a875)
http://www.asi.org/images/1999/asi199900081.jpg
http://lettres-histoire.ac-rouen.fr/histgeo/neil_armstrong.jpg
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 28/01/2007 19:09:59
Orbital theory
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 29/01/2007 17:38:03
Palmer micrometer

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fle.talou.free.fr%2Fimages%2Fpalmer.jpg&hash=471474dd0fe6294d96095cff33f56185)
http://le.talou.free.fr/images/palmer.jpg

Micromètre ou palmer.

Capable de mesurer une côte extérieure avec une précision de l'ordre du 100ème de mm, il comprend un corps en demi cercle (1), supportant à l'une de ses extrémités une enclume fixe (2) et à l'autre extrémité une douille cylindrique fixe, filetée te graduée en mm (3). Sur cette douille est visser une broche mibile (4) supportée par un tambour, gradué avec 50 divisions (5).
Comme un pied à coulisse, il est possible d'immobiliser la broche à l'aide d'un système de blocage (66), pour faciliter la lecture.

A l'exception de l'attention portée au serrage de la pièce, la précaution principale d'utilisation consiste à ne pas commettre d'erreur de lecture. En effet, il faut deux tours de vernier (5) pour "couvrir" 1 mm.

Le micromètre d'intérieur ou jauge micrométrique est identique ou palmer et permet de mesurer une cote intérieure. Même principe et précaution d'utilisation.

for more reading:  http://www.ac-bordeaux.fr/Etablissement/LpDuperier/pedagogi/cours/maint/methode/mesure.htm

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ac-bordeaux.fr%2FEtablissement%2FLpDuperier%2Fpedagogi%2Fcours%2Fmaint%2Fmethode%2Fpalmer.gif&hash=258057fda56530a419336a4a9f4f7d05)
http://www.ac-bordeaux.fr/Etablissement/LpDuperier/pedagogi/cours/maint/methode/palmer.gif

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 30/01/2007 00:11:03
Quack !!

The noise a duck makes !!
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 30/01/2007 02:52:01
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 30/01/2007 04:34:46
The styrophone is a modern musical instrument made from a Styrofoam (expanded polystyrene foam) box that is forced to vibrate by friction against a wooden stick. Technically, the instrument is a type of friction idiophone. Styrophones tend to last for only one performance, as the friction destroys the material.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 30/01/2007 04:56:02
Interesting.. Never heard of them..

Telescopes
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 30/01/2007 13:41:51
Palatine Uvula

[ Invalid Attachment ]
Diagram showing the uvula, tonsils, soft palate, and tongue

The uvula (IPA: [ˈjuːvjʊlə]) is a small, mucosa-covered set of muscles, musculus uvulae, hanging down from the soft palate, near the back of the throat. The word is derived from the diminutive of uva, the Latin word for "grape", due to the uvula's grape-like shape.

If the uvula is touched by a finger or other object, this will induce an unpleasant gagging sensation which is often followed by vomiting. This is often how bulimics induce vomiting.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 30/01/2007 15:27:52
Virtual Reality
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 30/01/2007 19:13:57
Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.mayoclinic.org%2Fwolff-parkinson-white%2Fimages%2Fwolff-parkinson-white-lg.jpg&hash=759b999d661f44f787455c1d3f871219)
http://www.mayoclinic.org/wolff-parkinson-white/images/wolff-parkinson-white-lg.jpg

Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome

Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW) is a syndrome of pre-excitation of the ventricles of the heart due to an accessory pathway known as the Bundle of Kent. This accessory pathway is an abnormal electrical communication from the atria to the ventricles.

The incidence of WPW syndrome is between 0.1 and 3 % of the general population.[1] [2] [3]

While the vast majority of individuals with WPW syndrome remain asymptomatic throughout their entire lives, there is a risk of sudden death associated with the syndrome. Sudden death due to WPW syndrome is rare (incidence of ≤0.6%[3] [4]), and is due to the effect of the accessory pathway on tachyarrhythmias in these individuals

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 30/01/2007 19:26:09
Zuzzurellone

Naoo spello tees wan deer friendo!
...The last italian word in our Dictionary.
Nothing to do with Science...so give me
another Z!
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 30/01/2007 22:19:26
Asbestos is well bad for ewe !!

Asbestos (a misapplication of Latin: asbestos "quicklime" from Greek ἄσβεστος: a, "not" and sbestos, "extinguishable") describes any of a group of minerals that can be fibrous, many of which are metamorphic and are hydrous magnesium silicates. These minerals, together with their occurrences, uses, and associated hazards, have been discussed in detail by Guthrie and Mossman (1993).

The name is derived for its historical use in lamp wicks; the resistance of asbestos to fire has long been exploited for a variety of purposes. Asbestos was used in fabrics such as Egyptian burial cloths and Charlemagne's tablecloth (which according to legend, he threw in a fire to clean). Asbestos occurs naturally in many forms (see below); it is mined from metamorphic rocks.

When asbestos is used for its resistance to fire or heat, the fibers are often mixed with cement or woven into fabric or mats. Asbestos is used in brake shoes and gaskets for its heat resistance, and in the past was used on electric oven and hotplate wiring for its electrical insulation at elevated temperature, and in buildings for its flame-retardant and insulating properties, tensile strength, flexibility, and resistance to chemicals. The inhalation of some kinds of asbestos fibers, however, can cause a number of serious illnesses, including cancer. Many uses of asbestos are banned in many countries.

[ Invalid Attachment ]
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 30/01/2007 22:48:42
Babesiosis (Piroplasmosis)

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fpathy.fujita-hu.ac.jp%2F%7Etsutsumi%2Fimage%2F208%2F2.jpg&hash=55e208ae53c0b4fc665d3a7199ebe5cc)    (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.dpd.cdc.gov%2Fdpdx%2Fimages%2FParasiteImages%2FA-F%2FBabesiosis%2FBabesia_LifeCycle.gif&hash=bcdb9003611f788982d34371cd9e72c9)
http://pathy.fujita-hu.ac.jp/~tsutsumi/image/208/2.jpg
http://www.dpd.cdc.gov/dpdx/images/ParasiteImages/A-F/Babesiosis/Babesia_LifeCycle.gif
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: JimBob on 31/01/2007 01:57:58
The Forgotten X - (above)

Xeric - said of a habitat that is characterized by a low or inadequate supply of moisture. Also said of an organism or an assemblage of organisms existing in such an environment.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 31/01/2007 03:24:55
Young, Thomas - A Poly math who dabbled in science and medicine and was chief figure in designing the rosetta stone.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 31/01/2007 09:59:05
Carnosic acid

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.axxora.com%2Ffiles%2Fformula%2F270-264.gif&hash=43b3e09d9b4d129b4d4b48d089434071)  (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.gardenguides.com%2Fseedcatalog%2Fpackets%2Frosemary.jpg&hash=6daa3fff81e9ec22c0b1223b2963e83b)  (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.mdidea.com%2Fproducts%2Fherbextract%2Frosemary%2Frosemary_extract_carnosic_acid01Compress.jpg&hash=5181b1e8cbf94e0c3b70e03e47cd7081)
http://www.axxora.com/files/formula/270-264.gif
http://www.gardenguides.com/seedcatalog/packets/rosemary.jpg
http://www.mdidea.com/products/herbextract/rosemary/rosemary_extract_carnosic_acid01Compress.jpg

Cooperative antitumor effects of vitamin D3 derivatives
and rosemary preparations in a mouse model of myeloid leukemia.

Sharabani H, Izumchenko E, Wang Q, Kreinin R, Steiner M, Barvish Z, Kafka M, Sharoni Y, Levy J, Uskokovic M, Studzinski GP, Danilenko M.
Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel.

1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25D(3)) is a powerful differentiation agent, which has potential for treatment of myeloid leukemias and other types of cancer, but the calcemia produced by pharmacologically active doses precludes the use of this agent in the clinic. We have shown that carnosic acid, the major rosemary polyphenol, enhances the differentiating and antiproliferative effects of low concentrations of 1,25D(3) in human myeloid leukemia cell lines (HL60, U937). Here we translated these findings to in vivo conditions using a syngeneic mouse leukemia tumor model. To this end, we first demonstrated that as in HL60 cells, differentiation of WEHI-3B D(-) murine myelomonocytic leukemia cells induced by 1 nM 1,25D(3) or its low-calcemic analog, 1,25-dihydroxy-16-ene-5,6-trans-cholecalciferol (Ro25-4020), can be synergistically potentiated by carnosic acid (10 microM) or the carnosic acid-rich ethanolic extract of rosemary leaves. This effect was accompanied by cell cycle arrest in G0 + G1 phase and a marked inhibition of cell growth. In the in vivo studies, i.p. injections of 2 microg Ro25-4020 in Balb/c mice bearing WEHI-3B D(-) tumors produced a significant delay in tumor appearance and reduction in tumor size, without significant toxicity. Another analog, 1,25-dihydroxy-16,23Z-diene-20-epi-26,27-hexafluoro-19-nor-cholecalciferol (Ro26-3884) administered at the same dose was less effective than Ro25-4020 and profoundly toxic. Importantly, combined treatment with 1% dry rosemary extract (mixed with food) and 1 microg Ro25-4020 resulted in a strong cooperative antitumor effect, without inducing hypercalcemia. These results indicate for the first time that a plant polyphenolic preparation and a vitamin D derivative can cooperate not only in inducing leukemia cell differentiation in vitro, but also in the antileukemic activity in vivo. These data may suggest novel protocols for chemoprevention or differentiation therapy of myeloid leukemia. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Int J Cancer. 2006 Jun 15;118(12):3012-21.

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 31/01/2007 15:33:49
Dendrochronology

Dendrochronology or tree-ring dating is the method of scientific dating based on the analysis of tree-ring growth patterns. This technique was invented and developed during the 20th century originally by A. E. Douglass, the founder of the Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research at the University of Arizona. The technique can date wood to exact calendar years.

Overview

Many trees in temperate zones grow one growth ring each year, the newest ring being under the bark. For the entire period of a tree's life, a year-by-year record or ring pattern is formed that reflects the climatic conditions in which the tree grew. Adequate moisture and a long growing season result in a wide ring. A drought year may result in a very narrow one. Trees from the same region will tend to develop the same patterns of ring widths for a given period. These patterns can be compared and matched ring for ring with trees growing in the same geographical zone and under similar climatic conditions. Following these tree-ring patterns from living trees back through time, chronologies can be built up, both for entire regions, and for sub-regions of the world. Thus wood from ancient structures can be matched to known chronologies (a technique called cross-dating) and the age of the wood determined precisely. Cross-dating was originally done by visual inspection. Nowadays, computers are used to do the statistical matching.

To eliminate individual variations in tree ring growth, dendrochronologists take the smoothed average of the tree ring widths of multiple tree samples to build up a ring history. This process is termed replication. A tree ring history whose beginning and end dates are not known is called a floating chronology. It can be anchored by cross-matching either the beginning or the end section against the end sections of another chronology (tree ring history) whose dates are known. Fully anchored chronologies which extend back more than 10,000 years exist for river oak trees from South Germany (from the Main and Rhine rivers). A fully anchored chronology which extends back 8500 years exists for the bristlecone pine in the Southwest US (White Mountains of California).

In areas where the climate is reasonably predictable, trees develop annual rings of different properties depending on weather, rain, temperature, etc. in different years. These variations may be used to infer past climate variations —

[ Invalid Attachment ]
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 31/01/2007 18:50:04
Echinococcus granulosus

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ratsteachmicro.com%2FAssets%2FHelminths%2FCestodes%2FEchinococcus_LifeCycle.gif&hash=23d2aac1b82edae7ffefd8b76e4a593f)
http://www.ratsteachmicro.com/Assets/Helminths/Cestodes/Echinococcus_LifeCycle.gif

http://www.k-state.edu/parasitology/625tutorials/FIGechinococcus01.jpg
http://www.microbisome.com/imagenes/iconos_nuevos/microbisome_Echinococcus_granulosus.jpg
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 31/01/2007 21:50:03

A Faraday cage or Faraday shield is an enclosure formed by conducting material, or by a mesh of such material. Such an enclosure blocks out external static electrical fields. Faraday cages are named after physicist Michael Faraday, who built one in 1836 and explained its operation.

The electrical charges in the enclosing conductor repel each other and will therefore always reside on the outside surface of the cage. Any external static electrical field will cause the charges to rearrange so as to completely cancel the field's effects in the cage's interior. This effect is used for example to protect electronic equipment from lightning strikes and other electrostatic discharges.

To a large degree, Faraday cages also shield the interior from external electromagnetic radiation if the conductor is thick enough and its meshes, if present, are significantly smaller than the radiation's wavelength. This application of Faraday cages is explained under electromagnetic shielding.

[ Invalid Attachment ]
Entrance to a Faraday room
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 31/01/2007 22:08:52
Geiger counter

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.kiddofspeed.com%2F367img%2Fimage18.3.jpg&hash=07e30ed2c2e1975a831831c573df9f40)
http://www.kiddofspeed.com/367img/image18.3.jpg

KIDDSofSPEED TOWN - Chernobyl Images   from:  http://www.kiddofspeed.com/chapter18.html
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 01/02/2007 04:35:18
Hydrogen peroxide
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 01/02/2007 14:30:39
Ichthyosis

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 02/02/2007 16:56:03
Jacob,Mary Phelps

Inventor of the Bra:

The first modern brassiere to receive a patent was one invented by a New York socialite named Mary Phelps Jacob in 1913. Mary had just purchased a sheer evening gown for one of her social events. At that time, the only acceptable undergarment was a corset stiffened with whaleback bones. Mary found that the whalebones poked out visible around the plunging neckline and under the sheer fabric. Two silk handkerchiefs and some pink ribbon later, Mary had designed an alternative to the corset. The corset's reign was starting to topple.

An unhealthy and painful device designed to narrow an adult women's waist to 13, 12, 11 and even 10 or less inches, the corset is attributed to Catherine de Médicis, wife of King Henri II of France. She enforced a ban on thick waists at court attendance's (1550's) and started over 350 years of whalebones, steel rods and midriff torture.

Mary Phelps Jacob's new undergarment complimented the new fashions introduced at the time and demands from friends and family were high for the new brassiere. On November 3, 1914, a patent for the 'Backless Brassiere' issued. Caresse Crosby was the business name Jacob used for her brassiere production. Running a business was not enjoyable to Jacob and she soon sold the brassiere patent to the Warner Brothers Corset Company in Bridgeport, Connecticut, for $1,500. Warner (the bra-makers, not the movie-makers) made over fifteen million dollars from the bra patent over the next thirty years. Mary Phelps Jacob was the first to patent an undergarment named 'Brassiere' derived from the old French word for 'upper arm'. Her patent was for a device that was lightweight, soft and separated the breasts naturally. Other points in the history of the brassiere worth mentioning: # In 1875, manufacturers George Frost and George Phelps patented the 'Union Under-Flannel', a no bones, no eyelets, and no laces or pulleys under-outfit. # In 1893, a woman named Marie Tucek patented the 'breast supporter’; the device included separate pockets for the breasts and straps that went over the shoulder, fastened by hook-and-eye closures. # In 1889, corset-maker Herminie Cadolle invented the 'Well-Being' or 'Bien-être', a bra-like device sold as a health aid. The corset's support for the breasts squeezed up from below. Cadolle changed breast support to the shoulders down. # World War I dealt the corset a fatal blow when the U.S. War Industries Board called on women to stop buying corsets in 1917. It freed up some 28,000 tons of metal! # In 1928, a Russian immigrant named Ida Rosenthal founded Maidenform. Ida was responsible for grouping women into bust-size categories (cup sizes). Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 02/02/2007 17:46:58 Keratoachantoma (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.dermatology.co.uk%2Fmedia%2Fimages%2FKeratoacanthoma2.jpg&hash=a101e3efb65ddfc0bbd4029e70526827) http://www.dermatology.co.uk/media/images/Keratoacanthoma2.jpg Case Report: Spontaneous regression of keratoacanthoma can be promoted by topical treatment with imiquimod cream V. Di Lernia, C Ricci, G Albertini Unità Operativa di Dermatologia, via Risorgimento 80, 42100 Reggio Emilia, Italy, ABSTRACT Imiquimod, the first member of a new class of immune response modifiers, is approved for the treatment of external genital and perianal warts. Recently, many clinical trials highlighted the potential of imiquimod as a treatment for other viral infections and cutaneous neoplasms. We report two cases of facial keratoacanthomas (KA) treated with topical 5% imiquimod cream. Patients were successfully cleared of KAs after treatment for 8 weeks. No recurrence occurred after a 1-year follow-up. Despite the fact that KAs are characterized by the potential for spontaneous regression, it is possible that a faster activation of CD4+ lymphocytes, via interferon release and cytokine secretion takes place after imiquimod application leading to KA regression. J.Eur.Acad.Dermatol.Venereol. 2004;18(5),626. from: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1468-3083.2004.01025.x?cookieSet=1&journalCode=jdv Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 03/02/2007 02:40:12 Lilienfeld ,Julius Edgar Julius Edgar Lilienfeld (1881 – 1963) was born in Lwow (German: Lemberg, Ukrainian: Lviv) in Austro-Hungarian occupied Poland and emigrated to the USA in 1927. Among other things, he invented the transistor and the electrolytic capacitor in the 1920s. He filed several patents describing the construction and operation of transistors. Although the devices described in his patents should theoretically work, there is no evidence that they actually did. Despite that, the patents describe many features of modern transistors. When the inventors of the first practical transistor, Brattain, Bardeen and Shockley tried to get a patent on their device, most of their claims were rejected due to the Lilienfeld patents. Some of his patents: * US1745175 (describing a device similar to a MESFET) * US1900018 (A thin film MOSFET.) * US1877140 (A solid state device where the current flow is controlled by a porous metal layer, a solid state version of the vacuum tube.) * US2013564 (The electrolytic capacitor) Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Karen W. on 03/02/2007 02:59:53 Magnetic Therapy Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 03/02/2007 22:14:07 Nystatin Rachel Fuller Brown and Elizabeth Lee Hazen invented the worlds first useful antifungal antibiotic - nystatin. As researchers for the New York Department of Health, Elizabeth Lee Hazen and Rachel Fuller Brown combined their efforts to develop the anti-fungal antibiotic drug nystatin. The drug, patented in 1957 was used to cure many disfiguring, disabling fungal infections as well as to balance the effect of many antibacterial drugs. In addition to human ailments, the drug has been used to treat such problems as Dutch Elm’s disease and to restore water-damaged artwork from the effects of mold. The two scientists donated the royalties from their invention, over$13 million dollars, to the nonprofit Research Corporation for the advancement of academic scientific study. Elizabeth Lee Hazen and Rachel Fuller Brown were inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame in 1994.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 03/02/2007 22:56:04
Obsessional neurosis = A psychoneurosis characterized by compulsive ideas or irresistible urges and often manifested in the ritualistic performance  of certain acts.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 04/02/2007 22:34:00
PAPERCLIP

The fastening of papers has been historical referenced to as early as the 13th century, when people put ribbon through parallel incisions in the upper left hand corner of pages. Later people started to wax the ribbons to make them stronger and easier to undo and redo. This was the way people clipped papers together for the next six hundred years.

In 1835, a New York physician named John Ireland Howe invented a machine for mass producing straight pins. Straight pins then became a popular way to fasten papers together, although they were not originally designed for that purpose. Straight pins were designed to be used in sewing and tailoring, to temporally fasten cloth together.

Johan Vaaler patentJohan Vaaler, a Norwegian inventor with a degree in electronics, science and mathematics, invented the paperclip in 1899. He received a patent for his design from Germany in 1899, since Norway had no patent laws at that time. Johan Vaaler was an employee at a local invention office when he invented the paperclip. He received an American patent in 1901 -- patent abstract  "It consists of forming same of a spring material, such as a piece of wire, that is bent to a rectangular, triangular, or otherwise shaped hoop, the end parts of which wire piece form members or tongues lying side by side in contrary directions." Johan Vaaler was the first person to patent a paperclip design, although other unpatented designs might have existed first.

American inventor, Cornelius J. Brosnan filed for an American patent for a paperclip in 1900. He called his invention the "Konaclip".

William Middlebrook patented a machine for making Gem paper clipsBut it was a company called the Gem Manufacturing Ltd. of England who first designed the double oval shaped standard looking paperclip. This familiar and famous paperclip, was and still is referred to as the "Gem" clip. William Middlebrook, of Waterbury, Connecticut, patented a machine for making paper clips of the Gem design in 1899. The Gem paperclip was never patented.

People have been re-inventing the paperclip over and over again. The designs that have been the most successful are the "Gem" with it's double oval shape, the "Non-Skid" which held in place well, the "Ideal" used for thick wads of paper, and the "Owl" the paperclip that did not get tangled up with other paperclips.

note: During World War II, Norwegians were prohibited from wearing any buttons with the likeness or initials of their king on them. In protest they started wearing paperclips, because paperclips were a Norwegian invention whose original function was to bind together. This was a protest against the Nazi occupation and wearing a paperclip could have gotten you arrested.

[ Invalid Attachment ]

[ Invalid Attachment ]

[ Invalid Attachment ]

patent drawings from USPTO
photo: www.freeimages.co.uk
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 05/02/2007 18:15:22
Q)uinghaosu  (Artemisinin)

http://presidentofindia.nic.in/images/quing.jpg
http://www.biosite.dk/leksikon/images/artemisinin.gif
http://www.cpamedia.com/history/malaria_miracle_drug/mosquitoe.jpg

Annual erect plant up to 2m tall. Leaves 2-3 pinnatisect or decompound, serrate or lobulate. Inflorescence panicle (compound raceme) with capitulum. The capitula are inoonspicuous hemispherical, pendulous. Achenes surface has longitudinal striations and lack pappus. Parts used : Aerial parts /Artemisinin Major constituents : One of the economically important constituents of the plant is the sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin. The other main constituents are artemisitene, arteannuin B and artemisinic acid.
Uses : The compound artemisinin has been found to be effective for the treatment of chloroquin resistant malaria and cerebral malaria.
Two semi-synthetic derivatives of artemisinin namely arteehter and artesunate have been found to be more effective than artemisinin in the clinical trails. The palnt yield essential oil after st4am distillation of fresh herbage which is widely used in pharmaceutical, cosmetics and flavouring industries.

from:     http://presidentofindia.nic.in/herbal.html

Artemisinin: Malaria's Magic Bullet?

"Years of vaccine research have produced few hopeful candidates and although scientists are redoubling the search, an effective vaccine is at best years away. Science still has no magic bullet for malaria and many doubt that such a single solution will ever exist."

- Statistics Division of the United Nations (January, 2002)

...In May 2004, the World Health Organization (WHO) gave the thumbs up to the miracle drug of malaria, Artemisinin. This Chinese herbal remedy has been recognized as a 97% effective in curing Falciparum malaria and is now due to be distributed globally, especially to Africa where one child dies from malaria every 30 seconds.
Apparently reacting to a conclusive report in the medical magazine, The Lancet the WHO (in co-ordination with the Global Fund for AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria) authorized the purchase and distribution of one million doses of Artemisinin and the cancellation of orders for other ineffective medications.

The Killer
Alongside tuberculosis (TB) and AIDS, malaria is the most deadly disease on the planet with over 300 million persons directly infected every year. Although over 70% of deaths occur in Africa alone, almost half of the world's population lives in tropical or sub-tropical regions and is therefore at risk.
...

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 05/02/2007 21:58:02
Jacob Rabinow

Jacob Rabinow (1910 - 1999) was an engineer who led a truly prolific career as an inventor. He earned a total of 230 U.S. patents on a variety of mechanical, optical and electrical devices.

Rabinow was born in Kharkov, Ukraine, in 1910. In 1919, his family moved to China, then in 1921 to the United States. He graduated from the City College of New York with a Bachelor's Degree in Engineering in 1933, and a Master's Degree in Electrical Engineering in 1934. His career as an inventor began when he was hired as a mechanical engineer in 1938 by the National Bureau of Standards (now the National Institute of Standards and Technology, or NIST). He made many developments there, mainly in defense systems, and eventually became Chief of the Electro-Mechanical Ordnance Division at NBS before leaving in 1954 to form his own company.

During this time, Rabinow invented and patented a number of revolutionary devices. Among them are the first disc-shaped magnetic storage media for computers (1954), the magnetic particle clutch (1956), the first straight-line phonograph (1959), the first self-regulating clock (1960) and his famous "reading machine" (1960) which was the first to use the "best match" principle and was the basis for the reading, sorting and processing machines used today by banks and post offices.

In 1964, Rabinow's company joined Control Data Corporation (CDC), and until 1972 he was Vice President of CDC and head of the Rabinow Advanced Development Laboratory. In 1968 Rabinow formed the RABCO company to manufacture straight-line phonographs, and the company was later bought out by Harman-Kardon Corporation. In 1972 he returned to NBS where he was Chief Research Engineer until his retirement in 1989.

In addition to his patents, Jacob Rabinow was awarded many other merits for his scientific achievements. Among them are the President's Certificate of Merit (1948), the Industrial R&D Scientist of the Year Award (1960), the IEEE's Harry Diamond Award (1977), and the Lemelson-MIT Lifetime Achievement Award (1998). He published his book, Inventing for Fun and Profit, in 1989. He also delivered many speeches and lectures on inventions and technology, as a guest at many educational institutions and on several television and radio shows.

Rabinow was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame in 2005.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 05/02/2007 22:23:25
Stenosis

A stenosis is an abnormal narrowing in a blood vessel or other tubular organ or structure. It is also sometimes called a "stricture" (as in urethral stricture).

Stenoses of the vascular type are often associated with a noise (bruit) resulting from turbulent flow over the narrowed blood vessel. This bruit can be made audible by a stethoscope. Other, more reliable methods of diagnosing a stenosis are imaging methods including ultrasound, Magnetic Resonance Imaging/Magnetic Resonance Angiography, Computed Tomography/CT-Angiography which display anatomic imaging (i.e. the visible narrowing of a vessel) and/or flow phenomena (signs of the movement of the bodily fluid through the bodily structure).
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 05/02/2007 23:17:49
Taenia solium

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.fao.org%2FAG%2FAGAINFO%2FSUBJECTS%2Fen%2Fhealth%2Fdiseases-cards%2Fcards%2FTaenia-solium.jpg&hash=70e0736c617996b4278e5cf0b7e8c9ce)     (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fmek.oszk.hu%2F03400%2F03408%2Fhtml%2Fimg%2Fthumb%2Fbrehm-18-018-3.jpg&hash=77dbd1ee0b1754d32c69e14ee916400d)
http://www.fao.org/AG/AGAINFO/SUBJECTS/en/health/diseases-cards/cards/Taenia-solium.jpg
http://mek.oszk.hu/03400/03408/html/img/thumb/brehm-18-018-3.jpg
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 06/02/2007 03:09:06
Umbrella

An umbrella is a collapsible canopy that protects a person from rain or sun. They can be made by stretching a fabric or other material over a wire frame and have a handle for carrying or securing in a base. The person is kept dry by the fabric which is usually waterproof and water rolls off the sides.

An umbrella made for protection from the sun is called a parasol. These are often meant to be fixed to one point and often used with patio tables or other outdoor furniture, or on the beach for shelter from the sun. However parasols can also be hand held devices.

The word umbrella is from the Latin word umbra for shade or shadow. Brolly is a slang word for umbrella, used often in Britain and Australia.

[ Invalid Attachment ]
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 06/02/2007 04:44:47
Velocity= The rate of change of position with time, both in terms of speed and direction.

Thank you Neil,I was slipping..
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 06/02/2007 09:46:05
Whipple's disease

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.pathguy.com%2Flectures%2Fwhipple.gif&hash=4240b331b440ac0b6c7db307cdd739c6)    (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.genomenewsnetwork.org%2Fgnn_images%2Fnews_content%2F03_03%2Fw_art%2Fwhart_1.jpg&hash=1b24f4858ded72d38671d8281069a809)

http://www.pathguy.com/lectures/whipple.gif
http://www.genomenewsnetwork.org/gnn_images/news_content/03_03/w_art/whart_1.jpg
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 06/02/2007 11:21:49
xenograft =  A graft of skin, bone,etc,from an individual of another species.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 06/02/2007 11:53:46
Yam Modem

Welcome to the YAM modem WWW server.
This site provides information about the YAM modem for packet radio.
Born in the Summer 1997 as a 9600 bps G3RUH compatible modem, the YAM is a multi-standard modem capable of AFSK 1200 bps and Manchester-FSK 2400 bps operations.
The YAM modem integrates all the functions of a packet radio modem and parts of those of implemented in a TNC using only three integrated circuits and interfaces directly to a PC serial port from which it is also powered.
The YAM introduces a substantial new in the arena of packet radio modems and is based on a FPGA (Xilinx's Xc5202) which includes a large amount of logice resources allowing a reduced components count and a more compact form factor.

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 06/02/2007 16:43:09
Frank Zamboni

Frank Joseph Zamboni, Jr. (January 16, 1901 – July 27, 1988) was a U.S. inventor whose most famous invention was the Zamboni machine for resurfacing ice rinks.

He was born in Eureka, Utah to Italian immigrants. His parents soon bought a farm near Pocatello, Idaho, where he grew up. In 1920, he moved with his parents to the harbor district of Los Angeles, where his older brother George was operating an auto repair business. After attending a trade school in Chicago, he and his younger brother Lawrence opened an electrical supply business in 1922 in the Los Angeles suburb of Hynes (now part of Paramount). The following year, he married, and eventually had three children. In 1927, he and Lawrence added an ice-making plant and entered the block ice business. They sold their block ice business in 1939, seeing little future in that business with the recent advent of electrically operated refrigeration units. However, they kept their refrigeration equipment because they planned to open an ice rink nearby.

In 1940, the brothers, along with a cousin, opened the Iceland rink, which proved very popular, in no small part because Frank had devised a way to eliminate rippling caused by the pipes that were laid down to keep the rink frozen. (The rink still operates, and is still owned by the Zamboni family.) He obtained a patent for that innovation in 1946. Then, in 1948, he invented a machine that transformed the job of resurfacing an ice rink from a three-man, 90-minute task to a one-man, 10-minute job. In 1949, he applied for a patent, and set up Frank J. Zamboni & Co. in Paramount to build and sell the machines. He obtained his patent in 1953. Demand for the machine proved great enough that his company added a second plant in Brantford, Ontario and a branch office in Switzerland. Though the term Zamboni was (and remains) trademarked by his company, the name is now commonly used for any brand of ice resurfacing machine.

In the 1970s, he invented machines to remove water from outdoor artificial turf surfaces, remove paint stripes from the same surfaces, and roll up and lay down artificial turf in domed stadiums. His final invention, in 1983, was an automatic edger to remove ice buildup from the edges of rinks.

He died of lung cancer in 1988, about two months after his wife's death. The Zamboni company, which has sold over 7000 of its signature machines in its history, is still owned and operated by the Zamboni family, currently by Frank's son and grandson.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 06/02/2007 17:21:17
ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL

First British long distance calls (1878) : a royal introduction
Alexander Graham Bell demonstrated his telephone to Queen Victoria on January 14, 1878, at Osborne House on the Isle of Wight. During the demonstration Bell made calls to London, Cowes and Southampton. These were the first publicly witnessed long-distance calls in the UK.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 06/02/2007 22:03:46
Barcode

[ Invalid Attachment ]

What is bar code? It is method of automatic identification and data collection. The first patent for a bar code type product (US Patent #2,612,994) was issued to inventors Joseph Woodland and Bernard Silver on October 7, 1952. The Woodland and Silver bar code can be described as a "bull's eye" symbol, made up of a series of concentric circles.

Examine the 1958 patent drawing to the left that depicts the Woodland's and Silver's bar code label and the 1958 patent drawing below right of the inventors' bar code scanner technology. The photo below left is an example of today's U.P.C. bar code on a product package.

In 1948, Bernard Silver was a graduate student at Drexel Institute of Technology in Philadelphia. A local food chain store owner had made an inquiry to the Drexel Institute asking about research into a method of automatically reading  product information during checkout. Bernard Silver joined together with fellow graduate student Norman Joseph Woodland to work on a solution.

Woodland's first idea was to use ultraviolet light sensitive ink. The team built a working prototype but decided that the system was too unstable and expensive. They went back to the drawing board.

On October 20, 1949, Woodland and Silver filed their patent application for the "Classifying Apparatus and Method", describing their invention as "article classification...through the medium of identifying patterns".

Bar code was first used commercially in 1966, however, it was soon realized that there would have to be some sort of industry standard set. By 1970, the Universal Grocery Products Identification Code or UGPIC was written by a company called Logicon Inc. The first company to produce bar code equipment for retail trade use (using UGPIC) was the American company Monarch Marking in 1970, and for industrial use, the British company Plessey Telecommunications was also first in 1970. UGPIC evolved into the U.P.C. symbol set  or Universal Product Code, which is still used in the United States. George J. Laurer is considered the inventor of U.P.C. or Uniform Product Code, which was invented in 1973.

In June of 1974, the first U.P.C. scanner was installed at a Marsh's supermarket in Troy, Ohio. The first product to have a bar code included was a packet of Wrigley's Gum
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 06/02/2007 22:16:26
Crystal
Methamphetamine

Crystal methamphetamine is a colorless, odorless form of d-methamphetamine, a powerful and highly addictive synthetic (man-made) stimulant. Crystal methamphetamine typically resembles small fragments of glass or shiny blue-white "rocks" of various sizes. Like powdered methamphetamine (another form of d-methamphetamine), crystal methamphetamine is abused because of the long-lasting euphoric effects it produces. Crystal methamphetamine, however, typically has a higher purity level and may produce even longer-lasting and more intense physiological effects than the powdered form of the drug.

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 06/02/2007 23:33:12
Dermatoglyphics   (Fingerprints)

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.humanhand.com%2Fimages%2Ffingerprints.jpg&hash=b59e95b14717e837438b6e07687f69f8)
http://www.humanhand.com/images/fingerprints.jpg
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 07/02/2007 00:35:25
Epstein-Barr virus

The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), also called Human herpesvirus 4 (HHV-4), is a virus of the herpes family (which includes Herpes simplex virus and Cytomegalovirus), and is one of the most common viruses in humans. Most people become infected with EBV, which is often asymptomatic but commonly causes infectious mononucleosis. It is named after Michael Epstein and Yvonne Barr, who together with Bert Achong discovered the virus in 1964.[1]

[ Invalid Attachment ]
Image:Leukemia cells that contain Epstein Barrvirus using a FA staining technique PHIL 2984 lores.jpg
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 07/02/2007 01:30:10
Fossil
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Zwitterion on 07/02/2007 02:49:56
G is for GRAVITY - cant be bothered explaining it but then who doesnt know what it is!!
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 07/02/2007 03:25:05
Hydrogen Peroxide
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 07/02/2007 21:10:34
Instrument panel

http://www.avsim.com/pages/0599/ernst767/main.jpg
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 07/02/2007 21:35:25
Jet engine

A jet engine is an engine that discharges a fast moving jet of fluid to generate thrust in accordance with Newton's third law of motion. This broad definition of jet engines includes turbojets, turbofans, rockets and ramjets and water jets, but in common usage, the term generally refers to a gas turbine Brayton cycle engine used to produce a jet of high speed exhaust gases for special propulsive purposes. Jet engines are so familiar to the modern world that gas turbines are sometimes mistakenly referred to as a particular application of a jet engine, rather than the other way around.

[ Invalid Attachment ]
A Pratt & Whitney F100 turbofan engine for the F-15 Eagle is tested at Robins
Air Force Base, Georgia, USA. The tunnel behind the engine muffles noise and
allows exhaust to escape. The mesh cover at the front of the engine (left of photo)
prevents foreign objects (including people) from being pulled into the engine by the
huge volume of air rushing into the inlet.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 07/02/2007 22:47:09
Karman Theodore von

http://www.galcit.caltech.edu/graphics/history/vonKar.jpg
http://maartenrutgers.org/science/turbulence/photos/slow.jpg
http://joas.free.fr/studies/karman/images/presstotturb.jpg

Theodore von Kármán (1881–1963).

Professor of Aeronautics 1930–1949. First Director of GALCIT, 1930–1949. In 1926 von Kármán was invited to Caltech to give talks on aerodynamics, and review plans for the new wind tunnel. In 1928 he returned to Caltech for an exchange semester, and finally joined the Institute in 1929 as a research associate in aeronautics. In 1930, he was appointed professor of aeronautics and Director of GALCIT. Among his accomplishments were the first computation of drag for a supersonic projectile; application of dimensional analysis to turbulent flow, the log-law and Kármán constant for turbulent boundary layer velocity distribution (law of the wall); fundamental studies on turbulence; the discovery of the similarity law of transonic flow; and the use of stiffened panels in aircraft construction.
He spent most of his time in Washington after 1942. Stepped down as director in 1949 and became professor emeritus. In 1962, at age 81, he was awarded the first National Medal of Science, bestowed in a Whitehouse ceremony by President John F. Kennedy. On his characteristic of never declining a lecturing opportunity, he once joked "I can never pass up the opportunity to dominate the conversation for an entire hour."

from:   http://www.galcit.caltech.edu/history/index.html

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.lbl.gov%2FScience-Articles%2FResearch-Review%2FHighlights%2F1998%2Fimages%2FCS_flaw_prop.jpg&hash=5abe60cf4f62c106a49fb4e443ab6892)   (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fmedia.nasaexplores.com%2Flessons%2F04-011%2Fimages%2Fvortex.jpg&hash=02f595aa3a060161f4bc6a7f826f6c1c)
http://www.lbl.gov/Science-Articles/Research-Review/Highlights/1998/images/CS_flaw_prop.jpg
http://media.nasaexplores.com/lessons/04-011/images/vortex.jpg
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 07/02/2007 23:18:11
The laserdisc (LD) was the first commercial optical disc storage medium, and is used primarily for the presentation of movies.

During its development, the format was referred to as the "Reflective Optical Videodisc System" before MCA, who owned the patent on the technology, renamed the format Disco-Vision in 1969. By the time the format was brought to market in 1978, the hyphen had been removed from the format name, and DiscoVision became the official name. Sales of DiscoVision players & discs began on December 15, 1978 starting in Atlanta, Georgia. MCA owned the rights to the largest catalog of films in the world during this time, and they directly manufactured and distributed the discs of their movies under the "MCA DiscoVision" label. Pioneer Electronics, who entered the market in 1978 at almost exactly the time DiscoVision titles were going on sale, began manufacturing players and printing discs under the name Laser Videodisc. By 1981, Laserdisc (first in CamelCase as LaserDisc, later without the intercap) had become the common name for the format, and the DiscoVision label disappeared, becoming simply MCA or (later) MCA-Universal Laserdisc.

MCA also manufactured discs for other companies, including Paramount, Disney and Warner Brothers. Some of them added their own names onto the disc jacket in order to signify the movie was not owned by MCA. When MCA folded into Universal several years later, Universal began re-issuing many of the early DiscoVision titles as Universal discs. The DiscoVision versions had largely been available only in pan and scan and had often utilized poor transfers. The format has also been known as LV (for LaserVision, actually a player brand by Philips). The players are also sometimes referred to as VDPs (Video Disc Players).

[ Invalid Attachment ]

I've got a few laser discs...me wonders if they are worth anything.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 07/02/2007 23:21:38
Mycobacterium avium

http://www.md.huji.ac.il/mirror/webpath/AIDS071.jpg
http://www.waterscan.co.yu/images/virusi-bakterije/Mycobacterium%20avium.jpg
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 08/02/2007 16:38:51
Isaac Newton

[ Invalid Attachment ]

Sir Isaac Newton, (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist, regarded by many as the greatest figure in the history of science.[2] His treatise Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, published in 1687, described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion, laying the groundwork for classical mechanics. By deriving Kepler's laws of planetary motion from this system, he was the first to show that the motion of objects on Earth and of celestial bodies are governed by the same set of natural laws. The unifying and predictive power of his laws was central to the scientific revolution, the advancement of heliocentrism, and the broader acceptance of the notion that rational investigation can reveal the inner workings of nature.

In mechanics, Newton also markedly enunciated the principles of conservation of momentum and angular momentum. In optics, he invented the reflecting telescope and developed a theory of colour based on the observation that a prism decomposes white light into a visible spectrum. Newton notably argued that light is composed of particles. He also formulated an empirical law of cooling, studied the speed of sound, and proposed a theory of the origin of stars. In mathematics, Newton shares the credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the development of calculus. He also demonstrated the generalized binomial theorem, developed the so-called "Newton's method" for approximating the zeroes of a function, and contributed to the study of power series.

French mathematician Joseph-Louis Lagrange often said that Newton was the greatest genius who ever lived, and once added that he was also "the most fortunate, for we cannot find more than once a system of the world to establish."[3] English poet Alexander Pope was moved by Newton's accomplishments to write the famous epitaph:
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 08/02/2007 16:55:05
orbit = Path followed by any celestial object moving under the control of another objects gravity.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 08/02/2007 19:02:17
Puzzle
(Leukemia etiology)   [???]

(https://www.mgcpuzzles.com/mgcpuzzles/images/-2004-images/2116_jigsaw_puzzle_pieces_A.jpg)
https://www.mgcpuzzles.com/mgcpuzzles/images/-2004-images/2116_jigsaw_puzzle_pieces_A.jpg
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 08/02/2007 19:20:04
QWERTY

QWERTY (pronounced /ˈkwərti/) is the most common modern-day keyboard layout on English-language computer and typewriter keyboards. It takes its name from the first six letters seen in the keyboard's top first row of letters. The QWERTY design was patented by Christopher Sholes in 1868 and sold to Remington in 1873, when it first appeared in typewriters.

[ Invalid Attachment ]
[ Invalid Attachment ]
[ Invalid Attachment ]
[ Invalid Attachment ]
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 08/02/2007 19:31:16

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 08/02/2007 19:36:32
Satellite

(astronautics)
A spacecraft orbiting the Earth or other heavenly body. The first artificial satellite was Sputnik 1, launched by the USSR on 4 October 1957, and there are now more than 3000 satellites orbiting the Earth for remote sensing, military surveillance, communications, and space astronomy. Geostationary satellites orbit at 35 900 km/22 300 mi above Earth, taking 24 hours to orbit, so they appear in almost the same part of our sky at all times. They are important for communications, especially satellite television, since fixed dishes can be used at ground stations.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 08/02/2007 20:21:46
Tetralogy  (Fallot)

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.lpch.org%2Fphotos%2Fgreystone%2Fei_0175.gif&hash=ef995e0ef96f139556f4659fa45cd4fb)
http://www.lpch.org/photos/greystone/ei_0175.gif
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 12/02/2007 00:15:12
Umbilical cord

In placental mammals, the umbilical cord is a tube that connects a developing embryo or fetus to its placenta. It normally contains three vessels, two arteries and one vein, buried within Wharton's jelly, for the exchange of nutrient- and oxygen-rich blood between the embryo and placenta. The presence of only two vessels in the cord is sometimes related to abnormalities in the fetus, but may occur without accompanying abnormalities.

[ Invalid Attachment ]
A newborn with umbilical
cord still attached (3 minutes.)
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 12/02/2007 00:24:52
Viagra
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 12/02/2007 04:35:17
Watch

A watch is a small portable timepiece or clock that displays the time and sometimes the day, date, month and year. In past centuries, these often took the form of pocket watches, which today are seldom carried or worn. In modern usage, watch is usually a contraction of wristwatch, a designation for the most popular style of timekeeping device worn on the wrist.

Because most watches lack a striking mechanism, such as a bell or gong to announce the passage of time, they are properly designated as timepieces, rather than clocks.

Today, the most common type of watch is the wristwatch, worn on the wrist and fastened with a watch strap or watchband, a bracelet made of real or synthetic leather, metal, nylon, or even ceramic. Before the inexpensive miniaturization that became possible in the 20th century, most watches were pocket watches, which had covers and were carried separately, often in a pocket and attached to a watch chain or fob.

Most inexpensive and medium-priced watches used mainly for timekeeping are electronic watches with quartz movements, powered by electricity. Expensive, collectible watches valued more for their workmanship and aesthetic appeal than for simple timekeeping often have purely mechanical movements and are powered by springs, even though mechanical movements are many times less accurate than quartz movements. The most accurate watches have radio-controlled movements that are miniaturized, portable versions of radio clocks (q.v.).

[ Invalid Attachment ]
A wrist watch.....Like you really needed me to tell you that !!!
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 12/02/2007 06:12:01
Xylophone= A musical percusion instument consisting of a series of wooden bars graduated in length so as to sound the notes of the scale when struck with a small wooden hammer.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 12/02/2007 18:29:46
Yo-yo

A yo-yo is a toy consisting of two equally sized and weighted discs of plastic, wood, or metal, connected with an axle, around which string is wound. There is a slip knot at the free end of the string, and, on a properly strung yo-yo, an uncut loop around the axle (known as a looped slip-string) which allows it to spin freely, or "sleep" upon reaching the string's end.

It is played by tying the string's free end around the middle finger, grasping the yo-yo, and then throwing it downwards with a smooth motion. As the axle spins within the loop, a gyroscopic effect occurs, stabilizing the yo-yo on its axis and permitting time to perform a number of movements. By flicking the wrist, the yo-yo can be made to return to the player's hand, with the cord again completely wound into the groove. Generally, any movement or combination of movements which result in the return of the yo-yo to the player's hand in this fashion is considered a trick, although this is not an absolute standard.

Yo-yoing is a popular pastime around the world. Although generally associated with children, it is not uncommon for people who gain a level of proficiency at the sport in youth to continue playing into adulthood. A yo-yo player is referred to as a yo-yoer (most common), yoist, thrower, or simply as a player.

There is no conclusive documented evidence that the yo-yo is derived from, nor even existed in any form intended for use as a weapon. Generating enough force to create a fatal blow with a yo-yo would also be difficult due to the fact that as the toy is reaching the end of the string it is slowing down. This rumour was possibly started by Tom Ives, Duncan's PR man in the 1930's. There is speculation that he created the weapon myth during the 1930's fad for the publicity. Another origin may have been stories of hunters in the Philippines in the 16th century using sharp rocks with strings attached to kill prey from trees. The development of the modern yo-yo began in the Philippines at around this time, which is probably the source of the confusion.

[ Invalid Attachment ]
Do I really need to label this picture ?...Yo do know what they are don't yo ?
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 12/02/2007 19:07:46
Zebra fish   (Brachydanio rerio)

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fmedia.popularmechanics.com%2Fimages%2Ftb_fish-lg.jpg&hash=a0e6236bebc206d41267a135f7ac7d72)
http://media.popularmechanics.com/images/tb_fish-lg.jpg

Photo by Phil Jones/Medical College Of Georgia
Published in the August 2003 issue of "Popular Mechanics"

Zebra Fish Aid Deaf

Transparent zebra fish may hold the clue to restoring hearing for humans who have lost the hair cells that stimulate nerves in their auditory system.
Birth defects, disease and some drugs can trigger the loss of the hair on these specialized cells.

In zebra fish, which rely on a similar cell arrangement for balance, hair cells regenerate  [O8)]  if lost, says David J. Kozlowski, a geneticist at the Medical College of Georgia.
He hopes to identify the genes that spur regeneration in zebra fish. Replacing or reactivating hair-growth genes could make it possible to correct hearing loss and balance disorders in humans.

http://www.popularmechanics.com/technology/industry/1287511.html

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 12/02/2007 20:32:39
Airbag

An airbag, also known as a Supplementary/Secondary Restraint System (SRS), an Air Cushion Restraint System (ACRS), or the Supplemental Inflatable Restraint (SIR) is a flexible membrane or envelope, inflatable to contain air or some other gas. Air bags are most commonly used for cushioning, in particular after very rapid inflation in the case of an automobile collision.

[ Invalid Attachment ]
An automobile airbag, like this one
in a crashed SEAT Ibiza car, an
airbag inflates and deflates within
a fraction of a second (about 0.8 seconds)
.

[ Invalid Attachment ]
Since the start of 1994, Ford made
airbags standard across their entire
range of cars sold in Europe (except
for the Maverick which was outsourced
from Nissan).

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 12/02/2007 21:54:58
Barbus tetrazona
(Sumatrabarbe)

http://www1.mpi-halle.mpg.de/~hi/ima/Barbus_4.jpg

from Dr. Reinald Hillebrand homepage:    http://www1.mpi-halle.mpg.de/~hi/

MAX-PLANCK-INSTITUT FÜR MIKROSTRUKTURPHYSIK
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: paul.fr on 12/02/2007 22:31:46
Carl Sagan

totally captivating, listening to him is an experience

His wikipedia entry can be found here:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carl_Sagan
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 12/02/2007 22:42:31
Dialysis

In medicine, dialysis is a type of renal replacement therapy which is used to provide an artificial replacement for lost kidney function due to renal failure. It is a life support treatment and does not treat any kidney diseases. Dialysis may be used for very sick patients who have suddenly lost their kidney function (acute renal failure) or for quite stable patients who have permanently lost their kidney function (end stage renal failure). When healthy, the kidneys remove waste products (for example potassium, acid and urea) from the blood and also remove excess fluid in the form of urine. Dialysis treatments have to duplicate both of these functions as dialysis (waste removal) and ultrafiltration (fluid removal).
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 13/02/2007 07:33:35
Electrolyte
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 13/02/2007 17:00:47
Forensic science

Forensic science (often shortened to forensics) is the application of a broad spectrum of sciences to answer questions of interest to the legal system. This may be in relation to a crime or to a civil action. The use of the term "forensics" in place of "forensic science" could be considered incorrect; the term "forensic" is effectively a synonym for "legal" or "related to courts" (from Latin, it means "before the forum"). However, it is now so closely associated with the scientific field that many dictionaries include the meaning that equates the word "forensics" with "forensic science."

“Forensic” comes from the Latin word “forensis” meaning forum. During the time of the Romans, a criminal charge meant presenting the case before a group of public individuals. Both the person accused of the crime and the accuser would give speeches based on their side of the story. The individual with the best argumentation and delivery would determine the outcome of the case. In other words, the person with the best forensis skills would win.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 13/02/2007 17:51:31

(I mean the whole system setup)

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 13/02/2007 18:11:40
Huntington chorea

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.emedicine.com%2Femerg%2Fimages%2F260HUNT.GIF&hash=5806057372c5d5c80dd110564684c58d)
http://www.emedicine.com/emerg/images/260HUNT.GIF

Huntington disease

Background: Huntington disease (HD), also known as Huntington chorea (HC), is an inherited disease characterized by choreiform movements and progressive dementia.
In adults, HD most often causes involuntary movements, but rigidity can also be a feature of the disease.
The initial diagnosis is rarely established in the emergency department, but patients with established disease may present to the ED because of worsening symptoms.

Pathophysiology: HD is inherited as an autosomal dominant disorder with complete penetrance. An HD gene has been identified with an abnormal protein product (huntingtin) that can be identified in the brain. The link between this protein and the selective loss of neuronal groups in the CNS remains to be established. HD has now been identified genetically as a trinucleotide CAG-repeat mutation on chromosome 4. The CAG repeat length may be important in determining the age of onset and the rate of disease progression.

Frequency:
In the US: Prevalence of HD in the United States is 5.15 cases per 100,000 persons.
Internationally: HD is encountered throughout the world; however, localized geographic clusters of disease exist. Countries that have been settled by western Europeans have an incidence of the disease similar to the incidence in the United States.
Mortality/Morbidity: HD is a progressive neurological disorder usually leading to death 15-20 years after onset of neurological or psychological impairment.

Race: HD is found in all ethnic groups.
Sex: Males and females are diagnosed in equal numbers.
Age:
Symptoms arising from a typical presentation of HD usually do not develop until a person is aged 35 years or older. By the time of diagnosis, many patients already have had children and have passed the gene to another generation.
As many as 10% of patients with HD have a juvenile form of the disease in which the onset of symptoms may occur when the patient is younger than 20 years.
Muscular rigidity is more common with juvenile-onset illness.
...

read more clicking here:    http://www.emedicine.com/emerg/topic254.htm
...less 'medical' language here:    http://www.answers.com/topic/huntington-s-disease
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 14/02/2007 00:12:45
Intravenous Catheter

In medicine, a catheter is a tube that can be inserted into a body cavity duct or vessel. Catheters thereby allow drainage or injection of fluids or access by surgical instruments. The process of inserting a catheter is catheterization. In most uses a catheter is a thin, flexible tube: a "soft" catheter; in some uses, it is a larger, solid tube: a "hard" catheter.

The ancient Egyptians are reported to have fashioned catheters from papyrus, and the ancient Greeks from reeds. A flexible urinary catheter was invented by Benjamin Franklin for use by his brother.

Placement of a catheter into a particular part of the body may allow:

* draining urine from the urinary bladder as in urinary catheterization, e.g., the Foley catheter or even when the urethra is damaged as in suprapubic catheterisation.
* drainage of fluid collections, e.g. an abdominal abscess
* administration of intravenous fluids, medication or parenteral nutrition
* angioplasty, angiography, balloon septostomy, balloon sinuplasty
* direct measurement of blood pressure in an artery or vein
* direct measurement of intracranial pressure
* administration of anaesthetic medication into the epidural space, the subarachnoid space, or around a major nerve bundle such as the brachial plexus

A central venous catheter is a conduit for giving drugs or fluids into a large-bore catheter positioned either in a vein near the heart or just inside the atrium. A Swan-Ganz catheter is a special type of catheter placed into the pulmonary artery for measuring pressures in the heart.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 14/02/2007 18:29:21
Jellyfish stings

http://www.bugbog.com/images/main/australia/box_jelly_3.jpg
http://www.bugbog.com/images/main/australia/box_jelly_1.jpg
http://www.bible.ca/tracks/rapid-fossils-jellyfish-live.jpg

more from:   http://www.bugbog.com/travel_safety/dangerous_animals/jellyfish_stings.html
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 15/02/2007 03:46:31
Kevlar

Kevlar is the DuPont Company's brand name for the particularly light but very strong synthetic fibre. Created in DuPont's labs in 1965 by Stephanie Kwolek, Herbert Blades, and Phil Thier, Kevlar was first used commercially in the early 1970s. It can be spun into ropes or sheets of fabric that can either be used as-is, or used in the construction of composite components. Kevlar is now used in a wide range of applications, from bicycles to body armor, due to its high strength-to-weight ratio (see Tensile strength), "...5 times stronger than steel on an equal weight basis...".[1] It is a member of the Aramid family of synthetic fibres and similar to Twaron from Teijin.

[ Invalid Attachment ]
Chemical structure of Kevlar. Bold: monomer unit; dashed: hydrogen bonds.

Properties

When Kevlar is spun in the same way that a spider spins a web, the resulting fiber has tremendous strength, and is heat- and cut-resistant. The fibers do not rust or corrode. When woven together, they form a good material for mooring lines and other underwater objects.

There are three common grades of Kevlar: Kevlar, Kevlar 29, and Kevlar 49. Kevlar is typically used as reinforcements in tires and other rubber mechanical goods. Kevlar 29 is used in industrial applications such as cables, asbestos replacement, brake linings, and body armor. Kevlar 49 is considered to have the greatest tensile strength of all the aramids, and is used in applications such as plastic reinforcement for boat hulls, airplanes, and bikes.

Kevlar is susceptible to breakdown from ultraviolet light (such as sunlight) and hence is almost never used unprotected or unsheathed.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: JimBob on 15/02/2007 04:34:01
Love

Has nothing to do with science but it is St. Valentine's day in the US

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 15/02/2007 05:27:29
Migraines
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 15/02/2007 15:07:44
Nano

- is a prefix (symbol n) in the SI system of units denoting a factor of 10−9. It is often used in prefixing time and length units encountered in electronics and computer systems, like 30 nanoseconds (symbol ns) and 100 nanometres (nm). It was confirmed in 1960 and comes from the Greek νᾶνος, meaning dwarf.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 15/02/2007 16:29:21
Ovule =   A small egg or seed,especially one in a early stage of development.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 15/02/2007 18:11:07
Pneumocystis carinii

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.medmicro.wisc.edu%2Fresources%2Fimagelib%2Fmycology%2Fimages%2Fpneumocystis_giemsa.gif&hash=5691103e6e4c7cbddc61000cf73b5556)    (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fstatic.flickr.com%2F60%2F204365397_af1c1b8774_m.jpg&hash=f954c1d04d2a276d36f752b8af4c7c24)    (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fsprojects.mmi.mcgill.ca%2Ficm_c%2FChest%2Fcase17%2Fpic1.jpg&hash=fdaf2b2dc28bff90cd9f6cba30a1f8e7)
http://www.medmicro.wisc.edu/resources/imagelib/mycology/images/pneumocystis_giemsa.gif
http://static.flickr.com/60/204365397_af1c1b8774_m.jpg
http://sprojects.mmi.mcgill.ca/icm_c/Chest/case17/pic1.jpg

Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia

Background: Pneumocystis jiroveci, previously known as Pneumocystis carinii, is the organism responsible for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP); the most common opportunistic infection in HIV-infected patients.
As our understanding of the Pneumocystis genus has grown, the name was changed to specify Pneumocystis, which is isolated in humans. The abbreviation PCP is still used to designate Pneumocystis pneumonia. Pneumocystis is a genus of unicellular fungi found in the respiratory tracts of many mammals and humans. Distinct genomic variability exists between host-specific members of the genus. The organism was first described in 1909 by Chagas then a few years later by Delanöes who ultimately named the organism in honor of Dr. Carini after isolating it from infected rats. Years later, Dr Otto Jirovec and his group isolated the organism from humans, and it is after him that the organism responsible for PCP pneumonia was renamed.

Pneumocystis first came to attention when it was found to cause interstitial pneumonia in Central and Eastern Europe during World War II in severely malnourished and premature infants. Prior to the 1980s, fewer than 100 cases of PCP occurred per year in the United States, occurring in immunosuppressed patients such as cancer patients treated with chemotherapy and solid organ transplant recipients on immunosuppressive agents. In 1981, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported the occurrence of PCP in 5 previously healthy homosexual males residing in the Los Angeles area. Pneumocystis jiroveci is now one of several organisms known to cause life-threatening opportunistic infections in patients with advanced HIV infection worldwide.

Microbiology
The taxonomic classification of the Pneumocystis genus was debated for some time. It was initially mistaken as a trypanosome then later as a protozoan. In the 1980s, biochemical analysis of the nucleic acid composition of Pneumocystis rRNA and mitochondrial DNA identified the organism as a unicellular fungus rather than a protozoa. Subsequent genomic sequence analysis of multiple genes including elongation factor 3, a component of fungi protein synthesis not found in protozoa, further supported this notion. The organism is found in 3 distinct morphologic stages. The trophozoite or trophic form, where it often exists in clusters; the sporozoite, which is a precystic form; and finally, the cyst, which contains several intracystic bodies also known as spores.
...

much more from emedicine:     http://www.emedicine.com/MED/topic1850.htm

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 15/02/2007 20:54:41
Quince

The Quince Cydonia oblonga is the sole member of the genus Cydonia and native to warm-temperate southwest Asia in the Caucasus region. It is a small deciduous tree, growing 5-8 m tall and 4-6 m wide, related to apples and pears, and like them has a pome fruit, which is bright golden yellow when mature, pear-shaped, 7-12 cm long and 6-9 cm broad.

The immature fruit is green, with dense grey-white pubescence which mostly (but not all) rubs off before maturity in late autumn when the fruit changes colour to yellow with hard flesh that is strongly perfumed. The leaves are alternately arranged, simple, 6-11 cm long, with an entire margin and densely pubescent with fine white hairs. The flowers, produced in spring after the leaves, are white or pink, 5 cm across, with five petals.

Quince is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Brown-tail, Bucculatrix bechsteinella, Bucculatrix pomifoliella, Coleophora cerasivorella, Coleophora malivorella, Green Pug and Winter Moth.

Four other species previously included in the genus Cydonia are now treated in separate genera. These are the Chinese Quince Pseudocydonia sinensis, a native of China, and the three flowering quinces of eastern Asia in the genus Chaenomeles. Another unrelated fruit, the Bael, is sometimes called the "Bengal Quince".

[ Invalid Attachment ]
Cydonia oblonga flowers

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 16/02/2007 06:56:15
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 16/02/2007 16:41:05
Sunlight

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.friedmanarchives.com%2FChina%2FPage1%2Fimages%2FBicycle%2520in%2520Sunlight.jpg&hash=21c2e270a3ebb60fb3ec8d4c99ba4f8f)
http://www.friedmanarchives.com/China/Page1/images/Bicycle%20in%20Sunlight.jpg
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 16/02/2007 18:25:56
Thorn or Spine (botany)

Spines are the ends of branches or leafs, that have been modified into rounded, hard structures with sharp ends. They are often also called thorns, which are reduced, sharp pointed stems.

Spines are used by plants to protect themselves from herbivores. Some plants with spines and animals that feed on them, have co-evolved in response to each other, with some plants having very long spines and the animals that feed on those species having long tongues to reach past the spines to feed on the leaves.

The spines of different cactus and Fouquieria are leafs that have been completely transformed. In Black Locust the spines are modified stipules. The sharp Long thorns of the hawthorn, the needles of a cactus, and the prickles of a shrub like the rose are all spines. Although spines generally serve as a passive defense mechanism, in some species they can be hollow and contain poisonous substances that cause lasting pain or even paralysis, and in others, may be barbed and detach readily, sticking to whatever brushes against them.

Plant spines and thorns

Botanists use several terms somewhat loosely when referring to spine- or needle-like structures on plants; however, the following differences are typically distinguished:

* Prickle – a sharp outgrowth from the epidermis, also called an emergence and usually involving some subdermal tissue as well; see also hair.
* Spine – a modified stipule or sharp branchlet found in a leaf axil or on the margin of a leaf.
* Thorn – Sharp outgrowth from a stem other than at a node; a modified stem.
* The seta (bristle) is a similar plant structure.

There are a number of different terms used to describe spines and plants with spines:

* Spinescent - Meaning spiny or tapering like a spine.
* Spinicarpous - Having spiny fruit.
* Spiniferous - Bearing thorns.
* Spiniform - Like a spine or thorn.
* Spiniger - Producing spines or thorns.
* Spinose - Spiny.
* Spinule - A very small spine or prickle.
* Spinulose - Having small spines or thorns.

Thorns and prickles, most notably those on roses, are common literary symbols for the hidden dangers or woes of something beautiful or pleasant, as in "Every rose has its thorn". Roses lack true thorns since their prickles emerge from the epidermis rather than the pericycle. Growth from the pericycle would make it a modified stem and therefore a thorn. Some roses have been bred not to have prickles.

[ Invalid Attachment ]

[ Invalid Attachment ]
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 16/02/2007 23:03:21
Uveitis

http://www.kellogg.umich.edu/theeyeshaveit/red-eye/images/anterior-uveitis.jpg
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 17/02/2007 15:00:52
Varicose veins are veins that have become enlarged and twisted. The term commonly refers to the veins on the leg, although varicose veins occur elsewhere. Veins have leaflet valves to prevent blood from flowing backwards (retrograde). Leg muscles pump the veins to return blood to the heart. When veins become enlarged, the leaflets of the valves no longer meet properly, and the valves don't work. The blood collects in the veins and they enlarge even more. Varicose veins are common in the superficial veins of the legs, which are subject to high pressure when standing. Besides cosmetic problems, varicose veins are often painful, especially when standing or walking. They often itch, and scratching them can cause ulcers. Serious complications are rare. Non-surgical treatments include elastic stockings, elevating the legs, and exercise. The standard surgical treatment is vein stripping to remove the affected veins. Newer surgical treatments are less invasive but have not been tested as thoroughly. Since most of the blood in the legs is returned by the deep veins, and the superficial veins only return about 10%, they can be removed without serious harm.[1][2] Varicose veins are distinguished from telangiectasias and spider veins, which have similar symptoms and treatment, but do not involve valvular insufficiency.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 17/02/2007 16:51:35
Weber carburator

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.zarattini.com%2Fdino%2Fcarburatore1.jpg&hash=19db770912712f2201acb45c6fa4a657)   (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.schumacher-fanclub.com%2Fmedia%2F1937-tazio-nuvolari-get-well-telegram-weber-carburatori-01.jpg&hash=fe2b5938de470a129bd8580815a5d176)
http://www.zarattini.com/dino/carburatore1.jpg
http://www.schumacher-fanclub.com/media/1937-tazio-nuvolari-get-well-telegram-weber-carburatori-01.jpg
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 17/02/2007 17:16:44
Xanthoma = A small tumor,esp of the skin,formed by a deposit of lipids, often in a soft rounded, yellowish mass

(new world Dictionary of the american language ,second college Edition, Simon and Shuster) delux color edition
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 17/02/2007 18:01:30
Yucca

The yuccas comprise the genus Yucca of 40-50 species of perennials, shrubs, and trees in the agave family Agavaceae, notable for their rosettes of evergreen, tough, sword-shaped leaves and large terminal clusters of white or whitish flowers. They are native to the hot and dry parts of North America, Central America, and the West Indies.

Yuccas have a very specialized pollination system, being pollinated by the yucca moth; the insect purposefully transfers the pollen from the stamens of one plant to the stigma of another, and at the same time lays an egg in the flower; the moth larva then eats some of the developing seeds, but far from all.

Yuccas are widely grown as ornamental plants in gardens. Many yuccas also bear edible parts, including fruits, seeds, flowers, flowering stems, and more rarely roots, but use of these is sufficiently limited that references to yucca as food more often than not stem from confusion with the similarly spelled but botanically unrelated yuca.

The "yucca flower" is the state flower of New Mexico. No species name is given in the citation.

[ Invalid Attachment ]

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 17/02/2007 18:07:08
Zincography = The art or process of engraving or etching on zinc plates for printing
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 17/02/2007 20:49:56
Aspergillus fumigatus

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 18/02/2007 17:54:34
Ballpoint pen

A ballpoint pen (also eponymously known in British English as a biro and pronounced bye-row in Britain but sometimes bee-row elsewhere), is a modern writing instrument. A ballpoint pen has an internal chamber filled with a viscous ink that is dispensed at the tip during use by the rolling action of a small metal sphere (0.7 mm to 1.2 mm in diameter); the ink dries almost immediately after contact with paper. Inexpensive, reliable and maintenance-free, the ballpoint has almost completely replaced the fountain pen in everyday

[ Invalid Attachment ]
Ballpoint pen, disassembled
(top) and complete (bottom)

[ Invalid Attachment ]
An authentic
in Argentina by
Biro & Meyne

[ Invalid Attachment ]
The tip of a common d
isposable ballpoint pen.
The ball, with blue ink
on it, can be seen. The
white scalebar is 1mm long.

[ Invalid Attachment ]
Ballpoint pen rolling
over a paper surface,
leaving behind a trail
of ink.

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 18/02/2007 18:33:06
Cockpit

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fhomepages.uni-tuebingen.de%2Fstudent%2Fwilfried.dolderer%2FCockpit.jpg&hash=be8c30e73f23d0e3e2409496bde8ddd1)
http://homepages.uni-tuebingen.de/student/wilfried.dolderer/Cockpit.jpg
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: paul.fr on 18/02/2007 19:33:53
Diode

Semiconductor electronic component. Ideally, a diode conducts electricity in one direction and does not allow the current to flow in the opposite direction. Thanks to this property diodes are used to rectify alternating currents, i.e., to convert alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC).

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi154.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fs262%2Fpf0604%2Fdiodes2.jpg&hash=b1ee1ce67c829ef6b53219c8905ecb37)

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: paul.fr on 18/02/2007 19:42:26

Electromagnetic radiation, or light, can be considered to be composed of particles (photons) or waves. Its properties depend on its wavelength: longer waves are less energetic than shorter waves - photons with long wavelength have less energy than short-wavelength photons. Electromagnetic radiation is usually described as bands of radiation of similar wavelength, e.g., infrared, radio waves, microwaves, gamma rays, X-rays... (These bands of radiation roughly correspond to the range of wavelengths which can be detected by different instruments.) Only a small fraction of the entire range of electromagnetic radiation can be detected by the human eye: visible light, or what in everyday-life is referred to simply as light. The human eye cannot detect wavelengths longer than those of the visible light, such as those of infrared light, microwaves (wavelengths of centimetres), or radio waves (wavelengths of metres). Wavelengths shorter than visible light cannot be seen either: ultraviolet light, X-rays, gamma rays (the most energetic). Electromagnetic radiation can be described in terms of wavelength (L), measured in metres (m), or frequency (f), measured in hertz (Hz). The relationship between these two is given by: f = L/c where c= speed of light.

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 18/02/2007 21:06:47
FET  (Field Effect Transistor)

http://www.hobbyprojects.com/field_effect_transistor/images/nfet.gif

Field effect transistor

Large power N-channel field effect transistorThe field-effect transistor (FET) is a transistor that relies on an electric field to control the shape and hence the conductivity of a 'channel' in a semiconductor material. FETs are sometimes used as voltage-controlled resistors. The concepts related to the field effect transistor predated those of the bipolar junction transistor (BJT). Nevertheless, FETs were implemented only after BJTs due to the simplicity of manufacturing BJTs over FETs at the time.

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 18/02/2007 21:37:31
Gram

The gram or gramme (Greek/Latin root grámma); symbol g, is a unit of mass.

Originally defined as "the absolute weight of a volume of pure water equal to the cube of the hundredth part of a meter, and at the temperature of melting ice"[1] (later 4 °C), a gram is now defined as one one-thousandth of the SI base unit, the kilogram, or 1×10−3 kg, which itself is defined as being equal to the mass of a physical prototype preserved by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures.

[ Invalid Attachment ]

BIC pen cap, about 1 gram.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: paul.fr on 19/02/2007 19:19:15
Hubble

From the Europen Space Agencys' Website

History: How Hubble Came About
The Earth's atmosphere is the bane of astronomers. The idea of sending a telescope into space to avoid it was first proposed long before the first satellites were launched, long before anyone even dreamt of sending astronauts to space.

German rocket scientist Herman Oberth was a pioneering thinker of his time and suggested a space bound telescope as early as 1923 in his book "Die Rakete zu den Planeträumen". A space telescope avoids frustrating problems such as cloudy and misty observing nights, the twinkling of stars even on clear nights and absorption of the ultraviolet and infrared parts of the spectrum.

It took many years before technology caught up with Oberth's idea. The American Lyman Spitzer proposed a more realistic plan for a space telescope in 1946 and lobbied for his idea for almost 30 years. In the 1970s NASA and the European Space Agency took up the idea and proposed a 3 metre space telescope. Funding began to flow in 1977 and it was decided to name the telescope after Edwin Powell Hubble who had discovered the expansion of the Universe in the 1920s. Although the Hubble Space Telescope was down-sized to 2.4 metres the project started to attract significant attention from astronomers.

The precision-ground mirror was finished in 1981 and the assembly of the entire spacecraft was completed in 1985. The plan called for a launch on NASA's Space Shuttle in 1986, but just months before the scheduled launch the Challenger disaster caused a year long delay of the entire Shuttle programme. Hubble was finally launched in 1990 and the tension built up as astronomers examined the first images through Hubble's eyes.

As in all good adventures, success does not come easily: it did not take more than two months to realise that Hubble's mirror had a serious flaw. A focusing defect prevented Hubble from taking sharp images - the mirror edge was too flat by a mere fiftieth of the width of a human hair. Over the next months scientists and engineers from NASA and ESA worked together and came up with a superb corrective optics package that would restore Hubble's eyesight completely.

A crew of astronauts carried out the repairs necessary to restore the telescope to its intended level of performance during the first Hubble Servicing Mission (SM1) in December 1993. Although the two subsequent servicing missions were at least as demanding in terms of complexity and workload, SM1 captured the attention of both astronomers and the public at large to a degree that no other Shuttle mission since has achieved. Meticulously planned and brilliantly executed, the mission succeeded on all counts. It will go down in history as one of the highlights of human spaceflight. Hubble was back in business.

Since SM1 three other Servicing Missions have been carried out: during SM2 in 1997 two new instruments were installed, in SM3A, 1999, many of Hubble's crucial technical systems were exchanged, and in 2002 came SM3B when Hubble again got new science instruments.

The final planned Servicing Mission will be in 2008, when Servicing Mission 4 is scheduled to upgrade Hubble's scientific capabilities again.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 19/02/2007 20:05:17
Internet

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fhistory.cit.nih.gov%2Fexhibits%2Fgalleries%2Fposters%2Fbig%2FInternet.jpg&hash=2f094d31e8cf1c5693b36e0a57b0c9b7)
http://history.cit.nih.gov/exhibits/galleries/posters/big/Internet.jpg
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 19/02/2007 22:31:37
Robert Jarvik

Jarvik was born in Midland, Michigan to Dr. Norman Eugene Jarvik and Edythe Koffler Jarvik and raised in Stamford, Connecticut. [1]

Jarvik is a graduate of Syracuse University. He later worked at the University of Utah.

Jarvik is married to Parade magazine columnist Marilyn vos Savant, who was long regarded as having the world's highest IQ. They live together in New York.

Starting in 2006, Jarvik has been appearing as a spokesman for Pfizer Pharmaceutical's cholesterol medication Lipitor.

Artificial heart

Jarvik worked jointly with William J. Kolff of Stamford, Connecticut on the Jarvik-7.

Ultimately, what came to be known as the Jarvik-7, the name associated with this development, was in fact the final product of the collaboration of many researchers who came before him, and their contributions to this project. One area of research was conducted at the Cleveland Clinic, which was later upgraded to the Cleveland Clinic Lerner Research Institute, a new, independent arm of the hospital, where crucial elements of the fully implantable organ were produced. [citation needed]

The first implanting of the Jarvik-7, into retired dentist Barney Clark, took place at the University of Utah. The next several implantations of the Jarvik 7 heart were conducted by Humana, a national hospital chain. The second patient, Bill Schroeder, survived 620 days.

Later, Jarvik formed Symbion, Inc. to manufacture the heart, but he lost the company in a hostile takeover. He then founded Jarvik Heart, Inc., and began work to create the Jarvik 2000, a lifetime ventricular assist device.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 19/02/2007 22:48:36
Knock-out gene technology

http://www.csu.edu.au/faculty/health/biomed/subjects/molbol/images/10_31.jpg
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: paul.fr on 23/02/2007 01:52:24
Leonardo da Vinci

Perhaps even more impressive than his artistic work are his studies in science and engineering, recorded in notebooks comprising some 13,000 pages of notes and drawings, which fuse art and science. He was left-handed and used mirror writing throughout his life. Explainable by fact that it is easier to pull a quill pen than to push it; by using mirror-writing, the left-handed writer is able to pull the pen from right to left.

His approach to science was an observatory one: he tried to understand a phenomenon by describing and depicting it in utmost detail, and did not emphasize experiments or theoretical explanations. Throughout his life, he planned a grand encyclopedia based on detailed drawings of everything. Since he lacked formal education in Latin and mathematics, Leonardo the scientist was mostly ignored by contemporary scholars.

He participated in autopsies and produced many extremely detailed anatomical drawings, planning a comprehensive work of human and comparative anatomy. Around the year 1490, he produced a study in his sketchbook of the Canon of Proportions as described in recently rediscovered writings of the Roman architect Vitruvius. The study, called the Vitruvian Man, is one of his most well-known works.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 23/02/2007 09:26:31
Moebius ring

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.mediafusion.nl%2Fsystem%2Fvsd%2FDSCN9418_small_mobius.jpg&hash=62bc5f4b1baa66e65ea7dcc4f89aa164)
http://www.mediafusion.nl/system/vsd/DSCN9418_small_mobius.jpg
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: jolly on 24/02/2007 20:09:44
neodymium.lol
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 24/02/2007 21:09:16
Organisms
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 24/02/2007 21:11:36
Ops! too late...good show Karen!

O ring

http://www.pspglobal.com/images/o-ring-kits.jpg
http://www.mhatt.aps.anl.gov/dohn/ref_exp_sci/o-ring.png
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: paul.fr on 24/02/2007 21:47:15
Planetarium: invented in 1913 by walter bauersfeld
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 24/02/2007 22:07:42
Quantum Physics
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: paul.fr on 24/02/2007 22:54:38
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 25/02/2007 13:18:44
SCIENCE (LOL)
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 25/02/2007 14:40:00
Thyristor

http://www.lelectronique.com/ressource/cours/thyristor3.gif
http://www.hemar.ch/images/triac.gif

Thyristor

The thyristor is a solid-state semiconductor device with four layers of alternating N and P-type material.
They act as a switch, conducting when their gate receives a current pulse, and continue to conduct for as long as they are forward biased.

Some sources define silicon controlled rectifiers and thyristors as synonymous; others define SCRs as a subset of thyristors. Among the latter, the International Electrotechnical Commission 60747-6 standard stands out.
Non-SCR thyristors include devices with more than four layers, such as triacs and DB-GTOs
...

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 25/02/2007 14:47:52
ULTRAMUNDANE = Being beyond the world or the limits of our solar system.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 25/02/2007 14:58:49
Varicap diode

http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/G_KNOTT/varicap.gif
http://www.picfun.com/parts/varicap.jpg
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: paul.fr on 26/02/2007 01:31:05
Watson-Watt. Sir Robert Alexander. Helped to establish the US radar system
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 26/02/2007 04:43:16
Xanthocroid person = (Rare)a person Having light colored hair and complexion. (rare)
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: paul.fr on 26/02/2007 04:52:45
Y-chromosone
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 26/02/2007 05:34:55
Zymogenesis = The process by which a zymogen becomes a enzyme
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 26/02/2007 18:45:56
Aflatoxins

(Aspergillus flavus toxins = aflatoxins)

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.aflatoxin.info%2Fimages%2Fafla_2.jpg&hash=8232756749137ee61510828a8f784352)
http://www.aflatoxin.info/images/afla_2.jpg

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww2.dpi.qld.gov.au%2Fimages%2F2326.jpg&hash=28811c4c1676dd3a4420c7a7c17be4ae)  (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.moldbacteria.com%2FAspergillusflavus.gif&hash=83068d8eb4a9946528f8fd6e99303f33)  (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.osel.cz%2F_img%2Fimg1094798100.jpg&hash=ae35292e6834598e417df95c97f6dc50)
http://www2.dpi.qld.gov.au/images/2326.jpg
http://www.moldbacteria.com/Aspergillusflavus.gif
http://www.osel.cz/_img/img1094798100.jpg

Aflatoxins are naturally occurring mycotoxins that are produced by many species of Aspergillus, a fungus, most notably Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Aflatoxins are toxic and carcinogenic. After entering the body, aflatoxins are metabolized by the liver to a reactive intermediate, aflatoxin M1, an epoxide. Aflatoxin is frequently misspelled as alfatoxin.

Aspergillus is common and widespread in nature and are most often found when crops are exposed to a high humidity environment over a long period of time or are damaged in stressful conditions such as drought, a condition which lowers the barrier to entry.

The native habitat of Aspergillus is in soil, decaying vegetation, hay, and grains undergoing microbiological deterioration and it invades all types of organic substrates whenever and wherever the conditions are favorable for its growth. Favorable conditions include high moisture content (at least 7%) and high temperature.

Crops which are frequently affected include cereals (maize, sorghum, pearl millet, rice, wheat), oilseeds (peanut, soybean, sunflower, cotton), spices (chile peppers, black pepper, coriander, turmeric, ginger), and tree nuts (almond, pistachio, walnut, coconut, brazil nut).

The toxin can also be found in the milk of animals which are fed contaminated feed.
...
more from wikipedia:   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aflatoxin

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 28/02/2007 17:12:33
Benjamin Franklin
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: paul.fr on 28/02/2007 17:16:51
Carl Edward Sagan
From wikipedia

Carl Edward Sagan (November 9, 1934 – December 20, 1996) was an American astronomer and astrobiologist and a highly successful popularizer of astronomy, astrophysics and other natural sciences. He pioneered exobiology and promoted the Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence (SETI). He is world-famous for writing popular science books and for co-writing and presenting the award-winning 1980 television series Cosmos: A Personal Voyage, which has been seen by more than 600 million people in over 60 countries, making it the most widely watched PBS program in history.[1] A book to accompany the program was also published. He also wrote the novel Contact, the basis for the 1997 Robert Zemeckis film of the same name starring Jodie Foster. During his lifetime, Sagan published more than 600 scientific papers and popular articles and was author, co-author, or editor of more than 20 books. In his works, he frequently advocated skeptical inquiry, humanism, and the scientific method.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 28/02/2007 17:29:49
Diatrophism = The process by which the earths surface is reshaped through rock movements and it's displacements.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 28/02/2007 18:26:09
Eicosapentaenoic acid  (EPA)

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.3dchem.com%2Fimagesofmolecules%2Fepa.gif&hash=b8fbb8c2154a81c5871e78926834d195)    (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fzephyr.meteo.mcgill.ca%2Fandrew%2Fvm3%2Feicosapentaenoic-acid.png&hash=ec607ecf0914a05896bcdd45f7abee5f)   (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.3dchem.com%2Fimagesofmolecules%2Fepa.jpg&hash=7175d38e69aa138711955e3d11719eab)
http://www.3dchem.com/imagesofmolecules/epa.gif
http://zephyr.meteo.mcgill.ca/andrew/vm3/eicosapentaenoic-acid.png
http://www.3dchem.com/imagesofmolecules/epa.jpg

...together with DHA, the peculiar
polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)
in cod liver oil.
(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.k12.nf.ca%2Fstpauls%2Fgrassroots%2Ffishery%2Ffishgr%2Fcod.gif&hash=30fed6992ef144fb17481b44398bc64e)

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 28/02/2007 19:24:04
Folacin = The same as folic acid, which is a crytaline substance found in green leaves and certain other plants and animal tissues, exhibiting vitamin B activity.Used in medicines especially for treating certain anemias.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 28/02/2007 20:11:39
Geothermal energy

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.technologystudent.com%2Fimages5%2Fgeo1.gif&hash=ab24802b16a5225e0f68993222762f64)  http://www.cres.gr/kape/energeia_politis/images/geothermal.jpg
http://www.fplforkids.com/graphics/geo3.jpg
http://www.technologystudent.com/images5/geo1.gif
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 01/03/2007 17:04:09
Hang gliders
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 02/03/2007 10:36:46
Insulators  (high voltage)

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 02/03/2007 15:29:20
Jejunectomy = A surgical removal of all or part of the Jejunum, which is: The middle part of the small intestine, between the duodenum and the ileum.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 02/03/2007 16:37:03
Kala azar
(Visceral leishmaniasis)
(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.brown.edu%2FCourses%2FBio_160%2FProjects2000%2FLeishmaniasis%2Famastigotes.jpg&hash=2473a1dffc4fc70b935a0d7433e98202)
http://www.brown.edu/Courses/Bio_160/Projects2000/Leishmaniasis/amastigotes.jpg

...In order to develop a successful parasitic relationship with its host, the leishmania must evade both the innate and adaptive immune responses. When leishmania first enters the human body, it is in the promastigote form. Promastigotes are engulfed by macrophages but are resistant to proteolysis and degradation in the phagosome. Once inside the macrophage, the organism is termed an amastigote.
By continuing to live inside the macrophage, leishmania effectively avoids the humoral branch of the immune system. During each of the steps described, the protozoa evade and at times manipulate the human immune system and avoid digestion.
http://www.brown.edu/Courses/Bio_160/Projects2000/Leishmaniasis/immune.html
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 02/03/2007 17:23:30
Liquid crystal display

A liquid crystal display (LCD) is a thin, flat display device made up of any number of color or monochrome pixels arrayed in front of a light source or reflector. It is prized by engineers because it uses very small amounts of electric power, and is therefore suitable for use in battery-powered electronic devices.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 02/03/2007 19:12:38
Macrophage

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.biotech.um.edu.mt%2Fhome_pages%2Fchris%2FHematology1%2FHematologyImages%2FMacrophage.jpg&hash=243e8e6c66ecba07ecf40d74ef78a915)
http://www.biotech.um.edu.mt/home_pages/chris/Hematology1/HematologyImages/Macrophage.jpg

derived from blood monocytes:
- about 6% of all WBCs; largest leukocyte 12-15 micrometers; nucleus shape varies from kidney-shaped to horseshoe-shaped, but always indented; lighter staining than lymphocytes

- cytoplasm without granules and stains pale blue-gray

- in contrast to neutrophils, are relatively long-lived

- are distributed throughout connective tissue and around the basement tissue of small blood vessels

- monocytes are phagocytic; when monocytes leave bloodstream they rapidly transform to macrophages that are very actively phagocytic ingesting bacteria, dead cells, tissue debris; also stimulate antibody production by lymphocytes.

- defend against pathogens which reside within host cells.

from:   http://www.biotech.um.edu.mt/home_pages/chris/Hematology1/Hematologyhtml/WBC4.htm

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 02/03/2007 19:37:54
Nothing

Nothing is the lack or absence of anything. Colloquially, however, the term is often used to describe a particularly unimpressive thing, event, or object.

In mathematics, nothing does not have a technical meaning. It could be said that a set contains "nothing" if and only if it is the empty set, in which case its cardinality (or size) is zero. In other words, the word "nothing" is an informal term for an empty set.

In physics, the word nothing is not used in any technical sense. A region of space is called a vacuum if it does not contain any matter. But it can contain physical fields. In fact, it is practically impossible to construct a region of space which contains no matter or fields, since gravity cannot be blocked and all objects at a non-zero temperature radiate electromagnetically. However, supposing such a region existed, it would still not be "nothing", since it has properties and a measurable existence as part of the quantum-mechanical vacuum.

The concept of "nothing" has been studied throughout history by philosophers and theologians; many have found that careful consideration of the notion can easily lead to the logical fallacy of reification. (If one does not believe that nothing is no thing.) The understanding of "nothing" varies widely between cultures, especially between Western and Eastern cultures and philosophical traditions. For instance, emptiness, unlike "nothingness," is considered a state of mind in Buddhism .
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 02/03/2007 20:58:08
Oh my God!
(for a Big scientific achievement)

Ornithorhynchus

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fimages.encarta.msn.com%2Fxrefmedia%2Fsharemed%2Ftargets%2Fimages%2Fpho%2Ft049%2FT049934A.jpg&hash=1ef04758f8697f6b105a837d8e0c1c64)
http://images.encarta.msn.com/xrefmedia/sharemed/targets/images/pho/t049/T049934A.jpg

The Platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) is a semi-aquatic mammal endemic to eastern Australia and Tasmania. Together with the four species of echidna, it is one of the five species of monotremes, the only mammals that lay eggs instead of giving birth to live young.
It is the sole living representative of its family (Ornithorhynchidae) and genus (Ornithorhynchus), though a number of related species have been found in the fossil record.

The bizarre appearance of this egg-laying, duck-billed mammal baffled naturalists when it was first discovered, with some considering it an elaborate fraud. It is one of the few venomous mammals; the male Platypus has a spur on the hind foot which delivers a poison capable of causing severe pain to humans. The unique features of the Platypus make it an important subject in the study of evolutionary biology and a recognizable and iconic symbol of Australia; it has appeared as a mascot at national events and is featured on the reverse of the Australian 20-cent coin.

Until the early 20th century it was hunted for its fur, but it is now protected throughout its range. Although captive breeding programs have had only limited success and the Platypus is vulnerable to the effects of pollution, it is not under any immediate threat.

from wikipedia:   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Platypus

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 02/03/2007 21:26:06
Parabola

In mathematics, the parabola (from the Greek: παραβολή) (IPA pronunciation: /pəˈrab(ə)lə/) is a conic section generated by the intersection of a right circular conical surface and a plane parallel to a generating straight line of that surface. A parabola can also be defined as locus of points in a plane which are equidistant from a given point (the focus) and a given line (the directrix).

A particular case arises when the plane is tangent to the conical surface. In this case, the intersection is a degenerate parabola consisting of a straight line.

The parabola is an important concept in abstract mathematics, but it is also seen with considerable frequency in the physical world, and there are many practical applications for the construct in engineering, physics, and other domains.

[ Invalid Attachment ]

A Parabola Thingy !!
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 02/03/2007 21:47:29
Quintuplet!
(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.sweeneyfive.com%2F1_11x14_DSCF0020.jpg&hash=72d24ddb0feac3b7392e93422f09d214)
http://www.sweeneyfive.com/1_11x14_DSCF0020.jpg

Science of twins...Medical Twinology?
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 02/03/2007 23:11:07
R for RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR...aren't those quintuplets cute ?

Remote control

A remote control is an electronic device used for the remote operation of a machine.

The term remote control can be also referred to as "remote" or "controller" when abbreviated. It has been known by many other names as well, such as the "clicker," etc. Commonly, remote controls are used to issue commands from a distance to televisions or other consumer electronics such as stereo systems and DVD players. Remote controls for these devices are usually small wireless handheld objects with an array of buttons for adjusting various settings such as television channel, track number, and volume. In fact, for the majority of modern devices with this kind of control, the remote contains all the function controls while the controlled device itself only has a handful of essential primary controls. Most of these remotes communicate to their respective devices via infrared (IR) signals and a few via radio signals. They are usually powered by small AAA or AA size batteries.

Guess what these are ?...go on...have a guess !!...tricky eh ?...well I don't know !!

[ Invalid Attachment ]
[ Invalid Attachment ]
[ Invalid Attachment ]
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 02/03/2007 23:25:50
Spirit of Saint Louis

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fjnpassieux.chez-alice.fr%2Fimages%2FStLouis.jpg&hash=754caa24021105e43f38d29eecc3cc9b)    (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fjnpassieux.chez-alice.fr%2Fimages%2FStLouis_2.jpg&hash=756993255daf708b866acdd385497697)
http://jnpassieux.chez-alice.fr/images/StLouis.jpg
http://jnpassieux.chez-alice.fr/images/StLouis_2.jpg

Vue du Ryan Spirit of Saint Louis. Première traversée de l'Atlantique par Charles Lindbergh les 20 et 21 mai 1927 (durée du vol: 33h 30mn).
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 02/03/2007 23:38:40
Toyoichi Tanaka

- Smart Gels

Polymer gels that can expand or contract by up to 1000 times in volume.
According to TECHTALK published by the MIT News Office, "Smart gels or polymer gels are a class of materials that expand or contract when triggered by tiny changes in temperature, light, a solvent or other stimulus."

Polymer gels have the ability to make large but reversible changes in volume allowing for the invention of smart gels that could deliver various agents and materials at specific events for countless purposes. For example, uses for smart gels could include cleaning up oil spills, creating cosmetics adaptable to skin pH, or even serving as miniature artificial valves and muscles.

Toyoichi Tanaka Father of Smart Gels
Toyoichi Tanaka was born in Nagaoka-city, Japan in 1946. He received his BS in (1968), MS (1970) and DSc (1973) in physics from the University of Tokyo.

He joined the MIT physics faculty in 1975. Toyoichi Tanaka married Tomoko Tahira in 1970.

In 1992, Toyoichi Tanaka co-founded GelMed Inc and its sister company, Gel Sciences Inc. He also co-founded Buyo-Buyo, Inc.

Toyoichi Tanaka was the winner of the 38th Toray Science and Technology Prize from the Toray Science Foundation in Japan and the 1994 Inoue Prize for Science. He was awarded the Vinci d'Excellence in France for his work in 1993.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 03/03/2007 03:20:23
Those babies are Gorgeous!!! Poor brother he is going to be brutalized...4 Girls against the 1 boy! NO FAIR I say!!! LOL

Ultracentrifuge = a highspeed centrifuge for segragating microscopic and sub-microscopic materials to determine the sizes and molecular weights of colloidal and other small particles.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 03/03/2007 08:04:10
Vibrio cholerae

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.designthatmatters.org%2Fproto_portfolio%2Fcholera_treatment%2Fmultimedia%2Fvibrio_cholerae.jpg&hash=ab17311106a45edafc769b8427a90032)   (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.biotox.cz%2Ftoxikon%2Fbakterie%2Fbakterie%2Fobr%2Fvibrio_cholerae_2s.jpg&hash=f12a4451d0025222d17638f02d7878cc)
http://www.designthatmatters.org/proto_portfolio/cholera_treatment/multimedia/vibrio_cholerae.jpg
http://www.biotox.cz/toxikon/bakterie/bakterie/obr/vibrio_cholerae_2s.jpg
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 03/03/2007 12:57:48
Wavellite =  N. { after W. Wavell (?- 1829), An English Physician who discovered it} an orthorhombic hydrous phosphate of aluminun, vitreous and translucent
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 03/03/2007 14:02:21
Xyphophorus variatus variatus (Platy)

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.animals-express.com%2Fupl%2Fi457.jpg&hash=0a3e5d4e165acc5cea87c49245de380b)
http://www.animals-express.com/upl/i457.jpg

Xyphophorus helleri

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.akvariumas.lt%2Fzuvys%2Fpoeciliidae%2Fxiphophorus%2Fimages%2Fxiphophorus_helleri_4.jpg&hash=4ab2c8c72d72dea773c0f32248c8513d)
http://www.akvariumas.lt/zuvys/poeciliidae/xiphophorus/images/xiphophorus_helleri_4.jpg

funny name:      xyphos=sword           phorus=carrier
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 03/03/2007 14:36:04
Yagi (antenna) A VHS or UHF Directional antenna array in which a basic dipole antenna is supplimented by several parallel  reflector and director elements: widely used or television reception in weak- signal areas.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 03/03/2007 14:47:37
FRANK J. ZAMBONI (1901-1988)

Ice resurfacing machine

In 1949, Frank Zamboni invented the machine used today in skating rinks all over the world to clean and polish the ice surface on the spot.
Born in 1901, Zamboni was a natural mechanic and innovative thinker. He moved to Southern California at the age of 21, to work in auto repair at his elder brother's garage, but soon decided to enter the refrigeration business. At that time, the dairy and produce industries relied heavily on ice for storage and transport, so Zamboni and another brother built a factory to produce block ice.

Over the years, the refrigeration technology used in warehouses and boxcars made great advances, thanks to inventors like W. H. Carrier and Frederick McKinley Jones. Never one to be left in the cold, Zamboni found a new venue for his expertise. In 1939, he, his brother and a cousin built Iceland Skating Rink in Paramount, California --- at 20,000 sq. ft., one of the largest rinks in the country. Zamboni soon added a domed roof over the rink: the dome helped defend the ice surface from the California sun, but could not prevent everyday defects in the ice, namely the chipping and gouging that inevitably result from use.

To renew the ice surface, a team of three or four workers had to scrape the ice with a tractor, then shovel away the shavings, hose down and squeegee the surface, and wait for the ice to set again: the process took over an hour, each time. In 1942, Zamboni began to transform a tractor into a unified ice surface scraper and smoother, one that could resurface the ice at one pass.
After seven years of experiments, Zamboni succeeded: an adjustable blade in a frame behind the machine shaved the ice smooth; the resultant shavings were then swept up and conveyed into a large holding tank; an apparatus at the back of the resurfacer rinsed and squeegeed the ice as the machine moved ahead, leaving a layer of water shallow enough that it bonded to the ice below almost instantly. In 1949, the "Model A Zamboni Ice Resurfacer" became both patented (#2,642,679) and marketable.

Zamboni's best help in marketing his invention came from Olympic skater Sonja Henie. In 1950, she saw the Zamboni® in action while practicing at Paramount Iceland, and immediately ordered one for her national tour. Later, she took a Model B with her to Europe. It was not long before the Ice Capades, and then various recreational and sports skating rinks, were clamoring for a Zamboni® of their own.

As ice skating continued to rise in popularity in the 1950s and '60s, Zamboni kept improving his machines: his HD model (1964) set the standards for the industry that he singlehandedly created; the latest models (1978-present) feature a liquid-cooled engine or run on electric batteries.

Today's machines are still manufactured at Zamboni's original factory; their proving ground is still the nearby Paramount Iceland. Frank Zamboni died in 1988, but as his company looks ahead to its 50th anniversary (1999), the evidence of his success in invention can be seen around the world, from Olympic arenas to neighborhood ice rinks.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 03/03/2007 21:49:18
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 03/03/2007 22:30:50
BASIC

In computer programming, BASIC (an acronym for Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code[1]) refers to a family of high-level programming languages. It was originally designed in 1963, by John George Kemeny and Thomas Eugene Kurtz at Dartmouth College, to provide access for non-science students to computers. At the time, nearly all computer use required writing custom software, which was something only scientists and mathematicians tended to do. The language (in one variant or another) became widespread on home microcomputers in the 1980s, and remains popular to this day in a handful of heavily evolved dialects.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 03/03/2007 23:12:01
CHEMISTRY
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 03/03/2007 23:28:47
Dermatomeri

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.msd-italia.it%2Faltre%2Fmanuale%2Ffigure%2Fimmagini%2F16502.gif&hash=39f5fa51c99515d0a0ec19c590d8585c)
http://www.msd-italia.it/altre/manuale/figure/immagini/16502.gif
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 04/03/2007 09:21:14
Electromagnetic!
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Mjhavok on 04/03/2007 09:26:48
FISH (Flourescence In Situ Hybridisation)
Flavobacterium
Focal Assay
Fungal Spores
Fusarium graminearum
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 04/03/2007 09:32:34
Geoponic = To toil, To till the ground , having to do with agriculture.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 04/03/2007 10:44:18
Hemophagocytosis

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.cdc.gov%2Fncidod%2Feid%2Fvol6no6%2Fimages%2Ffisman1b.jpg&hash=67bee91f2e6830e1fc123074a934d6f7)
http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/vol6no6/images/fisman1b.jpg

Perspective
Hemophagocytic Syndromes and Infection
David N. Fisman
Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

Figure 1.
Hemophagocytosis in the bone marrow of an 18-year-old woman with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. The patient visited her physician in September 1997 with pharyngitis and an elevated heterophile agglutinin titer. She was diagnosed with infectious mononucleosis, and her symptoms resolved in 2 weeks. Approximately 2 months later, she had persistent, spiking fevers and became jaundiced; her immunoglobulin (Ig) M to EBV capsid antigen was positive; and EBV capsid IgG and nuclear IgG were negative. She had pancytopenia and was hospitalized. Bone marrow evaluation revealed a hypocellular marrow, with active hemophagocytosis. The macrophage in the center of this image appears "stuffed" with phagocytosed erythrocytes. Phagocytosis of platelets and leukocytes by macrophages was also seen (not shown). The patient was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin, steroids, and cyclosporine A, but not etoposide. Her condition worsened; she had respiratory, renal, and hepatic failure; and she died of an intracerebral hemmorhage on hospital day 34, 3 1/2 months after her initial illness.
Original photomicrograph 100 X magnification with oil immersion, courtesy of Frank Evangelista, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. Photomicrograph published in Blood 1999;63:1991 and reproduced by permission of the publisher.

from:   CDC/Emerging infectious diseases    http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/vol6no6/fismanG1.htm

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 04/03/2007 14:25:06
Isopropyl Alcohol
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 04/03/2007 17:50:28
Frederick Jones (1893-1961)   By Mary Bellis

Fred McKinley JonesFrederick McKinley Jones was one of the most prolific Black inventors ever. Frederick Jones patented more than sixty inventions, however, he is best known for inventing an automatic refrigeration system for long-haul trucks in 1935 (a roof-mounted cooling device). Jones was the first person to invent a practical, mechanical refrigeration system for trucks and railroad cars, which eliminated the risk of food spoilage during long-distance shipping trips. The system was, in turn, adapted to a variety of other common carriers, including ships. Frederick Jones was issued the patent on July 12, 1940 (#2,303,857).

Frederick Jones also invented a self-starting gas engine and a series of devices for movie projectors: adapting silent movie projectors for talking films, and developing box office equipment that delivered tickets and gave change.

Frederick Jones was born in in Covington, Kentucky near Cincinnati, Ohio on on May 17, 1893. He was a trained mechanic, a skill he learned doing military service in France during World War. His mastery of electronic devices was largely self-taught, through work experience and the inventing process.

[ Invalid Attachment ]

Frederick McKinley Jones was granted more than 40 patents in the field of refrigeration. Frederick Jones' inspiration for the refrigeration unit was a conversation with a truck driver who had lost a shipment of chickens because the trip took too long and the truck's storage compartment overheated. Frederick Jones also developed an air-conditioning unit for military field hospitals and a refrigerator for military field kitchens. Frederick Jones received over 60 patents during his lifetime.

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 04/03/2007 19:09:59
Kinky hair disease  (Menke's syndrome)

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.emedicine.com%2Fped%2Fimages%2F13856.jpg&hash=ed6ac19f152a6d7e903956c55f95321a)
http://www.emedicine.com/ped/images/13856.jpg

Pathophysiology: As an X-linked disease, MKHD typically occurs in males who present when aged 2-3 months with loss of previously obtained developmental milestones and the onset of hypotonia, seizures, and failure to thrive.
Characteristic physical changes of the hair and facies, in conjunction with typical neurologic findings, often suggest the diagnosis. In 1988, Baerlocher and Nadal compiled the presenting signs and symptoms of 127 patients with MKHD whose cases had been reported in the medical literature up to 1985. The less distinctive appearance of very young infants with MKHD before the onset of neurodegeneration is discussed separately below. In the natural history of classic MKHD, death usually occurs by the time the individual with MKHD is aged 3 years.

Physical presentation

The scalp hair of infants with classic MKHD is short, sparse, coarse, and twisted. The hair is often less abundant and even shorter on the sides and the back of the head than on the top. The twisted strands may be reminiscent of those in steel wool cleaning pads. The eyebrows usually share the unusual appearance. Light microscopy of patient hair illustrates pathognomonic pili torti (ie, 180° twisting of the hair shaft) and often other abnormalities, including trichoclasis (ie, transverse fracture of hair shaft) and trichoptilosis (ie, longitudinal splitting of shaft). Hair tends to be lightly pigmented and may demonstrate unusual colors, such as white, silver, or grey; however, in some individuals with MKHD, the hair is pigmented normally.

The face of the individual with MKHD has pronounced jowls, with sagging cheeks and ears that often appear large. The palate tends to be high-arched, and tooth eruption is delayed. Noisy sonorous breathing is often evident. While findings on auscultation of the heart and lungs are usually unremarkable, pectus excavatum (chest deformity) is a common thoracic finding. Umbilical and/or inguinal herniae may be present. The skin often appears loose and redundant, particularly at the nape of the neck and on the trunk.

Neurologically, profound truncal hypotonia with poor head control is invariably present. Appendicular tone may be increased with thumbs held in an adducted cortical posture. Deep tendon reflexes are often hyperactive. The suck and cry are usually strong. Visual fixation and tracking are commonly impaired, while hearing is normal. Developmental skills are confined to occasional smiling and babbling in most patients with MKHD. Growth failure commences shortly after the onset of neurodegeneration and is asymmetric, with linear growth relatively preserved in comparison to weight and head circumference. Clinical diagnostic tests often produce characteristic results

much much more from e-Medicine:     http://www.emedicine.com/ped/topic1417.htm

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 04/03/2007 20:26:24
Lie Detector or Polygraph

A polygraph (commonly yet incorrectly referred to as a lie detector) is a device that measures and records several physiological variables such as blood pressure, pulse, respiration and skin conductivity while the subject is asked a series of questions. The measurements are posited to be indicators of anxiety that accompanies the telling of lies. Thus, measured anxiety is equated with telling untruths. However, if the subject exhibits anxiety for other reasons, or can control his anxiety level voluntarily, a measured response can result in unreliable conclusions. A polygraph test is also questionably used as a psychophysiological detection of deception (PDD) examination.

[ Invalid Attachment ]
Polygraph results are sometimes recorded on a chart recorder
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 04/03/2007 20:31:22
Micro organisms
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 04/03/2007 20:38:59
Nystagmus
(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fnostalg.org%2Fdes%2Fphysiological_mechanisms_archivos%2Ffig10.gif&hash=8da5bc4ee93cf82076c1fd55646c5687)
http://nostalg.org/des/physiological_mechanisms_archivos/fig10.gif

Nystagmus is an involuntary eye movement which usually results in some degree of visual loss. The degree and direction of eye movement, amount of visual loss and resulting impairment varies greatly from person to person. This website has been created by the American Nystagmus Network, Inc., a nonprofit organization established in February, 1999 to serve the needs and interests of those affected by Nystagmus.

much more clicking here:     http://www.nystagmus.org/

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 04/03/2007 21:19:23
HEE HEE HEE nice picture..Lol!

Oxygen
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 04/03/2007 21:47:18
Plankton

Plankton are defined as any drifting organism that inhabits the water column of oceans, seas, and bodies of fresh water. They are widely considered to be some of the most important organisms on Earth, due to the food supply they provide to most aquatic life.

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fimg.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fv286%2Fneilneil%2FPlankton.jpg&hash=16f71d4f28fe980a690a229d00f9e8b4)

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fimg.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fv286%2Fneilneil%2F800px-Tomopteriskils.jpg&hash=9f2278fc00c49d46cdcdec5be8ff4c89)

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fimg.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fv286%2Fneilneil%2F664px-Ctenophora.jpg&hash=773ba92fcb737746bf0705ffd3d94538)

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fimg.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fv286%2Fneilneil%2F636px-Hyperia.jpg&hash=3c0b4ee33baf729c50af7fae57e06af1)

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fimg.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fv286%2Fneilneil%2F534px-Amphipodredkils.jpg&hash=2f3071317a18ecd7a67c524993c49b67)
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 04/03/2007 21:53:33
Quercetin
http://www.phytochemicals.info/pictures/phytochemicals/quercetin.gif

Quercetin is a flavonoid and more specifically a flavonol. It is the aglycone form of a number of other flavonoid glycosides, such as rutin and quercitrin found in citrus fruit. Quercetin is found to be the most active of the flavonoids in studies,[citation needed] and many medicinal plants owe much of their activity to their high quercetin content. Quercetin has demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory activity because of direct inhibition of several initial processes of inflammation. For example, it inhibits both the manufacture and release of histamine and other allergic/inflammatory mediators. In addition, it exerts potent antioxidant activity and vitamin C-sparing action.

Quercetin forms the glycosides quercitrin and rutin together with rhamnose and rutinose respectively.

Quercetin also shows remarkable anti-tumour properties. A recent study in the British Journal of Cancer shows that when treated with a combination of quercetin and ultrasound at 20 KHz for 1 minute duration, skin and prostate cancers show a 90% mortality within 48 hours with no visible mortality of normal cells. Note that ultrasound also promotes topical absorption by up to 1,000 times making the use of topical quercetin and ultrasound wands an interesting proposition.

Quercetin may have positive effects in combating or helping to prevent cancer, prostatitis, heart disease, cataracts, allergies/inflammations, and respiratory diseases such as bronchitis and asthma.

Foods rich in quercetin include apples, black & green tea, onions (higher concentrations of quercetin occur in the outermost rings[1]), red wine, red grapes, citrus fruits, broccoli & other leafy green vegetables, cherries, and a number of berries including raspberry, bog whortleberry (158 mg/kg, fresh weight), lingonberry (74 and 146 mg/kg), cranberry (83 and 121 mg/kg), chokeberry (89 mg/kg), sweet rowan (85 mg/kg), rowanberry (63 mg/kg), sea buckthorn berry (62 mg/kg), crowberry (53 and 56 mg/kg),[1] and the fruit of the prickly pear cactus. A study[2] by the University of Queensland, Australia, has also indicated the presence of quercetin in varieties of honey, including honey derived from eucalyptus and tea tree flowers.[3]

In plants, it is a naturally-occurring polar auxin transport inhibitor.

Recent studies have supported that quercetin can help men with chronic prostatitis, possibly because of its action as a mast cell inhibitor.

more from wikipedia:      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quercetin

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 04/03/2007 21:57:08
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 04/03/2007 22:04:08
Synchrotron

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 04/03/2007 22:04:53
Science

Science, in the broadest sense, refers to any system of objective knowledge. In a more restricted sense, science refers to a system of acquiring knowledge based on the scientific method, as well as to the organized body of knowledge gained through such research.

Fields of science are commonly classified along two major lines:

* Natural sciences, which study natural phenomena, including biological life;
* Social sciences, which study human behavior and societies

These fields are empirical sciences, which means the knowledge must be based on observable phenomena and capable of being tested for its validity by other researchers working under the same conditions.

Mathematics is sometimes classified in a third grouping, called formal science, having both similarities and differences with the natural and social sciences. It is similar to other disciplines in that it involves a careful, systematic study of an area of knowledge; it is different because of its method of verifying its knowledge, using a-priori rather than empirical methods. Mathematics as a whole is vital to the sciences; indeed, major advances in mathematics have often led to critical advances in the physical and biological sciences. Certain mathematical approaches are indispensable for the formation of hypotheses, theories, and laws, both in discovering and describing how things work (natural sciences) and how people think and act (social sciences).

Science as defined above is sometimes termed pure science in order to differentiate it from applied science, the latter being the application of scientific research to specific human needs.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 04/03/2007 22:05:10
GRRRRRRRRRRRRRR !!!!
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 04/03/2007 22:10:08
Too late Neilepus!  [;D]

Buy that uaj...I think Science has been Scited before...

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.k12.nf.ca%2Fstpauls%2Fgrassroots%2Ffishery%2Ffishgr%2Fcod.gif&hash=30fed6992ef144fb17481b44398bc64e)

Science in the broadest sense refers to any system of objective knowledge. In a more restricted sense, science refers to a system of acquiring knowledge based on the scientific method, as well as to the organized body of knowledge humans have gained by such research. This article focuses on the latter sense of the word.

Fields of science are commonly classified along two major lines:

* Natural sciences, which study natural phenomena
* Social sciences, which study human behavior and societies

Whether mathematics is a science is a matter of perspective. It is similar to other sciences in that it is a careful, systematic study of an area of knowledge — specifically, it focuses on a priori knowledge. Mathematics as a whole is vital to the sciences — indeed, major advances in mathematics have often led to major advances in other sciences. Certain aspects of mathematics are indispensable for the formation of hypotheses, theories, and laws, both in discovering and describing how things work (natural sciences) and how people think and act (social sciences).

Science as defined above is sometimes termed pure science in order to differentiate it from applied science, the latter being the application of scientific research to human needs.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 05/03/2007 11:14:05
Univalent = 1. Single unpaired, said of a chromosome.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Mjhavok on 05/03/2007 13:55:08
Vernal Equinox
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 05/03/2007 14:42:03

Water Fountain

The modern drinking fountain was invented and then manufactured in the early 1900s by two men and the respective company each man founded: Halsey Willard Taylor and the Halsey Taylor Company; and Luther Haws and the Haws Sanitary Drinking Faucet Co. These two companies changed how water was served in public places.

[ Invalid Attachment ]
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 05/03/2007 17:45:42
X-fragile syndrome

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.wafragilex.org%2Fimages%2FAlex.jpg&hash=4fabfddbc52bac1cdbf93513a7d842d8)   (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fec3.images-amazon.com%2Fimages%2FP%2F1932096167.01._AA240_SCLZZZZZZZ_.jpg&hash=4c87db0ac624d366385e2945a88d5e11)
http://www.wafragilex.org/images/Alex.jpg
http://ec3.images-amazon.com/images/P/1932096167.01._AA240_SCLZZZZZZZ_.jpg

What Is Fragile X?

Fragile X syndrome is the leading cause of inherited developmental and mental impairment.  It is a genetic condition that is caused by a change in the genetic code of a single gene on the X chromosome. This defect inhibits the body's ability to produce a protein called FMRP.

Messages that must be sent and received for proper brain development and functioning are disrupted when this protein is missing. When the gene is altered, it can cause developmental delays and mild to severe learning disabilities including mental retardation.

Most children with fragile X appear completely typical at birth, but gradually, developmental characteristics of the condition become evident.

more from:   http://www.wafragilex.org/What_is_FragileX.htm

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 05/03/2007 17:51:35
Yellow

Yellow is any color of light that stimulates both the red and green cone cells of the retina, but not the blue cone cells. Light with a wavelength of 565–590 nm is yellow, though light with both red frequencies and green frequencies, such as mixing orange and lime light, or red and green light, is also yellow, and its scientifically defined complementary color in terms of color mixing using light is blue.

[ Invalid Attachment ]
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 05/03/2007 19:15:25
Zodiac constellation

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.physics.hku.hk%2F%7Enature%2FCD%2Fregular_e%2Flectures%2Fimages%2Fchap03%2Fzodiac.jpg&hash=868475f365188150cf547879c36bd41b)
http://www.physics.hku.hk/~nature/CD/regular_e/lectures/images/chap03/zodiac.jpg
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 05/03/2007 19:26:31
AIBO

AIBO (Artificial Intelligence roBOt, also means "love" or "attachment" in Japanese, can also mean "partner") is one of several types of robotic pets designed and manufactured by Sony; there have been several different models since their introduction in 1999. Able to walk, "see" its environment via camera, and recognize spoken commands, they are considered to be autonomous robots, since they are able to learn and mature based on external stimuli from their owner or environment, or from other AIBOs. Artist Hajime Sorayama created the initial designs for the AIBO.

On January 26, 2006 Sony announced that it would discontinue AIBO and several other products. It will also stop development of the QRIO robot. AIBO will still be supported until 2013 (ERS7 model), however, and AIBO technology will continue to be developed for use in other consumer products. [1] [2] AIBOware (the name is a trademark of Sony corporation), is the title given to the software the AIBO runs on its pink Memory Stick. The Life AIBOware allows the robot to be raised from pup to fully grown adult while going through various stages of development as its owner interacts with it. The Explorer AIBOware allows the owner to interact with a fully mature robot able to understand (though not necessarily willing to obey) 100 voice commands. Without the AIBOware, the AIBO will run in what is called "clinic mode" and can only perform basic actions.

Many AIBO owners enjoy teaching their pets new behaviors by reprogramming them (in Sony's special 'R-CODE' language). However, in October 2001, Sony sent a cease-and-desist notice to the webmaster of aibopet.com/aibohack.com, demanding that he stop distributing code that was retrieved by bypassing the copy prevention mechanisms of the robot. Eventually, in the face of many outraged AIBO owners, see the protest letter, Sony released a programmer's kit for 'non-commercial' use. The kit has now been expanded into three distinct tools: R-CODE, AIBO Remote Framework, and the OPEN-R SDK. These three tools are combined under the name AIBO SDE (Software Development Environment). All of these tools are free to download and can be used for commercial or non-commercial use (Except for the OPEN-R SDK, which is specifically for non-commercial use). Since the first release of OPEN-R, several AIBO programming tools have been developed by university labs, including URBI, Tekkotsu, Pyro and Cognitive Vision.

The AIBO has seen use as an inexpensive platform for artificial intelligence research, because it integrates a computer, vision system, and articulators in a package vastly cheaper than conventional research robots. The RoboCup autonomous soccer competition has a "Sony Four-Legged Robot League" in which numerous institutions from around the world participate. Competitors program a team of AIBO robots to play games of autonomous robot soccer against other competing teams.

AIBO's complete vision system uses the SIFT algorithm, to recognise its charging station. The newest versions are equipped with a Wi-Fi connection, allowing them to send the pictures they take via email. As a result, the Roblog originated.

AIBO's sounds were programmed by Japanese DJ/avant-garde composer Nobukazu Takemura, considered by many to be highly skilled at fusing mechanic and organic concepts, and the bodies of the "3x" series (Latte and Macaron, the round-headed AIBOs released in 2001) were designed by visual artist Katsura Moshino.

[ Invalid Attachment ]
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 06/03/2007 07:10:03
Binary star

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Binary_star

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi17.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fb73%2Fkarenw44%2F250px-Accretion_diskBinarystar.jpg&hash=7381480c1dfd282451f95d58d1548e66)

Binary star

Artist's impression of a binary system consisting of a black hole, with an accretion disc around it, and a main sequence star.A binary star is a stellar system consisting of two stars orbiting around their center of mass. For each star, the other is its companion star. Recent research suggests that a large percentage of stars are part of systems with at least two stars. Binary star systems are very important in astrophysics, because observing their mutual orbits allows their mass to be determined. The masses of many single stars can then be determined by extrapolations made from the observation of binaries.

Binary stars are not the same as optical double stars, which appear to be close together as seen from Earth, but may not be bound by gravity. Binary stars can either be distinguished optically (visual binaries) or by indirect techniques, such as spectroscopy. If binaries happen to orbit in a plane containing our line of sight, they will eclipse each other; these are called eclipsing binaries.

Systems consisting of more than two components, known as multiple stars, are also not uncommon and are generally classified under the same name. The components of binary star systems can exchange mass, bringing their evolution to stages that single stars cannot attain. Examples of binaries are Algol (an eclipsing binary), Sirius, and Cygnus X-1 (of which one member is probably a black hole).

YES INDEEDY, I DID IT!!! YES!!!! BTW NEILY, THE YELLOW SUNFLOWERS ARE SPECTACULAR SO CHEERY AND WARM..YAYYYYYYYYYY!

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 06/03/2007 12:40:36
Crop circle

Crop circles are geometrical formations of flattened crops found in England and elsewhere. They have been found in wheat, barley, canola, rye, corn, linseed and soy.

The phenomenon itself was noticed in its current form after notable appearances in England in the late 1970s. Various explanations were offered for the phenomenon, which soon spread around the world. In 1991, two men, Doug Bower and Dave Chorley, revealed that they had been making crop circles in England since 1978 using planks, rope, hats and wire as their only tools[1][2]. Circlemakers.org[3] a UK-based arts collective founded by John Lundberg have been creating complex crop circles since the early 1990s. [4].

Despite the evidence that crop circles are of human origin, various paranormal theories continue to enjoy some currency, although these all violate Occam's Razor.[5]

Here's one I made earlier !!

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fimg.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fv185%2Fneilep%2Fcrops1.jpg&hash=e68bab2dd3e6b641cd58c95e550c429a)
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 06/03/2007 15:51:25
THOSE ARE VERY COOL!!

Dioscuri = Greek mythology, meaning Castor and Pollux, twin sons of zues: identified as stars in the constellation Gemini.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 06/03/2007 17:10:01
Encyclopædia Britannica

The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general encyclopedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., a privately held company owned by Swiss billionaire and actor Jacqui Safra. The Britannica is the oldest continuously published English-language encyclopedia.[1] Its articles are written by a dedicated staff of 19 full-time editors and by over four thousand contributors, who typically contribute to a single subject in which they are recognized authorities. The articles are targeted at educated adult readers,[2] although simplified versions have been developed. Despite its name and preference for British spelling, the Britannica has been published in the United States since 1901.[2]

The Britannica was first published from 1768–71 in three volumes under the title Encyclopædia Britannica, or, A dictionary of arts and sciences, compiled upon a new plan, partly as a conservative reaction to the provocative French Encyclopédie of Diderot published 1751-66.[1] Although the Britannica was published in a market with established English-language encyclopedias,[1] it quickly grew in popularity and size, reaching 20 volumes by the publication of its third edition in 1801. Its rising stature allowed the Britannica to recruit eminent authorities for its articles, which has continued for the past two centuries. Up to the 11th edition, the Britannica published new research and scholarly theories; in particular, the 9th and 11th editions (published in 1875-1889 and in 1911, respectively) are regarded as landmark encyclopedias for scholarship. However, beginning with the 11th edition, the American owners of the Britannica chose to simplify and shorten its articles, making them more accessible to lay-readers, with the goal of broadening its North American market. In 1933, the Britannica became the first encyclopedia to adopt a "continuous revision" policy in which the encyclopedia would be revised and reprinted every year, and every article checked at least twice per decade.

Beginning with the current 15th edition, the Britannica adopted a unique three-part structure: a Micropædia of roughly 65,000 short articles (typically with no references, no named authors and fewer than 750 words), a Macropædia of roughly 700 long articles (each article having 2-310 pages, references and named contributors), and a single Propædia volume that seeks to give a hierarchical outline of all human knowledge. The articles of the Micro- and Macropædia are both listed in alphabetical order, but it is intended[3] that readers interested in a given subject will study the Propædia first to grasp its context, then use Micropædia both as a tool to briefly introduce concepts and to find appropriate, more thorough information within the Macropædia articles. The Index was removed from the first 15th edition (1974) but was restored in the second (1985), in response to reader requests. The size of the Britannica has remained constant over the last 70 years, with roughly 40 million words addressing roughly half a million topics.[4]

An increasing number of alternative information sources have reduced the popular demand for print encyclopedias significantly. The Britannica has weathered this competition on the strength of its reputation, and by lowering its price point, reducing its costs drastically and developing electronic versions on CD-ROM, DVD and the World Wide Web. Although its reputation for excellence has been questioned recently by several respectable critics, such criticisms have been challenged vigorously by the Britannica's management.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 06/03/2007 17:18:28
FUNGUS
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 06/03/2007 18:08:51
Ganoderma lucidum

Will this ancient oriental herbal remedy join 'our' Medicine?

Língzhī (traditional Chinese: 靈芝; simplified Chinese: 灵芝; Japanese: reishi; Korean: yeongji, hangul: 영지) is the name for one form of the mushroom Ganoderma lucidum.
This fungal species has a worldwide distribution in both tropical and temperate geographical regions, including North and South America, Africa, Europe, and Asia, growing as a parasite or saprophyte on a wide variety of trees.[1] Ganoderma lucidum enjoys special veneration in Asia, where it has been used in traditional Chinese medicine as a herbal medicine for more than 4,000 years, making it one of the oldest mushrooms known to have been used in medicine.

The word lingzhi, in Chinese, means "herb of spiritual potency" and has also been described as "mushroom of immortality".[1] Because of its presumed health benefits and apparent absence of side-effects, it has attained a reputation in the East as the ultimate herbal substance. Lingzhi has now been added to the American Herbal Pharmacopoeia and Therapeutic Compendium.

from wikipedia:   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ganoderma_lucidum

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 06/03/2007 23:31:36
Thomas Hancock was an English inventor who founded the British rubber industry. Hancock invented the masticator, a machine that shredded rubber scraps, allowing rubber to be recycled after being formed into blocks or rolled into sheets.

The Masticator

In 1820, Thomas Hancock patented elastic fastenings for gloves, suspenders, shoes and stockings. In the process of creating the first elastic fabrics, Hancock found himself wasting considerable rubber. He invented the masticator to help conserve rubber.

Hancock kept notes during the process of invention. He made the following comments: "pieces with fresh cut edges would perfectly unite; but the outer surface, which had been exposed, would not unite... it occurred to me that if minced up very small the amount of fresh-cut surface would be greatly increased and by heat and pressure might possibly unite sufficiently for some purposes".

Thomas Hancock Invents A Pickle?
An eccentric Thomas Hancock initially did not choose to patent his machine, instead he gave it the deceptive name of "pickle" so that no one else would know what it was.

The first masticator was a wooden machine that used a hollow cylinder studded with teeth - inside the cylinder was a studded core that was hand cranked.

[ Invalid Attachment ]
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 07/03/2007 18:34:46
Iridocyclitis
(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.emedicine.com%2Foph%2Fimages%2F835FUCH.JPG&hash=4078e70a2767d7057ec4fe6acea5cb7b)                 (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fnoorvision.com%2Fweblog%2Fthermopic2.jpg&hash=e8cbb4f5efc51c8c6fdf26e97e2a2ace)    (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.uveitis.org%2Fimages%2FUvea1x3.jpg&hash=9b0d296689d2e0a7125e7467216f8a7e)
http://www.emedicine.com/oph/images/835FUCH.JPG
http://noorvision.com/weblog/thermopic2.jpg
http://www.uveitis.org/images/Uvea1x3.jpg

Fuchs heterochromic iridocyclitis with cataract and iris heterochromia.

from:    http://www.emedicine.com/asp/image_search.asp?query=Uveitis,%20Anterior,%20Nongranulomatous

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 07/03/2007 21:05:45
Jupiter

Jupiter (IPA: [ˈdʒu.pə.tɚ], IPA: [ˈdʒu.pɪ.tə]) is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest planet within the solar system. It is two and a half times as massive as all of the other planets in our solar system combined. Jupiter, along with Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, is classified as a gas giant. Together, these four planets are sometimes referred to as the Jovian planets—Jovian being the adjectival form of Jupiter.

When viewed from Earth, Jupiter can reach an apparent magnitude of -2.8, making it the third brightest object in the night sky. The planet was known by astronomers of ancient times and was associated with the mythology and religious beliefs of many cultures. The Romans named it after Jupiter, the principal God of Roman mythology, whose name is a reduction of 'Deus Pater', meaning 'God father'.[5]

The planet Jupiter is primarily composed of hydrogen with only a small proportion of helium; it may also have a rocky core of heavier elements. Because of its rapid rotation the planet is an oblate spheroid (it possesses a slight but noticeable bulge around the equator). The outer atmosphere is visibly segregated into several bands at different latitudes, resulting in turbulence and storms along their interacting boundaries. A prominent result is the Great Red Spot, a giant storm that is known to have existed since at least the seventeenth century. Surrounding the planet is a faint planetary ring system and a powerful magnetosphere. There are also at least 63 moons, including the four large moons called the Galilean moons that were first discovered by Galileo Galilei in 1610. Two of these moons are bigger than the planet Mercury.

Jupiter has been explored on several occasions by robotic spacecraft, most notably during the early Pioneer and Voyager fly-by missions and later by the Galileo orbiter. Future targets for exploration include the possible ice-covered liquid ocean on the Jovian moon Europa.

[ Invalid Attachment ]
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 07/03/2007 21:48:54
Kuru

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ac-rennes.fr%2Fpedagogie%2Fsvt%2Farticles%2Fprion%2Fkuru-hum.jpg&hash=392050a2848bf004f4bf95b1a2471670)  (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Flearn.genetics.utah.edu%2Ffeatures%2Fprions%2Fimages%2Fbones.jpg&hash=60e6519a6d4c8595f454b6ccc51ced47)
http://www.ac-rennes.fr/pedagogie/svt/articles/prion/kuru-hum.jpg
http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/features/prions/images/bones.jpg

The mistery of kuru

In 1957, a virologist who had studied several infectious diseases among remote peoples, came to New Guinea to study kuru.
Carleton Gajdusek wanted to uncover the cause of this unique and always fatal disease. He searched for sources of toxins in the Fore's diet and environment.
He conducted epidemiological studies and sent samples of brain tissue to the United States to be studied by a neuropathologist. Because there was no sign of inflammation in the bodies or brains of the kuru victims, and because kuru tended to appear within certain families, Gajdusek at first believed kuru was an inherited genetic disorder.
In 1959 Gajdusek's work came to the attention of William Hadlow, a research veterinarian who was studying a remarkably similar disease, called scrapie, in sheep. Like kuru, scrapie was a fatal disease that gradually destroyed the brains of sheep, leaving the brain full of holes and producing no immune response. And very importantly, scientists knew that scrapie was infectious.
The similarities between kuru and scrapie led Gajdusek to begin experiments to show that kuru could be transmitted to chimpanzees. He then went on to show that classic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), another spongiform disease in people, was also transmissible.
Ultimately, the rapid spread of kuru was linked to the Fore's funeral rituals: the Fore cooked and ate their dead relatives. This practice was only carried out by the Fore women and children, who lived apart from the men. This explains why men were rarely infected, and why cases appeared within families. The Fore quickly stopped eating their dead, and the spread of the disease stopped. Unfortunately, because of kuru's long incubation time, there are still a few kuru cases among the Fore each year. The people who come down with kuru today are in their 50s and 60s, which means that they have been harboring the disease ever since they ate infected tissue as young children

for the complete article, click here:  http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/features/prions/kuru.cfm

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 08/03/2007 01:59:14
William Lear

"Bill" William Lear was the designer of the Lear Jet executive airplane, inventor of the 8-track stereo, and patented several car radios (U.S. patent 1,944,139 - not the first).

William Lear founded the Lear Electronics Corporation, merging with the Siegler corporation in 1960 to become Lear Siegler Inc. William Lear used the capital he acquired from the Lear Siegler merger* to develop Learjet (a company he eventually sold to Gates rubber Co.) where Lear dedicated his life to the development of an antipollution steam engine and new materials for airplanes.

[ Invalid Attachment ]
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 08/03/2007 03:28:22
MARTIANS =Little green men/aliens/NEILY LOL

HEE HEE HEE!!LOL SORRY YOU can delete me , I'll go away!
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 08/03/2007 15:49:24
LOL..that's oK Karen..I AM a Martian !!

Naturopathic medicine

Naturopathic medicine (also known as naturopathy) is a school of medical philosophy and practice that seeks to improve health and treat disease chiefly by assisting the body's innate capacity to recover from illness and injury. Naturopathic practice may include a broad array of different modalities, including manual therapy, hydrotherapy, herbalism, acupuncture, counselling, environmental medicine, aromatherapy, wholefoods, cell salts, and so on. Practitioners tend to emphasise a holistic approach to patient care. Naturopathy has its origins in the United States, but is today practiced in many countries around the world in one form or another, where it is subject to different standards of regulation and levels of acceptance.

Naturopathic practitioners prefer not to use invasive surgery, or most synthetic drugs, preferring "natural" remedies, i.e. relatively unprocessed or whole medications, such as herbs and foods. Licensed physicians from accredited schools are trained to use diagnostic tests such as imaging and blood tests before deciding upon the full course of treatment. Naturopathic Practitioners also employ the use of prescription medications and surgery when necessary and refer out to other medical practitioners.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 08/03/2007 18:29:45
Origin of life

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.rogerwendell.com%2Fimages%2Fevolution%2Fdmns_origin_of_life_09-02-2006.jpg&hash=103b381063eaecf44fdbbfdd26f43551)
http://www.rogerwendell.com/images/evolution/dmns_origin_of_life_09-02-2006.jpg

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.rogerwendell.com%2Fimages%2Fevolution%2Fdmns_life_in_a_lab_09-02-2006_thumb.jpg&hash=9fc7d17f9ba4aaf43f29cdcc6bbbc09d)
http://www.rogerwendell.com/images/evolution/dmns_life_in_a_lab_09-02-2006_thumb.jpg

Stanley Miller was a doctoral student working with Harold C. Urey at the University of Chicago, researching possible environments of early Earth. In 1953 he reproduced the early atmosphere of Earth by creating a chamber with only hydrogen, water, methane, and ammonia. Miller used an electric discharge to simulate lightning and, after just a week, had a residue Organic compounds settled in the system.

Most notable of these compounds were the amino acids, the "building blocks of life," that had formed in Miller's system. Amino acids are necessary for the formation of proteins which form the structure of cells. Miller found glycine, alanine, aspartic, glutamic acid, and other amino acids in the sytem. Fifteen percent of the carbon from the methane had been combined into organic compounds. As amazing as his discovery of amino acids was, it was even more astonishing how easily they had been formed in the system!
Miller's work showed that compounds necessary for life could have been formed in an environment without free oxygen - similar to Earth's early atmosphere. The creation of amino acids from Earth's raw materials may been the begining of evolution. Miller's results also suggests the possibility that similar amino acids could have formed elsewhere, in the Universe, since the Earth's early atmosphere was based on proportions of elements in the Universe...

more from:   http://www.rogerwendell.com/evolution.html

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 08/03/2007 22:15:18
Particle accelerator

A particle accelerator is a device that uses electric fields to propel electrically charged particles to high speeds and to contain them. An ordinary CRT television set is a simple form of accelerator. There are two basic types: linear (i.e. straight-line) accelerators and circular accelerators.

Linear high-energy accelerators use a linear array of plates (or drift tubes) to which an alternating high-energy field is applied. As the particles approach a plate they are accelerated towards it by an opposite polarity charge applied to the plate. As they pass through a hole in the plate, the polarity is switched so that the plate now repels them and they are now accelerated by it towards the next plate. Normally a stream of "bunches" of particles are accelerated, so a carefully controlled AC voltage is applied to each plate to continuously repeat this for each bunch.
In early particle accelerators a Cockcroft-Walton voltage multiplier was responsible for voltage multiplying. This piece of the accelerator helped in the development of the atomic bomb. Built in 1937 by Philips of Eindhoven it currently resides in the National Science Museum in London, England.
In early particle accelerators a Cockcroft-Walton voltage multiplier was responsible for voltage multiplying. This piece of the accelerator helped in the development of the atomic bomb. Built in 1937 by Philips of Eindhoven it currently resides in the National Science Museum in London, England.

As the particles approach the speed of light the switching rate of the electric fields becomes so high that they operate at microwave frequencies, and so RF cavity resonators are used in higher energy machines instead of simple plates.

DC accelerator types capable of accelerating particles to speeds sufficient to cause nuclear reactions are Cockcroft-Walton generators or voltage multipliers, which convert AC to high voltage DC, or Van de Graaff generators that use static electricity carried by belts.

The largest and most powerful particle accelerators, such as the RHIC, the LHC (scheduled to start operation in 2007) and the Tevatron, are used for experimental particle physics. Particle accelerators can also produce proton beams, which can produce "proton-heavy" medical or research isotopes as opposed to the "neutron-heavy" ones made in fission reactors. An example of this type of machine is LANSCE at Los Alamos.

Low-energy machines

Everyday examples of particle accelerators are those found in television sets and X-ray generators. Low-energy accelerators such as cathode ray tubes and X-ray generators use a single pair of electrodes with a DC voltage of a few thousand volts between them. In an X-ray generator, the target itself is one of the electrodes. A low-energy particle accelerator called an ion implanter is used in the manufacture of integrated circuits.

[ Invalid Attachment ]
Opis

1960s vintage 2MeV "High Voltage" vandergraff linear accelerator.

A single ended belt charging linear accelerator made by "High Voltage" used primarily to accelerate H and He from a RF positive ion source. The machine was capable of terminal voltages above 2 million volts. This machine operated at the Australian National University from the early 1960s till 2000.

Photo by Martin Conway (en:User:Martyman) released under the GFDL

[ Invalid Attachment ]
Aerial photo of Fermilab   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fermilab

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 08/03/2007 22:55:21
Quicksilver

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ultralightnews.com%2Fulbg2%2Fimages%2Fquicksilver-gt500.jpg&hash=a1712f26250523a1e8aba4bf6341999c)
http://www.ultralightnews.com/ulbg2/images/quicksilver-gt500.jpg

Quicksilver (aircraft)

Quicksilver is a line of ultralight aircraft that evolved from weight shift hang gliders. A company called "Eipper Formance" (founder, Dick Eipper) began manufacturing the early Quicksilver ultralights (Designed by Bob Lovejoy) in the late 1970's when hang gliding was very popular. The Quicksilver hang gliders differed from most hang gliders of that time period in that the Quicksilver had a rigid wing and a tail with a horizontal stabilizer and a rudder. At that time, the majority of the hang gliders were simple Rogallo wing type hang gliders.

Eipper added a seat, wheels, and a small engine behind the wing of the hang glider, and the Quicksilver ultralight was born. This aircraft was controlled by pushing a bar forward and backwards, and side to side, in the same way that hangliders are controlled. This shifted the center of gravity of the aircraft and allowed the pilot to control the plane. Many pilots wanted an aircraft that was controlled with a stick and rudder, similar to the way "typical" light airplanes were controlled, so Eipper added control surfaces to the Quicksilver ultralight, and the Quicksilver MX was born.

The Quicksilver MX evolved over the years. A two-seat model was added for training purposes, although the two-seater was not legally an ultralight. Eipper Formance changed their name to Eipper Aircraft and then Quicksilver Aircraft, and they are still in business, although they are not producing aircraft in the quantity that they were at the height of the ultralight craze in the mid 1980's. They can be found online at Quicksilver Aircraft.

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: paul.fr on 08/03/2007 23:07:29
From wikipedia

RUST

Rust is the oxide that is formed by open-air oxidation of iron. The chemical composition of rust is mainly iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3), and under wet conditions may include iron(III) oxide-hydroxide (FeO(OH)). Rusting is the common term for corrosion of iron and its alloys, such as steel. Although oxidation of other metals is equivalent, these oxides are not commonly called rust
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 08/03/2007 23:14:40
Solenoid valve

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 09/03/2007 14:59:12
Troposphere

The troposphere is the lowest portion of Earth's atmosphere. It is the densest layer of the atmosphere and contains approximately 75% of the mass of the atmosphere and almost all the water vapor and aerosol.

The troposphere extends from the Earth's surface up to the tropopause where the stratosphere begins. The depth of the troposphere is greatest in the tropics (about 17 km) and smallest at the poles (about 7 km). The lower part, where friction on the Earth's surface influences with air flow, is the planetary boundary layer or peplosphere which is 2 km deep on average, dependent on the landform, and which is separated from the rest of the troposphere by the capping inversion layer.

The word troposphere stems from the Greek "tropos" for "turning" or "mixing". The troposphere is the most turbulent part of the atmosphere and is the part of the atmosphere in which most weather phenomena are seen. Generally, jet aircraft fly just above the troposphere to avoid turbulence.

[ Invalid Attachment ]
View of Earth's troposphere from an airplane.

[ Invalid Attachment ]
Atmosphere diagram showing the mesosphere and other layers.
The layers are not to scale: from Earth's surface to the top
of the stratosphere (50km) is just under 1% of Earth's radius

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 09/03/2007 17:07:57
Unijunction transistor

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.hobbyprojects.com%2Funijunction_transistor%2Fimages%2Funijunc.gif&hash=5f304f11328a68379c35eac4a61162d0)    (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.globalspec.com%2FNpaPics%2F23%2F125098_053120065434_ExhibitPic.JPG&hash=5afd8da6241b099e85327c7e19ae897f)
http://www.hobbyprojects.com/unijunction_transistor/images/unijunc.gif
http://www.globalspec.com/NpaPics/23/125098_053120065434_ExhibitPic.JPG
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 10/03/2007 14:29:48
Velcro

Velcro is a brand name of fabric hook-and-loop fasteners used for connecting objects. The term VELCRO is a registered trademark in most countries. Generic terminology for these fasteners includes "hook and loop", "burr" and "touch" fasteners. The VELCRO brand headquarters is in Manchester, New Hampshire, USA.
Contents
[hide]

The hook and loop fastener was invented in 1941 by Georges de Mestral, a Swiss engineer. The idea came to him after he took a close look at the Burdock seeds which kept sticking to his clothes and his dog's fur on their daily walk in the Alps, during the summer. Georges de Mestral examined their condition and saw the possibility of binding two materials reversibly in a simple fashion. He developed the hook and loop fastener and submitted his idea for patent in 1951. De Mestral named his invention "VELCRO" after the French words velours, meaning 'velvet', and crochet, meaning 'hook'. Today, the uses and applications of the product are numerous, and the word velcro has become a generic term for any fastener of this type.[citation needed] It has even found wide use as a verb in the English language, much like "e-mail" or "fax."

Composition

Hook and loop fasteners consist of two layers: a "hook" side, which is a piece of fabric covered with tiny plastic hooks, and a "loop" side, which is covered with even smaller and "hairier" plastic loops. There are many variations to this which include hooks on both sides, for example. When the two sides are pressed together, the hooks catch in the loops and hold the pieces together. When the layers are separated, the strips make a characteristic ripping sound. This creates some disadvantages to the use of velcro in various occasions.

[ Invalid Attachment ]

Velcro: hooks (left) and loops (right)
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 10/03/2007 14:43:22
Wuchereria bancrofti

http://www.luciopesce.net/zoologia/wuche.jpg
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 10/03/2007 14:45:07

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi17.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fb73%2Fkarenw44%2Fwulfenit.gif&hash=a84df8805b948a7ff793b2ef991f6131)

Wulfenite is a nice collection type mineral and is popular as such. Its strong colors, nice luster and one-of-a-kind crystal habits attract the attention of many collectors around the world.
Wulfenite is an enigma in terms of its symmetry. There are conflicting results of various symmetry tests and this usually does not happen. It is either a symmetry of 4 or 4/m. The difference is the disputed existence of a mirror plane perpendicular to the four fold axis. If the mirror exists, then the crystals should have a top that is a mirror image of its bottom. Although most crystals don't show it clearly, the bottom pyramidal faces slant at a different angle from the top pyramidal faces. This demonstrates the symmetry of just 4. However, other tests of its symmetry show a 4/m symmetry. This symmetrical oddity only adds to wulfenite's interest among serious collectors.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
Color is red, orange, yellow, silver and white.
Luster is vitreous.
Transparency: Crystals are transparent to translucent.
Crystal System is tetragonal; 4/m or 4
Crystal Habits include very thin square or octahedral pinacoidal plates with pyramidal faces truncating just the edges of the crystal. At times the pyramids become prominant and psuedo-dipyramidal crystal habits are seen, sometimes because of twinning. Prismatic faces are also seen and can make psuedo-cubic crystals. Also encrusting and cavernous aggregates due to intergrowth of crystal plates.
Cleavage is perfect in one direction.
Fracture is conchoidal.
Hardness is 3.
Specific Gravity is approximately 6.8 (very heavy for translucent minerals)
Streak is white.
Associated Minerals are mimetite, limonite, smithsonite, vanadinite and galena.
Other Characteristics: index of refraction is 2.28-2.40 (very high, but typical of lead minerals).
Notable Occurances include Morocco; Tsumeb, Nambia; Mexico and Arizona and New Mexico, USA.
Best Field Indicators are crystal habit, color, density and luster.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 10/03/2007 14:48:19
WHOOPS 2 W'S
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 10/03/2007 16:08:06
Xenon lamp

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.germes-online.com%2Fdirect%2Fdbimage%2F50174455%2FXenon_Lamp.jpg&hash=27e0035fe8dbfa4832c6c968323fb07b)
http://www.germes-online.com/direct/dbimage/50174455/Xenon_Lamp.jpg
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 10/03/2007 16:12:40
What does it do?
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 10/03/2007 16:15:58
It enlightens your path
when you're driving!

Unfortunately Neilepibus posted Xenon 3-4 rounds ago!!!

X-files!  (LOL)
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 10/03/2007 16:39:47
The Y chromosome is one of the sex-determining chromosomes in humans and most other mammals. In mammals, it contains the gene SRY, which triggers testis development, thus determining maleness.
Overview

Most mammals have one pair of sex chromosomes in each cell. Males have one Y chromosome and one X chromosome, while females have two X chromosomes. In mammals, the Y chromosome contains the gene that triggers embryonic development as a male. This gene is SRY. Other genes (in addition to SRY) on the Y chromosomes of men and other mammals are needed for normal sperm production.

There are exceptions, however. Among humans, some men have two X's and a Y ("XXY", see Klinefelter's syndrome), or one X and two Y's (see XYY syndrome), and some women have three Xs or a single X (and no Y, "X0", see Turner syndrome). There are other exceptions in which SRY is damaged (leading to an XY female), or copied to the X (leading to an XX male). For related phenomena see Androgen insensitivity syndrome and Intersex.

Many groups of organisms in addition to mammals have Y chromosomes, but these Y chromosomes do not share common ancestry with mammalian Y chromosomes. Such groups include fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster and relatives), some other insects, some fish, some reptiles, and some plants. In fruit flies, the Y chromosome does not trigger male development. Instead, sex is determined by the number of X chromosomes. So XXY fruit flies are female, and fruit flies with a single X (X0), are male but sterile.

Other organisms have mirror image sex chromosomes: the female is "XY" and the male is "XX", but by convention biologists call a "female Y" a W chromosome and the other a Z chromosome. For example, female birds, snakes, and butterflies have ZW sex chromosomes, and males have ZZ sex chromosomes.

[ Invalid Attachment ]

A Male ' Y' Chromosone looking typically upright and erect !!
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 10/03/2007 17:20:15
Zygomycosis  (Mucormycosis)

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fpathmicro.med.sc.edu%2Fmycology%2Fmucor2.jpg&hash=db62e026ca9a18500658548711ea0a9d)
http://pathmicro.med.sc.edu/mycology/mucor2.jpg
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 10/03/2007 17:31:37
To friendo Neilepus
Britannicus Posterus

Why
when it comes to the 'Y'
the same thing

Odd Lyric foil

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Ffilaman.ifm-geomar.de%2Fimages%2Fspecies%2FGamor_u7.jpg&hash=340b7cd55459d2b0a90b943f9a52ff9e)
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 10/03/2007 18:58:03
To friendo Neilepus
Britannicus Posterus

Why
when it comes to the 'Y'
the same thing

Odd Lyric foil

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.k12.nf.ca%2Fstpauls%2Fgrassroots%2Ffishery%2Ffishgr%2Fcod.gif&hash=30fed6992ef144fb17481b44398bc64e)

LOl....Iko is the BEST at this.

Sorry...did I do Y-Chrmosone before ?

IKO IS GREAT - A ORGIES KIT
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 10/03/2007 19:17:20

Randice-Lisa Altschul

Disposable Cell Phone - Phone-Card-Phone

In November of 1999 Randice-Lisa "Randi" Altschul was issued a series of patents for the world's first disposable cell phone. Trademarked the Phone-Card-Phone®, the device is the thickness of three credit cards and made from recycled paper products. This is a real cell phone (outgoing messages only) with 60 minutes of calling time and a hands free attachment. You can add more minutes or throw the device away after your calling time is used up. However, with the planned additional magnetic strip the cell phone would double as a credit card, swipeable for purchases with free airtime credits as a bonus. The retail price of the invention should average twenty dollars, with a two or three dollar rebate for returning the phone instead of trashing it.

Altschul thought up the invention after being tempted to toss her cell phone out of her car in frustration over a bad connection. She realized cell phones were too expansive to lose or throw away. After clearing the idea with her patent lawyer and making sure no one else had already invented a disposable cell phone, Randi Altschul together with engineer Lee Volte, patented both the disposable cell phone and the super thin technology (STTTM) needed for the Phone-Card-Phone and other intended products.

[ Invalid Attachment ]

[ Invalid Attachment ]

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 10/03/2007 19:20:31
BRONCHITUS
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 10/03/2007 22:29:59
Carbon monoxide poisoning

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

Carbon monoxide is an odorless, colorless gas that is created whenever a flame is present. Some homes have been found to have concentrations of this gas that are above the federal health standard set under the Clean Air Act.

Major Sources
Carbon monoxide is emitted by any combustion source including burning charcoal, gasoline engines running in attached garages or sheds, un-vented kerosene heaters and tobacco smoke.

Health Effects
Carbon monoxide interferes with your body's ability to use oxygen. Depending on the amount you inhale, it can affect your balance, harm your heart, make you tired and cause headaches, confusion, nausea, and dizziness. Very high levels can cause death.

from:   http://www.tpchd.org/page.php?id=60

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 11/03/2007 20:27:24
History of the Depth Charge

The depth charge or bomb is a waterproof weapon used by ships or aircraft to attack submerged submarines.

First Depth Charges
The first depth charges were developed by the British in World War I for use against German submarines or U-boats, beginning in late 1915. They were steel canisters, the size of an oil drum, filled with TNT explosives. They were dropped off the side or stern of a ship, on top of where the crew estimated the enemy submarines were. The canister sank and exploded at a depth that was preset by the use of a hydrostatic valve. The charges often did not hit the submarines but the shock of the explosions still damaged the submarines by loosening the submarine enough to create leaks and forcing the submarine to surface.

The first depth charges were not effective weapons. Between 1915 and the end of 1917, depth charges destroyed only nine U-boats. They were improved in 1918 and that year were responsible for destroying twenty-two U-boats, when depth charges were propelled through the air over distances of 100 or more yards with special cannons, increasing the damage range of the naval ships.

[ Invalid Attachment ]
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 11/03/2007 21:06:02
Earthquake Science

http://news.bbc.co.uk/nol/shared/spl/hi/world/04/earthquake/img/earthquake.gif
http://static.howstuffworks.com/gif/earthquake-3.jpg
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 11/03/2007 21:26:17
Follicle

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi17.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fb73%2Fkarenw44%2F180px-Banksia_serrata2.jpg&hash=65f8b44cfe2f3f756f1466158303101c)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Follicle

Closeup of cone of Banksia serrata, with follicles having opened to release seedA follicle (from the Latin folliculus) is a term to describe a small spherical group of cells containing a cavity, and is often used as a descriptive term in biology, particularly in anatomy. Examples include:

hair follicles
ovarian follicles
lymph follicles
thyroid follicles
In botany, the term is used to describe a dry fruit which dehisces along one rupture site in order to release seeds, such as in larkspur, magnolia, banksia, peony and milkweed.

This anatomy article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.

This botany article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 11/03/2007 21:43:24

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Ffilaman.ifm-geomar.de%2Fimages%2Fspecies%2FGamor_u7.jpg&hash=340b7cd55459d2b0a90b943f9a52ff9e)
http://filaman.ifm-geomar.de/images/species/Gamor_u7.jpg
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 11/03/2007 22:04:44
Halley's Commet

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comet_Halleyaley's Commet

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi17.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fb73%2Fkarenw44%2FGiotto_halley.jpg&hash=575b891c18de4f10470f87f039c402b8)
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 11/03/2007 23:02:00
Igloo

An igloo (Inuit language: iglu, Inuktitut syllabics:  "house", plural: iglooit or igluit), translated sometimes as snowhouse, is a shelter constructed from blocks of snow, generally in the form of a dome. Although igloos are usually associated with all Inuit, they were predominantly constructed by people of Canada's Central Arctic and Greenlands Thule area. Other Inuit people tended to use snow to insulate their houses which consisted of whalebone and hides. The use of snow is due to the fact that snow is an insulator (due to its low density). On the outside, temperatures may be as low as -45 °C (-49 °F), but on the inside the temperature may range

There were three types of igloo, all of different sizes and were used for different purposes.

The smallest of all igloos was constructed as a temporary shelter. Hunters while out on the land or sea ice camped in one of these iglooit for one or two nights.

Next in size was the semi-permanent, intermediate sized family dwelling. This usually was a single room dwelling that housed one or two families. Often there were several of these in a small area, which formed an "Inuit village".

The largest of the igloos was normally built in groups of two. One of the buildings was a temporary building constructed for special occasions, the other was built near by for living. This was constructed either by enlarging a smaller igloo or building from scratch. These could have up to five rooms and housed up to 20 people. A large igloo may have been constructed from several smaller igloos attached by their tunnels giving a common access to the outside. These were used to hold community feasts, traditional dances (see Inuit music) and Katajjaq.

[ Invalid Attachment ]
[ Invalid Attachment ]
[ Invalid Attachment ]

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 11/03/2007 23:36:01
Joint homokinetic  (Constant Velocity)

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 12/03/2007 00:35:32
Krypton

For other uses, see Krypton (disambiguation).
36 bromine ← krypton → rubidium
Ar

Kr

Xe
Periodic Table - Extended Periodic Table

General
Name, Symbol, Number krypton, Kr, 36
Chemical series noble gases
Group, Period, Block 18, 4, p
Appearance colorless

Atomic mass 83.798(2)  g·mol−1
Electron configuration [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p6
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 8
Physical properties
Phase gas
Density (0 °C, 101.325 kPa)
3.749 g/L
Melting point 115.79 K
(-157.36 °C, -251.25 °F)
Boiling point 119.93 K
(-153.22 °C, -244.12 °F)
Triple point 115.775 K, 73.2 kPa[1]
Critical point 209.41 K, 5.50 MPa
Heat of fusion 1.64  kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 9.08  kJ·mol−1
Heat capacity (25 °C) 20.786  J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure P(Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T(K) 59 65 74 84 99 120

Atomic properties
Crystal structure cubic face centered
Oxidation states 2
Electronegativity 3.00 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
(more) 1st:  1350.8  kJ·mol−1
2nd:  2350.4  kJ·mol−1
3rd:  3565  kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius (calc.) 88  pm
Covalent radius 110  pm
Van der Waals radius 202 pm
Miscellaneous
Magnetic ordering nonmagnetic
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 9.43 m W·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (gas, 23 °C) 220 m/s
Speed of sound (liquid) 1120 m/s
CAS registry number 7439-90-9
Selected isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of krypton iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
78Kr 0.35% 2.3×1020 y ε ε - 78Se
79Kr syn 35.04 h ε - 79Br
β+ 0.604 79Br
γ 0.26, 0.39,
0.60 -
80Kr 2.25% Kr is stable with 44 neutrons
81Kr syn 2.29×105 y ε - 81Br
γ 0.281 -
82Kr 11.6% Kr is stable with 46 neutrons
83Kr 11.5% Kr is stable with 47 neutrons
84Kr 57% Kr is stable with 48 neutrons
85Kr syn 10.756 y β- 0.687 85Rb
86Kr 17.3% Kr is stable with 50 neutrons

References
Krypton (IPA: /ˈkrɪptən/ or /ˈkrɪptan/) is a chemical element with the symbol Kr and atomic number 36. A colorless, odorless, tasteless noble gas, krypton occurs in trace amounts in the atmosphere, is isolated by fractionating liquified air, and is often used with other rare gases in fluorescent lamps. Krypton is inert for most practical purposes but it is known to form compounds with fluorine. Krypton can also form clathrates with water when atoms of it are trapped in a lattice of the water molecules.

Contents [hide]
1 Notable characteristics
2 History
2.1 Metric role
3 Occurrence
4 Compounds
5 Isotopes
6 Uses
6.1 Krypton fluoride laser
7 Footnotes
8 References

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 12/03/2007 10:19:52
Lebistes reticulatus    (Guppy)

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.acvarist.ro%2Fpoze%2Fguppy%2Fpoecilia_reticulata.jpg&hash=53bce2890ca430841c155e865d75c4fc)(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fclientes.netvisao.pt%2Fmaguioma%2Fgaleria%2520peixes%2Fguppys.jpg&hash=cca18a26bcc05650f6187fa5edffbee9)
http://www.acvarist.ro/poze/guppy/poecilia_reticulata.jpg
http://clientes.netvisao.pt/maguioma/galeria%20peixes/guppys.jpg
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 12/03/2007 17:11:47
Manatee

Manatees (family Trichechidae, genus Trichechus) are large aquatic mammals sometimes known as sea cows. The name comes from the Spanish manatí, which itself comes from a Carib word meaning "breast."

The Trichechidae differ from the Dugongidae in the shape of the skull and the shape of the tail. Dugongs have a forked tail, similar in shape to a whale's, while manatees' tails are paddle-shaped. They are herbivores with one exception (discussed in the diet portion below), spend most of their time grazing in shallow waters, and can have a mass anywhere from 500 to 1000 kg. When born, baby manatees have an average mass of 30 kg.[1]

Manatees inhabit the shallow, marshy coastal areas and rivers of the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico (T. manatus, West Indian manatee), the Amazon basin (T. inunguis, Amazonian manatee), and West Africa (T. senegalensis, African manatee). They spend half of their day sleeping in the water, surfacing for air regularly, and at intervals of not longer than 20 minutes.

[ Invalid Attachment ]
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 12/03/2007 20:04:39
Nocardia asteroides

http://depts.washington.edu/molmicdx/images/nocar.gif
http://www.mja.com.au/public/issues/179_03_040803/letters_040803_fm-1.jpg

Nocardiosis

Background: Nocardiosis is an acute, subacute, or chronic infectious disease that occurs in cutaneous, pulmonary, and disseminated forms. Primary cutaneous nocardiosis presents as cutaneous infection (cellulitis or abscess), lymphocutaneous infection (sporotrichoid), or subcutaneous infection (actinomycetoma). Pulmonary infection presents as an acute, subacute, or chronic pneumonitis, usually in immunocompromised hosts. Disseminated nocardiosis may involve any organ; lesions in the brain or meninges are most frequent.

Pathophysiology: Members of the genus Nocardia are aerobic actinomycetes that are ubiquitous saprophytes in soil, decaying organic matter, and water. At least 15 species of the genus Nocardia have been identified and new species continue to be identified. Nocardia asteroides is the most frequent cause of human disease in the United States; various species are dominant in other parts of the world. Nocardia species also cause infections in animals, including bovine mastitis and sporotrichoid nocardiosis in horses.
When observed microscopically, either in Gram stains of clinical specimens or cultures or when demonstrated histopathologically in tissues, Nocardia are branching, beaded, filamentous, gram-positive bacteria with a characteristic morphology to a trained observer. Nocardia usually are weakly acid-fast.
The cutaneous, lymphocutaneous, and subcutaneous forms of nocardiosis arise from local traumatic inoculation. Pleuropulmonary disease presumably arises from inhalation exposure. Disseminated infection results from hematogenous dissemination, usually from a pulmonary focus. Most patients with disseminated nocardiosis have underlying immunocompromising disease or are receiving immunosuppressive therapy.
Nocardiosis produces suppurative necrosis with frequent abscess formation at sites of infection.
Frequency:
In the US: Incidence is 0.4 cases per 100,000 population. An estimated 500-1000 cases occur per year in the United States.
Internationally: No reliable estimates are available.
Mortality/Morbidity: Prognosis in nocardiosis depends on the site of infection, extent of infection, and underlying host factors.

Cure rates with appropriate therapy are approximately 100% in skin and soft-tissue infections.
In pleuropulmonary infections, cure rates of 90% can be achieved with appropriate therapy.
With disseminated infection, cure rates fall to 63%. Cure rates with brain abscess are only 50%.
Race: No racial predilection is evident for nocardiosis.
Sex: Nocardiosis occurs in males more frequently than in females, in a ratio of 3:1. This is thought to be related to an exposure frequency difference rather than a sex difference in susceptibility to infection.
Age: All ages are susceptible. The mean age at diagnosis is in the fourth decade of life.

from emedicine:      http://www.emedicine.com/med/byname/nocardiosis.htm

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 15/03/2007 18:40:56
Orange (colour)

The colour orange occurs between red and yellow in the visible spectrum at a wavelength of about 585–620 nm. It is a pure chroma in the colour theory, with a hue of 30° in HSV colour space. The complementary colour of orange is azure. With pigments such as paints or crayons, the primary colours red (or more accurately, magenta) and yellow mixed together produce the secondary colour orange. Orange pigments are largely in the ochre or cadmium families.

[ Invalid Attachment ]
The orange, a fruit which the modern name of the orange colour comes from.

Etymology of orange

The colour is named after the orange fruit. Before this was introduced to the English-speaking world, the colour was referred to (in Old English) as geoluhread, which translates into Modern English variously as purple-red, blackred, or hellored (all pronounced the same).

The first recorded use of orange as a colour name in English was in 1512 [1] in the court of King Henry VIII. Upon hearing the word "orange" in reference to a color, Henry reportedly exclaimed, "A color orange? Why, 'tis the noblest divine gift I have witnessed. You, fine sir, are to be my successor!"
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 15/03/2007 18:45:41
Plasmodium falciparum

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fpost.queensu.ca%2F%7Eforsdyke%2Fimages%2Fpfalcip04.gif&hash=0ef17d8075231fa94db92bd7df50e37c)

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fmedia.arstechnica.com%2Fjournals%2Fscience.media%2Fplasmodium_falciparum.jpg&hash=a1c60cc9ecc56906ea03794ba1ff9629)

http://post.queensu.ca/~forsdyke/images/pfalcip04.gif
http://media.arstechnica.com/journals/science.media/plasmodium_falciparum.jpg
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 15/03/2007 22:20:34
Quinine

Quinine 'kwi:ni:n is a natural white crystalline alkaloid having antipyretic, anti-malarial with analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties and a bitter taste. It is a stereoisomer of quinidine.

Quinine was previously superseded by chloroquine, but is now again the drug of choice for treatment of falciparum malaria because of the rise of chloroquine resistance. Quinine is available with a prescription in the United States. Quinine is also used to treat nocturnal leg cramps and arthritis and it has also been used (with limited success) to treat people who had been infected by prions. It was once a popular heroin adulterant.

[ Invalid Attachment ]
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 16/03/2007 16:23:29
Webster's own:

Reverse Osmosis = a method of extracting essentially pure, fresh water from polluted or salt water, by forcing the water under pressure against a semipermeable membrane, which passes the pure water molecules and filters out salts and other dissolved impurities.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 16/03/2007 17:17:44
Sunset

Sunset, also called sundown in some American English dialects, is the time at which the Sun disappears below the horizon in the west. It should not be confused with dusk, which is the point at which darkness falls, some time after the beginning of twilight when the Sun itself sets.
A composite image showing the terminator dividing night from day, running across Europe and Africa. Observers on the surface of the earth along this terminator will see a sunset.

[ Invalid Attachment ]
A composite image showing the terminator dividing night from day,
running across Europe and Africa. Observers on the surface of the
earth along this terminator will see a sunset.

The red hues of the sky at sunset and sunrise are caused by Mie Scattering, not Rayleigh Scattering. The colours of the sky throughout the day and at sunrise and sunset, are explained by the phenomena of both Rayleigh Scattering and Mie Scattering. The colour of the sky described by Rayleigh Scattering applies to the hues of blue, violet and green, not to the reds, oranges, peaches and purples of sunrise and sunset. Rayleigh Scattering is scattering of shorter wavelength light (e.g. blue & violet) by air atoms and molecules (not statistical variations in density of the Earth's atmosphere). The magnitude or strength of Rayleigh Scattering varies by the reciprocal of the wavelength raised to the fourth power, and hence does not explain the beautiful variations of reds, purples, oranges and peachy colours. The latter colours arise from Mie Scattering, low angle scattering of light off dust, soot, smoke and (ash) particles. Mie Scattering (producing the colours of sunset and sunrise) is beautifully recognizable down-wind of and after dust storms, forest fires and volcanic eruptions that inject large quantities of fine particulate matter into the atmosphere. A number of eruptions in recent times, such as those of Mount Pinatubo in 1991 and Krakatoa in 1883, have been sufficiently large to produce remarkable sunsets and sunrises all over the world. Sometimes just before sunrise or after sunset a green flash can be seen.

The sunset is often more brightly coloured than the sunrise, with the shades of red and orange being more vibrant. The atmosphere responds in a number of ways to exposure to the Sun during daylight hours. In particular, there tends to be more dust in the lower atmosphere at the end of the day than at the beginning. During the day, the Sun heats the surface of the Earth, lowering the relative humidity and increasing wind speed and turbulence, which serves to lift dust into the air. However, differences between sunrise and sunset may in some cases depend more on the geographical particulars of the location from which they are viewed. For example, on a west-facing coastline, sunset occurs over water while sunrise occurs over land.

[ Invalid Attachment ]  [ Invalid Attachment ]
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 17/03/2007 01:46:11
WOW!!!!!!!!WOW!!!!!!!!!WOW!!!!!!!!!!   That is absolutely awesome so gorgeous! I have never seen one like that before..Thanks..

Technology
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 17/03/2007 14:20:04
Glad ewe like the sunsets mam.I took those photos myself . It's the view from my bedroom window !!

Unconscious (or intuitive) communication is the transfer of information unconsciously between humans.

It is sometimes intrapersonal, like dreaming or cognition under the effects of hypnosis, and is not necessarily nonverbal communication.

Research has shown that our conscious attention can attend to 5-9 items simultaneously. All other information is processed by the unconscious mind. For example, the unconscious mind sometimes picks up on and relates nonverbal cues about an individual based on how he or she has arranged his or her settings such as his or her home or place of work.

Usually our unconscious communication and unconscious behaviour are influenced or dictated by our culture. Communication between people of different cultures and subcultures can sometimes cause unexpected suffering and conflicts. So, understanding of unconscious communication can avoid such conflicts.

Also, unconscious communication can cause changes in mood or emotion.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 17/03/2007 14:35:57
Virtual reality

Virtual reality (VR) is a technology which allows a user to interact with a computer-simulated environment, be it a real or imagined one. Most current virtual reality environments are primarily visual experiences, displayed either on a computer screen or through special stereoscopic displays, but some simulations include additional sensory information, such as sound through speakers or headphones. Some advanced, haptic systems now include tactile information, generally known as force feedback, in medical and gaming applications. Users can interact with a virtual environment or a virtual artifact (VA) either through the use of standard input devices such as a keyboard and mouse, or through multimodal devices such as a wired glove, the Polhemus boom arm, and omnidirectional treadmill. The simulated environment can be similar to the real world, for example, simulations for pilot or combat training, or it can differ significantly from reality, as in VR games. In practice, it is currently very difficult to create a high-fidelity virtual reality experience, due largely to technical limitations on processing power, image resolution and communication bandwidth. However, those limitations are expected to eventually be overcome as processor, imaging and data communication technologies become more powerful and cost-effective over time.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virtual_reality

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi17.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fb73%2Fkarenw44%2F300px-VR-Helm.jpg&hash=29c8deb4bb3c430444f59cc98659924c)
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 17/03/2007 21:14:49
White

Technically speaking, white is not a color at all, but rather the combination of all the colors of the visible light spectrum.[1] It is sometimes described as an achromatic color, like black.

As a misnomer, however, white is the color of things that reflect light of all parts of the visible spectrum equally and are not dull (see grey).

The color has high brightness but zero hue. The impression of white light can be created by mixing, via a process called additive mixing, appropriate intensities of the primary color spectrum: red, green and blue, but it must be noted that the illumination provided by this technique has significant differences from that produced by incandescence.

In nature, the color white results when transparent fibers, particles, or droplets are in a transparent matrix of a substantially different refractive index. Examples include classic "white" substances such as sugar, foam, pure sand or snow, cotton, clouds, milk, etc. Crystal boundaries and imperfections can also make otherwise transparent materials white, as in the case of milky quartz or the microcrystalline structure of a seashell. This is also true for artificial paints and pigments, where the color white results when finely divided transparent material of a high refractive index is suspended in a contrasting binder. Typically paints contain calcium carbonate and/or synthetic rutile with no other pigments if a white color is desired.

[ Invalid Attachment ]

A White Rose

[ Invalid Attachment ]

A polar bear juggling snowballs !!
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 17/03/2007 22:05:44
HEE HEE HEE!!! LOL LOL!! Love the juggling polor bear!!!
The white rose is perfect and very beautiful.. I did not know that about the color white!

Xanthate = A salt of ester of Xanthic acid
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 18/03/2007 17:45:12
Egg Yolk Which also happens to be Yellow !

[ Invalid Attachment ]
An egg yolk surrounded by the egg white

An egg yolk is the part of an egg which serves as the food source for the developing embryo inside. Prior to fertilzation the yolk together with the germinal disc is a single cell. The yolk is supplied to the egg by the mother. Mammalian embryos live off their yolk until they implant on the wall of the uterus. The egg yolk is suspended in the egg white (known more formally as albumen or ovalbumin) by one or two spiral bands of tissue called the chalazae.

As a food, yolks are a major source of vitamins and minerals. They contain all of the egg's fat and cholesterol, and almost half of the protein.

If left intact while cooking fried eggs, the yellow yolk surrounded by a flat blob of egg white creates the distinctive sunny-side up form of the food. Mixing the two components together before frying results in the pale yellow form found in omelettes and scrambled eggs.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 18/03/2007 17:55:03
Zymology = The science dealing with fermentation
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 18/03/2007 18:01:13
Andrew Alford

Andrew Alford (August 5 1904, Samara, Russia - January 25 1992) was an American electrical engineer and inventor.

who developed antennas for radio navigation systems, now used for VHF omnidirectional range and instrument landing systems.

Alford graduated from the University of California in 1924. He received an honorary doctorate from Ohio University in 1975.

He invented a balanced square antenna named the Alford Loop.

In 1965, the first Master FM Antenna system in the world designed to allow individual FM stations to broadcast simultaneously from one source was erected on the Empire State Building. The original system was co-invented by Alford and Frank Kear.

In 1983 Alford was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame for his invention of the Localizer Antenna System.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 18/03/2007 18:09:19
Bloody British..LOL Your so fast!

Bacterial
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 19/03/2007 14:00:41
COLOUR

Color (or colour)is the visual perceptual property corresponding in humans to the categories called red, yellow, white, etc. Color derives from the spectrum of light (distribution of light energy versus wavelength) interacting in the eye with the spectral sensitivities of the light receptors. Color categories and physical specifications of color are also associated with objects, materials, light sources, etc., based on their physical properties such as light absorption, reflection, or emission spectra.

Typically, only features of the composition of light that are detectable by humans (wavelength spectrum from 400 nm to 700 nm, roughly) are included, thereby objectively relating the psychological phenomenon of color to its physical specification. Because perception of color stems from the varying sensitivity of different types of cone cells in the retina to different parts of the spectrum, colors may be defined and quantified by the degree to which they stimulate these cells. These physical or physiological quantifications of color, however, do not fully explain the psychophysical perception of color appearance.

The science of color is sometimes called chromatics. It includes the perception of color by the human eye and brain, the origin of color in materials, color theory in art, and the physics of electromagnetic radiation in the visible range (that is, what we commonly refer to simply as light).

[ Invalid Attachment ]
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 19/03/2007 14:35:52
Diagramming software

Diagramming software
(Redirected from Diagramming Software)
Diagramming software consists of computer programs that are used to produce graphical diagrams.

 Types of diagramming software
User-generated diagrams. As computer users seek to represent visual information, such as a flowchart, tools such as SmartDraw, Boxily, Dia, OmniGraffle, Microsoft Visio, Inspiration, Fun With MindBook, ConceptDraw V, First Diagramming allow them to express the information in the form of a diagram. Such programs are usually GUI-based and feature WYSIWYG diagram editing. There are also several Diagramming tools available for developers, including Corgent Diagram for Microsoft's .NET Platform and JGraph for the Java platform. Some user-generated diagram software is UML compatible, allowing model-driven translation between graphic representation and functional programming languages.
Automatically generated diagrams. Programs are available as debugger front-ends, computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools, or profilers. Diagrams are usually automatically generated by the program in this type of software. Tool examples with automatically generated diagrams are Visustin, Project Analyzer and VB Watch.

(Redirected from Diagramming Software)
Diagramming software consists of computer programs that are used to produce graphical diagrams.

 Types of diagramming software
User-generated diagrams. As computer users seek to represent visual information, such as a flowchart, tools such as SmartDraw, Boxily, Dia, OmniGraffle, Microsoft Visio, Inspiration, Fun With MindBook, ConceptDraw V, First Diagramming allow them to express the information in the form of a diagram. Such programs are usually GUI-based and feature WYSIWYG diagram editing. There are also several Diagramming tools available for developers, including Corgent Diagram for Microsoft's .NET Platform and JGraph for the Java platform. Some user-generated diagram software is UML compatible, allowing model-driven translation between graphic representation and functional programming languages.
Automatically generated diagrams. Programs are available as debugger front-ends, computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools, or profilers. Diagrams are usually automatically generated by the program in this type of software. Tool examples with automatically generated diagrams are Visustin, Project Analyzer and VB Watch.

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 19/03/2007 15:26:48
Where is IKO ?

Gustave Eiffel

Gustave Eiffel built the Eiffel Tower for the Paris World's Fair of 1889, which honored the 100th anniversary of the French Revolution. The World's Fair or Universal Exposition of 1889 (Exposition Universelle de 1889) was a highly successful international exhibition and one of the few world's fairs to make a profit. Its central attraction was the Eiffel Tower, a 300-meter high marvel of iron by Gustave Eiffel.

[ Invalid Attachment ]

His brother, AgustuVanotherone Blackpool built the much better Blackpool Tower :

[ Invalid Attachment ]

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 19/03/2007 15:37:02
I think he has been gone the whole weekend , Missed him too!LOL
Always wanted to really see the Eiffel tower!

Freud, Sigmund
Freud, Sigmund (froid) [key], 1856–1939, Austrian psychiatrist, founder of psychoanalysis. Born in Moravia, he lived most of his life in Vienna, receiving his medical degree from the Univ. of Vienna in 1881.

His medical career began with an apprenticeship (1885–86) under J. M. Charcot in Paris, and soon after his return to Vienna he began his famous collaboration with Josef Breuer on the use of hypnosis in the treatment of hysteria. Their paper, On the Psychical Mechanism of Hysterical Phenomena (1893, tr. 1909), more fully developed in Studien über Hysterie (1895), marked the beginnings of psychoanalysis in the discovery that the symptoms of hysterical patients—directly traceable to psychic trauma in earlier life—represent undischarged emotional energy (conversion; see hysteria). The therapy, called the cathartic method, consisted of having the patient recall and reproduce the forgotten scenes while under hypnosis. The work was poorly received by the medical profession, and the two men soon separated over Freud's growing conviction that the undefined energy causing conversion was sexual in nature.

Freud then rejected hypnosis and devised a technique called free association (see association), which would allow emotionally charged material that the individual had repressed in the unconscious to emerge to conscious recognition. Further works, The Interpretation of Dreams (1900, tr. 1913), The Psychopathology of Everyday Life (1904, tr. 1914), and Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality (1905, tr. 1910), increased the bitter antagonism toward Freud, and he worked alone until 1906, when he was joined by the Swiss psychiatrists Eugen Bleuler and C. G. Jung, the Austrian Alfred Adler, and others.

In 1908, Bleuler, Freud, and Jung founded the journal Jahrbuch für psychoanalytische und psychopathologische Forschungen, and in 1909 the movement first received public recognition when Freud and Jung were invited to give a series of lectures at Clark Univ. in Worcester, Mass. In 1910 the International Psychoanalytical Association was formed with Jung as president, but the harmony of the movement was short-lived: between 1911 and 1913 both Jung and Adler resigned, forming their own schools in protest against Freud's emphasis on infantile sexuality and the Oedipus complex. Although these men, and others who broke away later, objected to Freudian theories, the basic structure of psychoanalysis as the study of unconscious mental processes is still Freudian. Disagreement lies largely in the degree of emphasis placed on concepts largely originated by Freud.

He considered his last contribution to psychoanalytic theory to be The Ego and the Id (1923, tr. 1927), after which he reverted to earlier cultural preoccupations. Totem and Taboo (1913, tr. 1918), an investigation of the origins of religion and morality, and Moses and Monotheism (1939, tr. 1939) are the result of his application of psychoanalytic theory to cultural problems. With the National Socialist occupation of Austria, Freud fled (1938) to England, where he died the following year.

Freudian theory has had wide impact, influencing fields as diverse as anthropology, education, art, and literary criticism. His daughter, Anna Freud, was a major proponent of psychoanalysis, developing in particular the Freudian concept of the defense mechanism. Other works include A General Introduction to Psychoanalysis (1910, tr. 1920) and New Introductory Lectures on Psycho-analysis (1933).

Bibliography
http://www.factmonster.com/ce6/people/A0819691.html
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 19/03/2007 17:46:40
William Gilbert

[ Invalid Attachment ]
Dr William Gilbert (Gilberd)
Born    1544
Colchester
Died    1603
London

William Gilbert, or less commonly Gilberd, was born May 24, 1544, Colchester, England and died November 30, 1603, in London, probably of the plague, was an English physician to Elizabeth I and James I and natural philosopher known for his investigations of magnetism and electricity. Gilbert was the originator of the term "electricity" and many regard him as the father of electrical engineering or father of electricity.[1]

His primary work was De Magnete, Magneticisque Corporibus, et de Magno Magnete Tellure (On the Magnet and Magnetic Bodies, and on the Great Magnet the Earth) published in 1600. In this work he describes many of his experiments with his model earth called the terrella. From his experiments, he concluded that the Earth was itself magnetic and that this was the reason compasses pointed north (previously, some believed that it was the pole star (Polaris) or a large magnetic island on the north pole that attracted the compass). In his book, he also studied static electricity using amber; amber is called elektron in Greek, so Gilbert decided to call its effect the electric force.

Gilbert strongly argued that electricity and magnetism were not the same thing. For evidence, he (incorrectly) pointed out that electrical attraction disappeared with heat, magnetic attraction did not. It took James Clerk Maxwell to show electromagnetism is, in fact, two sides of the same coin. Even then, Maxwell simply surmised this in his A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism after much analysis. By keeping clarity, Gilbert's strong distinction advanced science for nearly 250 years.

Gilbert's magnetism was the invisible force that many other natural philosophers, such as Kepler, seized upon, incorrectly, as governing the motions that they observed. While not attributing magnetism to attraction among the stars, Gilbert pointed out the motion of the skies were due to earth's rotation, and not the rotation of the spheres, 20 years before Galileo, see external reference below.

A unit of magnetomotive force, also known as magnetic potential, was named the gilbert in his honor.

Whilst today he is generally referred to as William Gilbert, he also went under the name of William Gilberd. The latter was used in his and his father's epitaph and, also, in the records of the town of Colchester, which would indicate that this is the most correct - see Biographical Memoir in De Magnete. Also, The Gilberd School in Colchester, named after Gilbert, would seem to confirm this.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Karen W. on 19/03/2007 18:10:47
A hyperlink (often referred to as simply a link), is a reference or navigation element in a document to another section of the same document, another document, or a specified section of another document, that automatically brings the referred information to the user when the navigation element is selected by the user. As such it is similar to a citation in literature, but with the distinction of automatic instant access. Combined with a data network and suitable access protocol, a computer can be instructed to fetch the resource referenced.

Hyperlinks are part of the foundation of the World Wide Web created by Tim Berners-Lee, but are not limited to HTML or the web. Hyperlinks may be used in almost any electronic media.

HREF is an acronym for Hypertext REFerence, as used in HTML.

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 19/03/2007 21:18:07
Ice Cube Trays

An American physician, John Gorrie, built a refrigerator in 1844 to make ice to cool the air for his yellow fever patients. Dr. Gorrie may have also invented the first ice cube tray in its current form.

Fred W. Wolf Jr. invented a refrigerating machine called the DOMELRE or DOMestic ELectric REfrigerator, in 1914. The DOMELRE was not successful, however, it did have an ice cube tray and inspired later refrigerators to have trays as well.

The first flexible stainless steel, all-metal ice tray was invented by Guy L. Tinkham in 1933. The tray flexed sidewise to eject the ice cubes.

“Flexing the tray cracks the ice into cubes corresponding to the division points in the tray, and then forces the cubes up and out. Pressure forcing the ice out is due to the 5-degree draft on both sides of the tray.”

The inventor was the then vice president of the General Utilities Mfg. Co., a company that produced household appliances. The McCord ice tray as it was called cost 0.50 in 1933. [ Invalid Attachment ] 1932 Patent - Ice Cube Tray - Newman Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 19/03/2007 22:13:48 Joint (cardanic) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.f-lohmueller.de%2Fpov_anim%2FCardan_c.jpg&hash=32e598c5fa367d560d2c3c245a072d26) http://www.f-lohmueller.de/pov_anim/Cardan_c.jpg Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 20/03/2007 18:55:15 Knee In human anatomy, the knee is the lower extremity joint connecting the femur and the tibia. Since in humans the knee supports nearly the entire weight of the body, it is vulnerable both to acute injury and to the development of osteoarthritis. Function of the knee The knee functions as a living, self-maintaining, biologic transmission, the purpose of which is to accept and transfer biomechanical loads between the femur, tibia, patella, and fibula (The previous sentence is ambiguous, and may be correct, but no one should be of the impression that the fibula is part of the knee joint). In this analogy the ligaments represent non-rigid adaptable sensate linkages within the biologic transmission. The articular cartilages act as bearing surfaces, and the menisci as mobile bearings. The muscles function as living cellular engines that in concentric contraction provide motive forces across the joint, and in eccentric contraction act as brakes and dampening systems, absorbing loads. (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fimg.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fv286%2Fneilneil%2FKnie_ct.gif&hash=cdcb7f120b588890866d1afac415fcf8) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fimg.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fv286%2Fneilneil%2F250px-Knee_diagram.png&hash=0d9861f46c5bebb9ad76e156ac55d32e) Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 20/03/2007 21:27:31 Lymphoblastic Leukemia (Acute) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.genomenewsnetwork.org%2Fgnn_images%2Fnews_content%2F04_02%2Fleukemia%2Fleuk_3.jpg&hash=ed308b662783dc88883a7859966a7c1f) A-C) Bone marrow aspirates from pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Courtesy James Downing (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.danmedbul.dk%2FDmb_2006%2F0106%2F0106-artikler%2FDMB3783-4.jpg&hash=e095bba9da6a00973ac146c6b1b2499d) http://www.genomenewsnetwork.org/gnn_images/news_content/04_02/leukemia/leuk_3.jpg http://www.danmedbul.dk/Dmb_2006/0106/0106-artikler/DMB3783-4.jpg Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 20/03/2007 22:52:53 Marshmallow [ Invalid Attachment ] Pink marshmallows. The marshmallow is a confection that, in its modern form, consists of sugar or corn syrup, beaten egg whites, gelatin that has been pre-softened in water, gum arabic, and flavorings, whipped to a spongy consistency. The traditional recipe used an extract from the mucilaginous root of the marshmallow plant, a shrubby herb (Althaea officinalis), instead of gelatin; the mucilage performed as a cough suppressant. Commercial marshmallows are a late 19th century innovation. Since Alex Doumak's patented extrusion process of 1948, marshmallows are extruded as soft cylinders, cut in sections and rolled in a mix of finely powdered cornstarch and confectioner's sugar. Marshmallows are popular with children and adults alike, and are eaten with or without accompaniments. In the United States and elsewhere, marshmallows are also used in hot chocolate or café mocha (mochachino), Mallomars, in Peeps and other candy, on top of candied sweet potatoes during Thanksgiving, in Rice Krispie treats, in ice cream flavors such as Rocky road, and several other foodstuffs. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Karen W. on 21/03/2007 03:13:35 Narcolepsy From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search For other uses, see Narcolepsy (disambiguation). Narcolepsy Classification & external resources ICD-10 G47.4 ICD-9 347 OMIM 161400 DiseasesDB 8801 eMedicine neuro/522 Narcolepsy is a neurological condition most characterized by Excessive Daytime Sleepiness (EDS). A narcoleptic will most likely experience disturbed nocturnal sleep, confused with insomnia, and disorder of REM or rapid eye movement sleep. It is a type of dyssomnia Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 21/03/2007 18:20:03 Oxyacetylene torch (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.grc.nasa.gov%2FWWW%2Fstructuralseal%2Ffixtures%2Fflame_test.jpg&hash=31256ce41a3e4de233e4370fcb1031e3) http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/structuralseal/fixtures/flame_test.jpg 5500 F Oxyacetylene Torch Test of Candidate Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor Thermal Barrier from: http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/structuralseal/fixtures/index.htm Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 22/03/2007 00:20:24 PURPLE [ Invalid Attachment ] Fragment of an actual Purple machine from the Japanese embassy in Berlin, obtained by the United States at the end of World War II. In the history of cryptography, 97-shiki oobun Inji-ki ("System 97 Printing Machine for European Characters") or Angooki Taipu-B ("Type B Cipher Machine"), codenamed PURPLE by the United States, was a diplomatic cryptographic machine used by the Japanese Foreign Office just before and during World War II. The machine was an electromechanical stepping-switch device. The information gained from decryptions was eventually code-named Magic within the US government. The codename "PURPLE" referred to binders used by US cryptanalysts for material produced by various systems; there had been a RED machine used by the Japanese Foreign Office, and purple was the next available color. The Japanese also used CORAL and JADE stepping-switch systems. PURPLE was a successor to, and improvement on, both the RED machine and what the Americans called the "M machine" (used in some embassies and consulates by attachés). Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Karen W. on 22/03/2007 03:09:11 QUINOLINE From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Quinoline Chemical formula C9H7N Molecular mass 129.16 g/mol CAS number [91-22-5] Density 1.093 g/ml Melting point −15 °C Boiling point 238 °C SMILES C1(N=CC=C2)=C2C=CC=C1 Disclaimer and references Quinoline, also known as 1-azanaphthalene, 1-benzazine, or benzopyridine, is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound. It has the formula C9H7N and is a colourless hygroscopic liquid with a strong odour. As it ages, if exposed to light, the liquid tends to become yellow and later brown. It is only slightly soluble in water but dissolves readily in many organic solvents. Quinoline is an intermediate in metallurgical processes and in dye, polymer, and agrochemical production. It is also a preservative, disinfectant, and solvent. It is toxic: short-term exposure to the vapour causes irritation of the nose, eyes, and throat as well as dizziness and nausea. Longer-term effects are uncertain, but quinoline has been linked to liver damage.  Isolation and synthesis Quinoline is naturally found in coal tar and was first extracted from this source in 1834 by F. Runge. It can be prepared using various methods: Combes quinoline synthesis using anilines and β-diketones. Conrad-Limpach synthesis using anilines and β-ketoesters. Doebner-Miller reaction using anilines and α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds. Friedländer synthesis using 2-aminobenzaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Skraup synthesis using ferrous sulfate, glycerol, aniline, nitrobenzene, and sulfuric acid. Povarov reaction using an aniline, a benzaldehyde and an activated alkene. Camps quinoline synthesis utilizing an o-acylaminoacetophenone and hydroxide (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi17.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fb73%2Fkarenw44%2F200px-Quinoline_chemical_structure_.png&hash=31ac1caaba46050cdbd27fe1f4eedaaf) Part two (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi17.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fb73%2Fkarenw44%2FQuinoline_chemical_structure_part2.png&hash=177c2ea0f39b6a24e91390a3861024eb) Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 22/03/2007 10:45:42 Rockets assisted take off (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.richard-seaman.com%2FAircraft%2FAirShows%2FElCentro2004%2FSampler%2FFatAlbertRato.jpg&hash=fb714b0b2a09ff1fdb94815854ca3c54) http://www.richard-seaman.com/Aircraft/AirShows/ElCentro2004/Sampler/FatAlbertRato.jpg Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 22/03/2007 13:29:39 Viktor Schauberger (30 June 1885–25 September 1958) was an Austrian forester/forest warden, naturalist, philosopher and inventor. The inventor of what he called "implosion technology", Schauberger developed his own highly idiosyncratic theories based on fluidic vortices. Very little of Schauberger's work has received mainstream acceptance, and the bulk of his work would likely be classified as pseudo-science. Early years Viktor Schauberger was born in Holzschlag, Austria, to a long line of Austrian foresters. Creek and river flow fascinated him during his youth. He went on to develop a basic theory that contains a two fold movement principle for such phenonomena. In 1926, he undertook research at a timber flotation installation in Neuberg an der Mürz in Styria. In 1929, Schauberger submitted his first applications for patents in the fields of water engineering and turbine construction. He conducted research on how to artificially generate centripetal movement in various types of machines. He proposed a means of utilising hydroelectric power by a jet turbine. The log flumes used for timber flotation allegedly disregarded the Law of Archimedes, i.e. Schauberger was allegedly able to transport heavier-than-water objects, by creating a centripetal movement (making the timber spin around its own axis, by special guiding-vanes which caused the water to spiral) World War II During World War II, Schauberger developed his concepts of vortex dynamics under, he claimed, duress and, he claimed, at the behest of Germany's SS.[citation needed] In 1941 he was confined to a mental hospital in Mauer-Öhling under, he later claimed, continuous observation by the SS.[citation needed] He ran a laboratory at Mauthausen concentration camp with twenty to thirty scientists under his supervsion. He claimed that in Augsburg he worked with Messerschmidt on engine cooling systems, and corresponded with designer Heinkel about aircraft engines.[citation needed] In 1944, Schauberger developed his Repulsine machines at the little known SS-run Technical College of Engineering at Rosenhügel in Vienna.[citation needed] He produced several prototypes, but the Russian and American military confiscated his work at the end of the war.[citation needed] After the war, Schauberger worked on a concept involving perpetual motion leading to water-based power generation through vortex action, in a closed cycle. Later years In 1958, Schauberger returned to Austria, after negotiations with an American company.[citation needed] He died in Linz, Austria, on September 25. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 22/03/2007 14:57:33 Thermionic valve (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fsmart90.com%2FImagesNBS100%2FAmbrosFlemingPort300w.jpg&hash=621a0e7446dc03686b4dbe2c50d83076) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi10.ebayimg.com%2F04%2Fi%2F04%2F59%2Fa8%2F7d_1_b.JPG&hash=e3d152573b06c862bc134daf56008ede) http://smart90.com/ImagesNBS100/AmbrosFlemingPort300w.jpg http://i10.ebayimg.com/04/i/04/59/a8/7d_1_b.JPG Diodes and triodes John Ambrose Fleming had worked for Edison; in 1904, as scientific adviser to the Marconi company, he developed the "oscillation valve" or kenotron. Later known as the Fleming Valve and then the diode, it allowed electric current to flow in only one direction, enabling the rectification of alternating current. Its operation is described in greater detail in the previous section. In 1907 Lee De Forest placed a bent wire serving as a screen, later known as the "grid" electrode, between the filament and plate electrode. As the voltage applied to the grid was varied from negative to positive, the number of electrons flowing from the filament to the plate would vary accordingly. Thus the grid was said to electrostatically "control" the plate current. The resulting three-electrode device was therefore an excellent and very sensitive amplifier of voltages. more from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vacuum_tube Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 22/03/2007 17:44:11 Ultra Luminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRG) A type of galaxy which is very bright when observed at infrared wavelengths. They were discovered by the IRAS satellite. Astronomers are now investigating the cause of their enormous infrared luminosity. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 22/03/2007 18:18:19 Vortex (turbulence) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fupload.wikimedia.org%2Fwikipedia%2Fcommons%2Fthumb%2Ff%2Ffe%2FAirplane_vortex_edit.jpg%2F180px-Airplane_vortex_edit.jpg&hash=0756ac9ec2e3b9e82190fa65efb8a6d1) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fupload.wikimedia.org%2Fwikipedia%2Fcommons%2Fthumb%2F8%2F8d%2FLos_Angeles_attack_sub_2.jpg%2F180px-Los_Angeles_attack_sub_2.jpg&hash=875ef725c1e6214ca7162251cb0e3dde) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.math.waikato.ac.nz%2F%7Eseano%2Fresearch%2Fpictures%2Fwing-vortices.png&hash=7cf728e617a1be898b80f8237ab4c5b5) http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fe/Airplane_vortex_edit.jpg/180px-Airplane_vortex_edit.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/8d/Los_Angeles_attack_sub_2.jpg/180px-Los_Angeles_attack_sub_2.jpg http://www.math.waikato.ac.nz/~seano/research/pictures/wing-vortices.png Turbulence From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia In fluid dynamics, turbulence or turbulent flow is a flow regime characterized by chaotic, stochastic property changes. This includes low momentum diffusion, high momentum convection, and rapid variation of pressure and velocity in space and time. Flow that is not turbulent is called laminar flow. The (dimensionless) Reynolds number characterizes whether flow conditions lead to laminar or turbulent flow; e.g. for pipe flow, a Reynolds number above about 2300 will be turbulent. Consider the flow of water over a simple smooth object, such as a sphere. At very low speeds the flow is laminar, i.e., the flow is smooth (though it may involve vortices on a large scale). As the speed increases, at some point the transition is made to turbulent ("chaotic") flow. In turbulent flow, unsteady vortices appear on many scales and interact with each other. Drag due to boundary layer skin friction increases. The structure and location of boundary layer separation often changes, sometimes resulting in a reduction of overall drag. Because laminar-turbulent transition is governed by Reynolds number, the same transition occurs if the size of the object is gradually increased, or the viscosity of the fluid is decreased, or if the density of the fluid is increased. ... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turbulence Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 22/03/2007 18:23:51 Wirtanen (comet) Periodic comet which orbits the Sun once every 5.45 years. Discovered in 1948 at the Lick Observatory, California, by Carl A. Wirtanen. It is a so-called `Jupiter-type' comet, whose orbit is strongly influenced by that planet. Perihelion is at 159 million km (1.06 AU) from the Sun, i.e. just outside the orbit of the Earth. Aphelion is at a distance of about 768 million km (5.13 AU), near the orbit of Jupiter. Target of ESA's Rosetta mission, which will go into orbit around the nucleus and deploy a lander on its surface. [diagram=175_0] THIS IS THE ACTUAL COMET !! Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 22/03/2007 20:54:14 Xeroderma pigmentosum (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.emedicine.com%2Fneuro%2Fimages%2F282Image_4.jpg&hash=c0e9875d2e46d1d3e8da022f651e4631) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.emedicine.com%2Fderm%2Fimages%2F444460mh005.jpg.JPG&hash=ef5fbac61ee4c4c3131909b07cb3a18b) http://www.emedicine.com/neuro/images/282Image_4.jpg http://www.emedicine.com/derm/images/444460mh005.jpg.JPG Pathophysiology: Cleaver's seminal work in 1968 elucidated the pathophysiology of XP by demonstrating defective DNA repair. Further studies of this defect led to significant progress in the understanding of nucleotide excision repair (NER) mechanisms under normal and pathologic conditions. UV radiation induces cross-linking (dimerization) between thymine nucleotides. After exposure to UV light, normal cultured cells identify and excise the UV-induced thymine dimers and insert undamaged nucleotides after DNA synthesis and ligation. This repair process, known as unscheduled DNA synthesis, is deficient in XP. Cell complementation analysis of cultured cells from patients with XP demonstrated that XP was genetically heterogeneous for the ability to repair UV-induced thymine dimers. Fibroblasts from different patients with XP were fused, and DNA repair after UV exposure was assayed. Correction of DNA repair deficiency in the fused cells indicates that each cell line has a unique abnormality of DNA repair. This finding led to identification of 7 specific complementation groups (A through G). The genes that are responsible for defective NER in each XP complementary group are highly conserved; homologous genes have been discovered in several species ranging from yeast to mammals. Two overlapping pathways for NER have been proposed: the rapid transcription-coupled repair directed at the transcribed strand and slower global genome repair, which also includes the nontranscribed strand. Most XP complementary groups are defective in both pathways. The complementary group C (XP-C) is a notable exception in which only global genome repair is defective. The XP variant complementation group (XP-V) has normal unscheduled DNA synthesis after UV exposure. However, the ability to repair DNA is reduced after adding caffeine to cultured cells. This defect is caused by mutations in the (pol)eta polymerase, which initiates translesion synthesis of UV-damaged DNA in an error-free manner. XP is a multisystem disorder; sun-exposed skin and eyes (ie, eyelids, conjunctivae) are the most affected tissues. Cutaneous photosensitivity and early development of skin cancer is caused by defective DNA repair. CNS involvement is due to premature neuronal death. Necrosis in tissues that are not exposed to UV light suggests that these cells in patients with XP are unable to repair DNA damage from other mutagens (eg, reactive oxygen species, other free radicals). Neurodegeneration probably results from accumulating mutations due to cells' inability to repair DNA damage. Increased oxidative damage in neurons due to abnormal function of free radical scavengers, such as superoxide dismutase, has been suggested. The presence of neurologic abnormalities correlates with the degree of NER repair defect; patients with the greatest impairment of DNA repair are more prone to develop neurodegeneration. Pathologic studies showed diffuse neuronal loss without other histologic hallmarks. Selective degeneration of dopaminergic neurons has been reported in some patients who were affected neurologically. Diffuse axonal loss was seen in the peripheral nerves in patients with clinical evidence of polyneuropathy. Frequency: In the US: XP-C and XP-D are the most common complementary forms, representing 30% and 20% of all XP cases, respectively. XP-A is rare. Internationally: The worldwide frequency of XP is estimated at 1 case in 250,000 population. Frequencies of complementary groups vary significantly in different populations. XP-A accounts for as many as 40% of all cases in Japan. Other complementary groups, with the exception of XP-V (in which all patients have only dermatologic manifestations), are rare. For example, only 3 cases of the XP-B type have been reported. Mortality/Morbidity: Skin cancer represents the major morbidity in XP. The median age of the first cutaneous cancer in XP (most commonly basal cell or squamous cell carcinoma) is 8 years. In striking contrast, the mean age for squamous cell carcinoma in the general population is 58 years. The incidence of malignant melanoma in patients with XP who are younger than 20 years is 2000-fold higher than in an age-matched US population. Skin tumors are typically multiple, and patients with as many as 100 tumors have been reported. This may result in disfigurement in severely affected subjects. Keratitis, together with squamous cell tumors of the conjunctiva and corneoconjunctival junction, is a major source of ophthalmologic morbidity. Other malignancies also occur at increased frequency in patients with XP. The frequency of inner organ neoplasms, including malignant brain tumors, is estimated to be increased 20-fold compared to subjects without XP. Mental retardation (or dementia in subjects with adult-onset neurologic deterioration), hearing loss, spasticity, ataxia, and polyneuropathy are the most common morbidity factors in the subset of patients who have with neurologic impairment. As many as 50% of patients with XP-D manifest neurologic deterioration. Neurologic involvement is rare in patients with XP-C, the most common complementary group in the United States. Seizures are common and epilepsy may be present in almost 25% of all patients. Neurologic symptoms are progressive and may result in severe disability. Many patients become bedridden and incontinent. Some have significant cachexia in the terminal stages despite adequate caloric intake. Urinary tract infection, sepsis, and aspiration pneumonia are potential complications. Patients with early onset of neurologic symptoms tend to have more profoundly defective DNA repair, making them more susceptible to skin and inner organ tumors. Kraemer et al constructed the Kaplan-Meier survival curve for patients with XP. The following were estimated: 90% probability of surviving to age 13 years 80% probability of surviving to 28 years 70% probability surviving to 40 years Overall, life expectancy of patients with XP reduced by 30 years Various comorbid cancers usually cause death. Race: All ethnic groups are affected similarly. Sex: Both sexes are affected equally. Age: Only 5% of patients manifest the first symptoms after age 14 years. The median age of symptom onset is approximately 2 years. ... from: http://www.emedicine.com/neuro/topic399.htm Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 22/03/2007 22:50:46 Yawn [ Invalid Attachment ] A dog yawning A yawn (synonyms chasma, oscitation from the Latin verb oscitare, to open the mouth wide[1]) is a reflex of deep inhalation and exhalation associated with being tired, with a need to sleep, or from lack of stimulation. Pandiculation is the term for the act of stretching and yawning. Yawning is a powerful non-verbal message with several possible meanings, depending on the circumstances. It is also claimed to help increase the state of alertness of a person. The exact causes of yawning are still unknown. Origin of the word The word "yawn" has evolved from the Middle English word yanen, an alteration of yonen or yenen, which in turn comes from the Old English geonian. [ Invalid Attachment ] A Yawning cat ! Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 22/03/2007 23:21:35 Zafferano (Saffron) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.agraria.org%2Fcoltivazionierbacee%2Faromatiche%2Fzafferano.jpg&hash=63e08e954ee559faf2be6c50236b777b) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.pix8.net%2Fpro%2Fpic%2F64822252c%2F422980.jpg&hash=356d671047f7cf090ee16d3a7995dbae) http://www.agraria.org/coltivazionierbacee/aromatiche/zafferano.jpg http://www.pix8.net/pro/pic/64822252c/422980.jpg Saffron (IPA: [ˈsæf.ɹən] / [ˈsæf.ɹɑn]) is a spice derived from the flower of the saffron crocus (Crocus sativus), a species of crocus in the family Iridaceae. The flower has three stigmas, which are the distal ends of the plant's carpels. Together with its style, the stalk connecting the stigmas to the rest of the plant, these components are often dried and used in cooking as a seasoning and colouring agent. Saffron, which has for decades been the world's most expensive spice by weight,[1][2] is native to Southwest Asia.[2][3] It was first cultivated in the vicinity of Greece.[4] Saffron is characterised by a bitter taste and an iodoform- or hay-like fragrance; these are caused by the chemicals picrocrocin and safranal.[5][6] It also contains a carotenoid dye, crocin, that gives food a rich golden-yellow hue. These traits make saffron a much-sought ingredient in many foods worldwide. Saffron also has medicinal applications. The word saffron originated from the 12th-century Old French term safran, which derives from the Latin word safranum. Safranum is also related to the Italian zafferano and Spanish azafrán.[7] Safranum comes from the Arabic word aṣfar (أَصْفَر‎), which means "yellow," via the paronymous zaʻfarān (زَعْفَرَان‎), the name of the spice in Arabic. from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saffron Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 23/03/2007 00:00:41 Mary Anderson (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fimg.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fv280%2Fwithdrawnmist%2Fanderson1-1.jpg&hash=7eeea89881ed4c9b21f3eec7f28bcc54) Patent drawing Mary Anderson's windshield wiper (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fimg.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fv280%2Fwithdrawnmist%2Fanderson-1.jpg&hash=149ec689ea744617dc90e4cc05f42dc8) Prior to the manufacture of Henry Ford's Model A, Mary Anderson was granted her first patent for a window cleaning device in November of 1903. Her invention could clean snow, rain, or sleet from a windshield by using a handle inside the car. Her goal was to improve driver vision during stormy weather - Mary Anderson invented the windshield wiper. During a trip to New York City, Mary Anderson noticed that streetcar drivers had to open the windows of their cars when it rained in order to see, as a solution she invented a swinging arm device with a rubber blade that was operated by the driver from within the vehicle via a lever. The windsheld wipers became standard equipment on all American cars by 1916. The automobile gave women ample opportunity for invention. In 1923, of the 345 inventions listed under "Transportation" in the Women's Bureau Bulletin No.28, about half were related to automobiles and another 25 concerned traffic signals and turn indicators. Among these inventions -- a carburetor, a clutch mechanism, an electric engine starter, and a starting mechanism. During the 1930s, Helen Blair Bartlett developed new insulations for spark plugs. A geologist by training, her knowledge of petrology and mineralogy was critical in the development of innovative uses of alumina ceramics. Another woman inventor named Charlotte Bridgwood invented the first automatic windshield wiper. Charlotte Bridgwood, president of the Bridgwood Manufacturing Company of New York, patented her electric roller-based windshield wiper called the "Storm Windshield Cleaner" in 1917. However, her product was not a commercial success. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: JimBob on 23/03/2007 04:35:39 Biotit Biotite is a common phyllosilicate mineral within the mica group, with the approximate chemical formula K(Mg, Fe)3AlSi3O10(F, OH)2. More generally, it refers to the dark mica series, primarily a solid-solution series between the iron-endmember annite, and the magnesium-endmember phlogopite; more aluminous endmembers include siderophyllite. (WIKp) It is the most common type of mica found in granites intruded plutonic rocks) and rhyolites (1*) worldwide and one of the three minerals that form these rock. The other two are feldspars (many different types) and quartz. *1 (granitic magma chambers that have been some how opened to the surface so the crystals are smaller from more rapid cooling) Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 23/03/2007 09:53:22 Calodendrum capense (Cape Chestnut) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.fitzroygardens.com%2Fimages%2Fcalodendrum.jpg&hash=8172a2be40c96e3e1fc0ceef1ed140ef) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.fitzroygardens.com%2Fimages%2Fcalodendrum%2520flower.jpg&hash=2044f2018797cb20b8bdaa9de711719f) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.burkesbackyard.com.au%2F1999%2F__data%2Fpage%2F1985%2Fcalodendrum_37.gif&hash=0a055eaa1d75d4acf3561f3ea88819ac) http://www.fitzroygardens.com/images/calodendrum.jpg http://www.fitzroygardens.com/images/calodendrum%20flower.jpg http://www.burkesbackyard.com.au/1999/__data/page/1985/calodendrum_37.gif Calodendron capense – Cape Chestnut (Rutaceae) Attractive tree with a dense, compact and rounded, symmetrical crown, 10-12 mt high native to South Africa. Prefers warmer conditions, frost tender when young, growth slow. Summer flowering, flesh pink in large terminal sprays, covering almost the entire crown. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 23/03/2007 10:05:54 Disposable Diapers - (Donovan, Marion ) (or as disposable diapers are known in Britain the disposable nappy ) Marion Donovan was a young mother in the post-war baby boom era. She came from a family of inventors and inherited the inventing 'gene'. The Boater Unhappy with leaky, cloth diapers that had to be washed, she first invented the 'Boater', a plastic covering for cloth diapers. Marion Donovan made her first Boater using a shower curtain. Disposable Diapers A year later she carried her ideas further. Using disposable absorbent material and combining it with her Boater design, Marion Donovan created the first convenient disposable diaper. Business For Herself Manufacturers thought her product would be too expansive to produce. Marion Donovan, left unable to sell or license her diaper patent, went into business for herself. A few years later, she was able to sell her company for1 million.

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 23/03/2007 10:29:32
Elevons = Elevator + Ailerons
http://www.concordesst.com/graphics/controls2.gif
http://www.concordesst.com/02/pictures/019t.jpg

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: neilep on 23/03/2007 14:31:22
Ferris Wheel - George W. Ferris

The first ferris wheel was designed by George W. Ferris, a bridge-builder from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Ferris began his career in the railroad industry and then pursued an interest in bridge building. He understood the growing need for structural steel, Ferris founded G.W.G. Ferris & Co. in Pittsburgh, a firm that tested and inspected metals for railroads and bridge builders.

He built the Ferris Wheel for the 1893 World's Fair, which was held in Chicago to commemorate the 400th anniversary of Columbus's landing in America. The Chicago Fair's organizers wanted something that would rival the Eiffel Tower. Gustave Eiffel had built the tower for the Paris World's Fair of 1889, which honored the 100th anniversary of the French Revolution.

Finding a suitable design proved difficult: Architect Daniel H. Burnham, who was in charge of selecting the project for the Chicago World's Fair, complained at an engineer's banquet in 1891 about having found nothing that "met the expectations of the people". Among the audience was George Washington Gale Ferris Jr., owner of a firm that tested iron and steel. He had an inspiration and scribbled the design for the Ferris Wheel on a napkin during the dinner.

It was considered an engineering wonder: two 140-foot steel towers supported the wheel; they were connected by a 45-foot axle, the largest single piece of forged steel ever made up until that time. The wheel section had a diameter of 250 feet and a circumference of 825 feet. Two 1000-horsepower reversible engines powered the ride. Thirty-six wooden cars held up to sixty riders each. The ride cost fifty cents and made 726,805.50 during the World's Fair. The original Ferris Wheel was destroyed in 1906, but there are other ferris wheels at theme parks and carnivals everywhere. (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fimg.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fv286%2Fneilneil%2FCarousels.jpg&hash=1d7e317f3d11db31ff1f62f86e09e3c3) Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 23/03/2007 21:21:55 Galena detector (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.radiopistoia.com%2F057.jpg&hash=a818a14ec547418e28bb03ccc6a8eb59) http://www.radiopistoia.com/057.jpg This is a particular of a galena crystal used as radio rivelator in the first receivers called "galena radios". Those receivers works without supply; The RF (Radio Frequency) signal itself drove the piezo headphones. more "old devices" in: http://www.radiopistoia.com/compo_.htm Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 23/03/2007 22:01:36 Hills Hoist A Hills Hoist is an inexpensive rotary clothes line developed and marketed by Australian, Lance Hill in 1945. However, Lance Hill finally patented his rotary clothes line on March 22, 1956. Hills Hoist The Hills Hoist is a rotary clothes line fitted with a hoist operated by a crown and pinion winding mechanism which allows the frame to be raised and lowered. It was developed and marketed by Lance Hill in 1945 after he returned from the war. Lance Hill invented the Hill's Hoist because his wife asked him if he could think of something better than the old clothes line and prop that she had. 1955 Model (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fimg.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fv286%2Fneilneil%2Fncph008.jpg&hash=8f271b2db3f752ee7f56d3267adc4720) Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 23/03/2007 23:43:34 Infantile scurvy (Barlow's disease) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.faqs.org%2Fnutrition%2Fimages%2Fnwaz_02_img0214.jpg&hash=640d0358e608260449ead01df55260d0) http://www.faqs.org/nutrition/images/nwaz_02_img0214.jpg This X-ray of an infant afflicted by scurvy shows some of the skeletal effects of the disease, including bowed legs, stunted bone growth, and swollen joints. Infants who are fed only cow's milk are at risk of developing scurvy, since cow's milk is not an adequate source of vitamin C. [Photograph by Lester V. Bergman. Corbis Images. Reproduced by permission.] Scurvy is a condition characterized by hemorrhages around the hair follicles of the arms and legs, generalized weakness, anemia, and gum disease (gingivitis) resulting from a lack of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) in the diet. Early epidemics of scurvy occurred during the Renaissance (1600–1800s) among explorers and seafaring men. In 1746, James Lind, a British naval surgeon, established that eating lemons and oranges cured the disease. Vitamin C is destroyed by heat, and thus not present in pasteurized and commercially processed foods. Children and teenagers who consume too many processed foods and few fresh fruits and vegetables may be getting inadequate amounts of vitamin C. (In 1914, an increased incidence of scurvy among infants was attributed to consumption of heated (pasteurized) milk and vitamin C–deficient commercially processed foods.) Though rare, scurvy is now frequently observed among elderly persons, alcoholics, and malnourished adults. In addition, smokers have higher requirements for vitamin C, and are therefore more at risk. Kiran B. Misra from: http://www.faqs.org/nutrition/Pre-Sma/Scurvy.html Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 24/03/2007 01:44:55 Johnson ,Lonnie Super Soaker - The Super Soaker ® was invented in 1988 under the original name of the "Power Drencher" and a whole new era of power water squirters began. Invented by Lonnie Johnson, an Aerospace Engineer from Los Angeles, California, the Power Drencher was the first water blaster to incorporate air pressure into its design. Three years later in 1991 when Johnson received his patent, the Power Drencher was renamed "Super Soaker" and a nation-wide advertising campaign was launched. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 24/03/2007 09:05:48 Killer lymphocyte-T (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.meducator.org%2Farchive%2F20040223%2F05_jon02-sm.gif&hash=e3747998d5948d1c5e1e53dd9a963868) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fimmuneweb.xxmc.edu.cn%2Fpic%2FT-lymphocyte%2520and%2520Activated%2520Platelets.jpg&hash=5fa159dbdbcd5043c604a18a829b9ce4) http://www.meducator.org/archive/20040223/05_jon02-sm.gif http://immuneweb.xxmc.edu.cn/pic/T-lymphocyte%20and%20Activated%20Platelets.jpg Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 24/03/2007 12:59:09 Laboratory (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fimg.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fv286%2Fneilneil%2F800px-M_Faraday_Lab_H_Moore.jpg&hash=05431dbeb6042e1a2aed22fbecadca2d) Michael Faraday, 19th century physicist and chemist, in his lab. (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fimg.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fv286%2Fneilneil%2F800px-Lab_bench.jpg&hash=1bca1c9bbf451a7b2cb70af17d58fa2f) Biochemistry laboratory at the University of Cologne. (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fimg.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fv286%2Fneilneil%2FAps_linear_accelerator.jpg&hash=4927479a1f8bdbbe2971ea27fc433fd8) Advanced Photon Source linear accelerator at Argonne National Laboratory. A laboratory (informally, lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific research, experiments, and measurement may be performed. The title of laboratory is also used for certain other facilities where the processes or equipment used are similar to those in scientific laboratories. These notably include: * the film laboratory or photographic laboratory * the computer lab * the medical lab * the clandestine lab for the production of illegal drugs Scientific laboratories can be found in schools and universities, in industry, in government or military facilities, and even aboard ships and spacecraft. A laboratory might offer work space for just one to more than thirty researchers depending on its size and purpose. Characteristics of scientific laboratories Labs used for scientific research take many forms because of the differing requirements of specialists in the various fields of science. A physics lab might contain a particle accelerator or vacuum chamber, while a metallurgy lab could have apparatus for casting or refining metals or for testing their strength. A chemist or biologist might use a wet laboratory, while a psychologist's or economist's lab might be a room with one-way mirrors and hidden cameras in which to observe behavior. In some laboratories, computers (sometimes supercomputers) are used for either simulations or the analysis of data collected elsewhere. Scientists in other fields will use still other types of laboratories. Despite the great differences among laboratories, some features are common. The use of workbenches or countertops at which the scientist may choose to either sit or stand is a common way to ensure comfortable working conditions for the researcher, who may spend a large portion of his or her working day in the laboratory. The provision of cabinets for the storage of laboratory equipment is quite common. It is traditional for a scientist to record an experiment's progress in a laboratory notebook, but modern labs almost always contain at least one computer workstation for data collection and analysis. Lab safety In some laboratories, conditions are no more dangerous than in any other room. In many labs, though, hazards are present. Laboratory hazards are as varied as the subjects of study in laboratories, and might include poisons; infectious agents; flammable, explosive, or radioactive materials; moving machinery; extreme temperatures; or high voltage. In laboratories where dangerous conditions might exist, safety precautions are important. Rules exist to minimize the individual's risk, and safety equipment is used to protect the lab user from injury or to assist in responding to an emergency. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 24/03/2007 14:33:40 Multiple Myeloma (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.uams.edu%2Fradiology%2Finfo%2Fclinical%2FPET%2Fimages%2Fmultiple_myeloma.jpg&hash=5054e69428f769c41cb7a11dea932fa2) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fmail.mef.hr%2F%7Eamusic%2Fslike%2Fslike%2520edukon%2Fheme2-2a.jpg&hash=f698dd662049c10dd4aea7327de876c8) http://www.uams.edu/radiology/info/clinical/PET/images/multiple_myeloma.jpg http://mail.mef.hr/~amusic/slike/slike%20edukon/heme2-2a.jpg Background: Multiple myeloma is a debilitating malignancy that is part of a spectrum of diseases ranging from monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS) to plasma cell leukemia. First described in 1848, multiple myeloma is a disease characterized by a proliferation of malignant plasma cells and a subsequent overabundance of monoclonal paraprotein. An intriguing feature of this disease is that the antibody-forming cells (ie, plasma cells) are malignant and, therefore, may cause unusual manifestations. Myeloma can be asymptomatic or insidious. The disease can cause systemic ailments, including infections and renal failure, and local catastrophes, including pathologic fractures and spinal cord compression. Although patients benefit from treatment (ie, longer life, less pain, fewer complications), currently no cure exists. Recent advances in therapy have helped to lessen the occurrence and severity of adverse effects. Pathophysiology: Multiple myeloma can cause a wide variety of problems. The proliferation of plasma cells may interfere with the normal production of blood cells, resulting in leukopenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia. The cells may cause soft tissue masses (plasmacytomas) or lytic lesions in the skeleton. Feared complications of this malignancy are bone pain, hypercalcemia, and spinal cord compression. The aberrant antibodies that are produced lead to impaired humoral immunity, and patients have a high prevalence of infection, especially with encapsulated organisms. The overproduction of these antibodies may lead to hyperviscosity, amyloidosis, and renal failure. Frequency: In the US: Age-adjusted annual incidence is 4.3 cases per 100,000 white men, 3 cases per 100,000 white women, 9.6 cases per 100,000 black men, and 6.7 cases per 100,000 black women. ... more from e-medicine: http://www.emedicine.com/med/topic1521.htm Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 24/03/2007 15:37:54 Napier John (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fimg.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fv286%2Fneilneil%2FJohn_Napier.jpg&hash=5890aa34a727e6869a4b64ba51db547c) John Napier 1550 - 1617 John Napier was a Scottish mathematician and inventor. Napier is famous for creating mathematical logarithms, creating the decimal point, and for inventing Napier's Bones, a calculating instrument. While better known as a mathematician, John Napier was a busy inventor. He proposed several military inventions including: burning mirrors that set enemy ships on fire, special artillery that destroyed everything within a radius of four miles, bulletproof clothing, a crude version of a tank, and a submarine-like device. John Napier invented a hydraulic screw with a revolving axle that lowered water levels in coal pits. Napier also worked on agricultural innovations to improve crops with manures and salt. As a Mathematician, the highlight of John Napier's life was the creation of logarithms and the decimal notation for fractions. Sponsored Links His other mathematical contributions included: a mnemonic for formulas used in solving spherical triangles, two formulas known as Napier's analogies used in solving spherical triangles, and the exponential expressions for trigonometric functions. In 1621, English mathematician and clergyman, William Oughtred used Napier's logarithms when he invented the slide rule. Oughtred invented the standard rectilinear slide rule and circular slide rule. Napier's bones were multiplication tables written on strips of wood or bones. The invention was used for multiplying, dividing, and taking square roots and cube roots Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 24/03/2007 16:45:38 Oncotic pressure (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.life.umd.edu%2Fclassroom%2Fbsci440%2Fhiggins%2Fside1side2.GIF&hash=87a17640d7401a7da6ecfc9c9967fd71) http://www.life.umd.edu/classroom/bsci440/higgins/side1side2.GIF Oncotic pressure From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia In blood plasma, the dissolved compounds have an osmotic pressure. A small portion of the total osmotic pressure is due to the presence of large protein molecules; this is known as the colloidal osmotic pressure, or oncotic pressure. Because large plasma proteins can't easily cross through the capillary walls, their effect on the osmotic pressure of the capillary interiors will, to some extent, balance out the tendency for fluid to leak out of the capillaries. In conditions where plasma proteins are reduced, e.g. from being lost in the urine (proteinuria) or from malnutrition, the result of the too low oncotic pressure can be edema – excess fluid buildup in the tissues. It is represented by the symbol π Related to hydrostatic pressure, starling equation. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oncotic_pressure Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 24/03/2007 20:37:21 Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) Blaise Pascal is credited with inventing an early calculator. Blaise Pascal, the French scientist was one of the most reputed mathematician and physicist of his time. He is credited with inventing an early calculator, amazingly advanced for its time. A genuis from a young age, Blaise Pascal composed a treatise on the communication of sounds at the age of twelve, and at the age of sixteen he composed a treatise on conic sections. The Pascaline The idea of using machines to solve mathematical problems can be traced at least as far as the early 17th century. Mathematicians who designed and implemented calculators that were capable of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division included Wilhelm Schickhard, Blaise Pascal, and Gottfried Leibnitz. In 1642, at the age of eighteen Blaise Pascal invented his numerical wheel calculator called the Pascaline to help his father a French tax collector count taxes. The Pascaline had eight movable dials that added up to eight figured long sums and used base ten. When the first dial (one's column) moved ten notches - the second dial moved one notch to represent the ten's column reading of 10 - and when the ten dial moved ten notches the third dial (hundred's column) moved one notch to represent one hundred and so on. Roulette Machine Blaise Pascal introduced a very primitive version of the roulette machine in the 17th century. The roulette was a by-product of Blaise Pascal's attempts to invent a perpetual motion machine. Wrist Watch The first reported person to actually wear a watch on the wrist was the French mathematician and philosopher, Blaise Pascal. With a piece of string, he attached his pocket watch to his wrist. Pascal (Pa ) Unit of atmospheric pressure named in honor of Blaise Pascal, whose experiments greatly increased knowledge of the atmosphere. A pascal is the force of one newton acting on a surface area of one square meter. It is the unit of pressure designated by the International System. l00,OOO Pa= 1000mb 1 bar Pascal Blaise Pascal's contribution to computing was recognized by computer scientist Nicklaus Wirth, who in 1972 named his new computer language Pascal (and insisted that it be spelled Pascal, not PASCAL). Blaise Pascal - Biography Blaise Pascal was born at Clermont on June 19, 1623, and died at Paris on Aug. 19, 1662. His father, a local judge and tax collector at Clermont, and himself of some scientific reputation, moved to Paris in 1631, partly to prosecute his own scientific studies, partly to carry on the education of his only son, who had already displayed exceptional ability. Blaise Pascal was kept at home in order to ensure his not being overworked, and with the same object it was directed that his education should be at first confined to the study of languages, and should not include any mathematics. This naturally excited the boy's curiosity, and one day, being then twelve years old, he asked in what geometry consisted. His tutor replied that it was the science of constructing exact figures and of determining the proportions between their different parts. Blaise Pascal, stimulated no doubt by the injunction against reading it, gave up his play-time to this new study, and in a few weeks had discovered for himself many properties of figures, and in particular the proposition that the sum of the angles of a triangle is equal to two right angles. At the age of fourteen Blaise Pascal was admitted to the weekly meetings of Roberval, Mersenne, Mydorge, and other French geometricians; from which, ultimately, the French Academy sprung. At sixteen Blaise Pascal wrote an essay on conic sections; and in 1641, at the age of eighteen, he constructed the first arithmetical machine, an instrument which, eight years later, he further improved. His correspondence with Fermat about this time shews that he was then turning his attention to analytical geometry and physics. He repeated Torricelli's experiments, by which the pressure of the atmosphere could be estimated as a weight, and he confirmed his theory of the cause of barometrical variations by obtaining at the same instant readings at different altitudes on the hill of Puy-de-Dôme. In 1650, when in the midst of these researches, Blaise Pascal suddenly abandoned his favorite pursuits to study religion, or, as he says in his Pensées, "contemplate the greatness and the misery of man''; and about the same time he persuaded the younger of his two sisters to enter the Port Royal society. In 1653, Blaise Pascal had to administer his father's estate. He now took up his old life again, and made several experiments on the pressure exerted by gases and liquids; it was also about this period that he invented the arithmetical triangle, and together with Fermat created the calculus of probabilities. He was meditating marriage when an accident again turned the current of his thoughts to a religious life. He was driving a four-in-hand on November 23, 1654, when the horses ran away; the two leaders dashed over the parapet of the bridge at Neuilly, and Blaise Pascal was saved only by the traces breaking. Always somewhat of a mystic, he considered this a special summons to abandon the world. He wrote an account of the accident on a small piece of parchment, which for the rest of his life he wore next to his heart, to perpetually remind him of his covenant; and shortly moved to Port Royal, where he continued to live until his death in 1662. Constitutionally delicate, he had injured his health by his incessant study; from the age of seventeen or eighteen he suffered from insomnia and acute dyspepsia, and at the time of his death was physically worn out. (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fimg.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fv286%2Fneilneil%2Fblaise_pascal.jpg&hash=15af33b93152fd62a87d7e17ac7d67db) Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Karen W. on 25/03/2007 09:52:25 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_leap Quantum leap From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the physical phenomenon. For the television program, see Quantum Leap (TV series). In physics, a quantum leap or quantum jump is a change of an electron from one energy state to another within an atom. It is discontinuous; the electron jumps from one energy level to another instantaneously. The phenomenon contradicts classical theories, which expect energy levels to be continuous. Quantum leaps are the sole cause of the emission of electromagnetic radiation, including that of light, which occurs in the form of quantized units called photons.  Vernacular usage In the vernacular, the term quantum leap has come to mean an abrupt change or "step change", especially an advance or augmentation. The term dates back to early-to-mid-20th century. The vernacular usage usually implies a large and abrupt change, while the term typically refers to a small change in quantum mechanics, often the smallest. The usages agree, however, in that both describe a change that happens all at once, rather than gradually over time. A 'quantum leap in technology' is thus a revolutionary advance, rather than an evolutionary one. [size=07pt]( Neily, I know this is not the right place, because I missed it, but WOWWWWWW! That Ferris wheel was beautiful! So Pretty!)[/size] Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 25/03/2007 11:25:46 Reef (coral) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.biosbcc.net%2Focean%2Fmarinesci%2F04benthon%2Fcrimg%2Fbarrierreef.jpg&hash=8657ad724a8855981837bdc47a88fd14) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.biosbcc.net%2Focean%2Fmarinesci%2F04benthon%2Fcrimg%2Fcr0763.jpg&hash=d961920c8dbecdad601157ce230871fc) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.biosbcc.net%2Focean%2Fmarinesci%2F04benthon%2Fcrimg%2Fcr0530.jpg&hash=045f155426502a6c517a714259e35242) http://www.biosbcc.net/ocean/marinesci/04benthon/crimg/barrierreef.jpg http://www.biosbcc.net/ocean/marinesci/04benthon/crimg/cr0763.jpg http://www.biosbcc.net/ocean/marinesci/04benthon/crimg/cr0530.jpg Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 25/03/2007 14:23:43 Henry Shrapnel (1761–1842) According to Britannica.com: "Shrapnel is a type of antipersonnel projectile named for its inventor, Major-General Henry Shrapnel, an English artillery officer. Shrapnel projectiles contained small shot or spherical bullets, usually of lead, along with an explosive charge to scatter the shot as well as fragments of the shell casing. Henry Shrapnel invented his shrapnel shell for cannons in 1784, which was later adopted by the British army in 1803 for cannons and rifles. Shrapnel was born in 1761 and died in 1842." (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fimg.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fv286%2Fneilneil%2Fshrapnel.jpg&hash=32bdcea0a5598c4d3a12da14cfde88fa) This photo (above) depicts two shrapnel balls from a World War I era 75-mm. shrapnel projectile and a fragment from a World War I era 75-mm. high explosive shell. The intended destructive effect of the shrapnel projectile against men and animals came from the shrapnel balls. The projectile casing, which merely acted as a carrier for the shrapnel balls, was not designed to fracture or fragment. Some World War I era shrapnel projectiles contained a mixture of two sized balls. The smaller balls, intended for anti-personnel use, constituted approximately ninety per cent of the shrapnel round. The remaining percentage of larger balls were included to disable or kill horses. The intended destructive effect of high explosive rounds came from the action of the high explosive charge coupled with the fragmentation of the projectile casing. Whereas a shrapnel round was intended to kill or injure people and animals, high explosive rounds were originally designed to damage or destroy inanimate objects such as buildings and field guns. Historical Background on Shrapnel Henry ShrapnelOne of the earliest kinds of scatter projectiles was case shot, or canister, used at Constantinople in 1453. The name comes from its case, or can, usually metal, which was filled with scrap, musket balls, or slugs. Somewhat similar, but with larger iron balls and no metal case, was grape shot, so-called from the grape-like appearance of the clustered balls. A stand of grape in the 1700's consisted of a wooden disk at the base of a short wooden rod that served as the core around which the balls stood. The whole assembly was bagged in cloth and reinforced with a net of heavy cord. In later years grape was made by bagging two or three tiers of balls, each tier separated by an iron disk. Grape could disable men at almost 900 yards and was much used during the 1700's. Eventually, it was almost replaced by case shot, which was more effective at shorter ranges (400 to 700 yards). Incidentally, there were 2,000 sacks of grape at the Castillo in 1740, more than any other type projectile. Spherical case shot was an attempt to carry the effectiveness of grape and canister beyond its previous range, by means of a bursting shell. It was the forerunner of the shrapnel used so much in World War I and was invented by Lt. Henry Shrapnel, of the British Army, in 1784. There had been previous attempts to produce a projectile of this kind, such as the German Zimmerman's "hail shot" of 1573—case shot with a bursting charge and a primitive time fuse, however, Henry Shrapnel's invention was the first air-bursting case shot which, in technical words, "imparted directional velocity" to the bullets it contained. Henry Shrapnel's new shell was first used against the French in 1808, but was not called by its inventor's name until 1852. (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fimg.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fv286%2Fneilneil%2Fshrapnel2.jpg&hash=775119bc16a1d70616606b25cbd7ebe7) Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 25/03/2007 15:06:50 Toxocara canis (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.dpd.cdc.gov%2Fdpdx%2Fimages%2FParasiteImages%2FS-Z%2FToxocariasis%2FToxocara_canis_LifeCycle.gif&hash=7f316c7742aa9d39d86e1f6e107ff87f) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.preston.gov.uk%2FImages%2FGeneral%2FEnvironmental%2520Health%2FToxocara%2520canis%2520sexually%2520mature%2520parasites.gif&hash=669f1e6b27bc370713afb6557cf6cda0) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fcal.vet.upenn.edu%2Fdxendopar%2Fimages%2Fparasiteimages%2Fascarids%2Ftoxo_egg2.gif&hash=3b054078c9c156d107217a6975c043e0) http://www.dpd.cdc.gov/dpdx/images/ParasiteImages/S-Z/Toxocariasis/Toxocara_canis_LifeCycle.gif http://www.preston.gov.uk/Images/General/Environmental%20Health/Toxocara%20canis%20sexually%20mature%20parasites.gif http://cal.vet.upenn.edu/dxendopar/images/parasiteimages/ascarids/toxo_egg2.gif Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 25/03/2007 23:08:01 Star Uplifting ..........is any of several hypothetical processes by which a highly advanced civilization (at least Kardashev-II) could remove a substantial portion of a star's matter in a controlled manner for other uses. The term appears to have been coined by David Criswell. Stars already lose a small flow of mass via solar wind, coronal mass ejections, and other natural processes. Over the course of a star's life on the main sequence this loss is usually negligible compared to the star's total mass; only at the end of a star's life when it becomes a red giant or a supernova is a large amount of material ejected. The star lifting techniques that have been proposed would operate by increasing this natural plasma flow and manipulating it with magnetic fields. Stars have deep gravity wells, so the energy required for such operations is large. For example, lifting solar material from the surface of the Sun to infinity requires 2.1 × 1011 J/kg. This energy could be supplied by the star itself, collected by a Dyson sphere; using only 10% of the Sun's total power output would allow 5.9 × 1021 kilograms of matter to be lifted per year (0.0000003% of the Sun's total mass). The Dyson sphere would need to be designed to allow the lifted material to egress through it. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 25/03/2007 23:17:14 Vitamin D3 (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.axxora.com%2Ffiles%2Fformula%2FLKT-C2956.gif&hash=04267daf9ae6202da7f555604f7d00b1) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.photomed.de%2Fuploads%2Fpics%2Fvitamin_d3_01.jpg&hash=46814f512589b45efe42af167847c3e0) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.mmaonline.net%2FPublications%2FMNMed2005%2FNovember%2FImages%2Fsun.gif&hash=844fef17c08a93edd025a83988db07bf) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.teridanielsbooks.com%2FStates%2FFlorida%2Fchildren%2C%2520beach%2C%2520sand%2C.jpg&hash=a22b5a748731d3e8b1f9785bea7f3cbb) http://www.axxora.com/files/formula/LKT-C0145.gif http://www.photomed.de/uploads/pics/vitamin_d3_01.jpg http://www.mmaonline.net/Publications/MNMed2005/November/Images/sun.gif http://www.teridanielsbooks.com/States/Florida/children,%20beach,%20sand,.jpg ...and this seems to be 'my' ideal closure for almost any topic! Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Karen W. on 01/04/2007 17:37:03 Watt-Hour = A unit of elecrical energy or work ,equal to one watt, acting for one hour,or 3,600 joules Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 01/04/2007 20:02:12 Xantine (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.benbest.com%2Fhealth%2Fxanthines.gif&hash=3d559d1f0a00ae769347c91e3fa02242) http://www.benbest.com/health/xanthines.gif Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Mjhavok on 04/04/2007 17:05:20 yttrium-aluminium-garnet(YAG) laser Yawning Yaws Y Chromosome Yeast Yellow Fever Yersinia Pestis Yolk (deutoplasm) Yolk Sac (vitelline sac) yttrium-90 Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 04/04/2007 18:37:53 Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fhealth.yahoo.com%2Fmedia%2Fmayoclinic%2Fimages%2Fimage_popup%2Fah6a207_big.jpg&hash=00571392e1580bc1ab145a6355936fd1) http://health.yahoo.com/media/mayoclinic/images/image_popup/ah6a207_big.jpg Zollinger-Ellison syndrome Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is a disorder where increased levels of the hormone gastrin are produced, causing the stomach to produce excess hydrochloric acid. Often, the cause is a tumour of the pancreas producing the hormone gastrin. Gastrin then causes an excessive production of acid which can lead to peptic ulcers. Gastrin works on stomach parietal cells causing them to secrete more hydrogen ions into the stomach lumen. In addition, gastrin acts as a trophic factor for parietal cells, causing parietal cell hyperplasia. Thus, there is an increase in the number of acid secreting cells and each of these cells produces acid at a higher rate. The increase in acidity contributes to the development of peptic ulcers in the stomach and duodenum. High acid levels lead to multiple ulcers in the stomach and small bowel. Patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome may experience abdominal pain and diarrhea. The diagnosis is also suspected in patients without symptoms who have severe ulceration of the stomach and small bowel. Gastrinomas may occur as single tumors or as multiple, small tumors. About one-half to two-thirds of single gastrinomas are malignant tumors that most commonly spread to the liver and lymph nodes near the pancreas and small bowel. Nearly 25 percent of patients with gastrinomas have multiple tumors as part of a condition called multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN I). MEN I patients have tumors in their pituitary gland and parathyroid glands in addition to tumors of the pancreas. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zollinger-Ellison_syndrome Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 11/04/2007 00:37:39 (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fimg.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fv286%2Fneilneil%2F200px-Domenico-Fetti_Archimedes_162.jpg&hash=09954490d0de5849beb0baaac2362eb0) Archimedes Archimedes (287-212 bc), pre-eminent Greek mathematician and inventor, who wrote important works on plane and solid geometry, arithmetic, and mechanics. Archimedes was born in Syracuse, Sicily, and educated in Alexandria, Egypt. In pure mathematics he anticipated many of the discoveries of modern science, such as the integral calculus, through his studies of the areas and volumes of curved solid figures and the areas of plane figures. He also proved that the volume of a sphere is two-thirds the volume of a cylinder that circumscribes the sphere. In mechanics, Archimedes defined the principle of the lever and is credited with inventing the compound pulley. During his stay in Egypt he invented the hydraulic screw for raising water from a lower to a higher level. He is best known for discovering the law of hydrostatics, often called Archimedes' principle, which states that a body immersed in fluid loses weight equal to the weight of the amount of fluid it displaces. This discovery is said to have been made as Archimedes stepped into his bath and perceived the displaced water overflowing. Archimedes spent the major part of his life in Sicily, in and around Syracuse. He did not hold any public office but devoted his entire lifetime to research and experiment. During the Roman conquest of Sicily, however, he placed his gifts at the disposal of the state, and several of his mechanical devices were employed in the defence of Syracuse. Among the war machines attributed to him are the catapult and—perhaps legendary—a mirror system for focusing the Sun's rays on the invaders' boats and igniting them. After the capture of Syracuse during the Second Punic War, Archimedes was killed by a Roman soldier who found him drawing a mathematical diagram in the sand. It is said that Archimedes was so absorbed in calculation that he offended the intruder merely by remarking, “Do not disturb my diagrams.” Several of his works on mathematics and mechanics survive, including Floating Bodies, The Sand Reckoner, Measurement of the Circle, Spirals, and Sphere and Cylinder. They all exhibit the rigour and imaginativeness of his mathematical thinking. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Mjhavok on 11/04/2007 01:18:54 Baryons Bethe, Hans black holes Bogan, Louise Bohr, Neils Brahe, Tycho Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: phys2104 on 11/04/2007 02:30:34 Capacitor From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia A capacitor is an electrical device that can store energy in the electric field between a pair of closely-spaced conductors (called 'plates'). When voltage is applied to the capacitor, electric charges of equal magnitude, but opposite polarity, build up on each plate. Capacitors are used in electrical circuits as energy-storage devices. They can also be used to differentiate between high-frequency and low-frequency signals and this makes them useful in electronic filters. Capacitors are occasionally referred to as condensers. This is now considered an antiquated term. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 11/04/2007 02:51:47 Domagk, Gerhard Johannes Paul (1895-1964), German bacteriologist and pathologist who was responsible for the discovery of the first antibacterial drug. Domagk was born in 1895 in Lagow, Brandenburg. In 1927 he was made head of the Department of Experimental Pathology at IG Farbenindustrie in Elberfeld, and in 1929 he was also made Head of Bacteriology. In 1932, he demonstrated the antibacterial effects of a sulphonamide called prontosil in mice with streptococcal infections. Prontosil is a synthetic azo dye, and is also known as sulphamidochrysoidine. It has been shown that the drug dissociates in the living organism to liberate a sulphonamide radical, which has the desired antibacterial effect. Domagk was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1939, but was unable to accept it until 1947, as Hitler had forbidden German citizens to accept the Nobel Prize. After World War II, Domagk continued his work on chemotherapy, introduced the use of thiosemicarbazone for the treatment of tuberculosis, and also worked on chemotherapy for cancer until his retirement in 1960. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 11/04/2007 21:41:43 Enrico Fermi (1901-1954) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.anl.gov%2FScience_and_Technology%2FHistory%2FAnniversary_Frontiers%2FImages%2F08.gif&hash=8625236713bd76e4a93d4dc62674609b) http://www.anl.gov/Science_and_Technology/History/Anniversary_Frontiers/Images/08.gif The "Last Universal Scientist" Takes Charge In New York City in 1940, Enrico Fermi continued to conduct nuclear fission experiments at Columbia University. Fermi's team, including Leo Szilard and Walter Zinn, confirmed that absorption of a neutron by a uranium nucleus can cause the nucleus to split into two nearly equal parts, releasing several neutrons and enormous amounts of energy. The potential for a self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction had become a strong possibility. ... from: http://www.anl.gov/Science_and_Technology/History/Anniversary_Frontiers/unisci.html#fermi Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Seany on 11/04/2007 21:49:14 Frankenstein [::)] [;D] Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 11/04/2007 22:17:31 Gabbro, ...........general name for a large group of granular igneous rocks, the intrusive equivalents of basalt, composed of plagioclase feldspar with a predominance of dark minerals, usually pyroxenes, hornblende, or olivine. The rocks are heavy, often greenish in colour. Gabbros make up the Black Cuillins on the island of Skye, Scotland, and occur in the highlands along the north shore of Lake Superior. (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fimg.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fv280%2Fwithdrawnmist%2F250px-Gabro.jpg&hash=2cd26e850b4537f82a1e87f44d23cdc8) Gabbro Specimen Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: JimBob on 12/04/2007 05:09:55 Halogens A series of the elements, inert gases that save money on electric costs. "The halogens or halogen elements are a series of nonmetal elements from Group 17 (old-style: VII or VIIA; Group 7 IUPAC Style) of the periodic table, comprising fluorine, F, chlorine, Cl, bromine, Br, iodine, I, and astatine, At." Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 12/04/2007 12:16:45 Insulin (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.vivo.colostate.edu%2Fhbooks%2Fpathphys%2Fendocrine%2Fpancreas%2Finsulin2_6.gif&hash=dcafe362f8e3132016f291ad43a5ffa9) http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/endocrine/pancreas/insulin2_6.gif Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 12/04/2007 14:35:20 J .Robert Oppenheimer,. (1904-1967), [ Invalid Attachment ] American physicist and government adviser, who directed the development of the first atomic bombs. Oppenheimer was born in New York on April 22, 1904, and was educated at Harvard University and the universities of Cambridge and Göttingen. After serving with the International Education Board (1928-1929), he became a professor of physics at the University of California and the California Institute of Technology (1929-1947), where he built up large schools of theoretical physics. He was noted for his contributions relating to quantum theory, the theory of relativity, cosmic rays, positrons, and neutron stars. During a leave of absence (1943-1945), Oppenheimer served as director of the atomic-bomb project at Los Alamos, New Mexico. His leadership and organizational skills earned him the Presidential Medal of Merit in 1946. In 1947 he became director of the Institute for Advanced Studies in Princeton, New Jersey, serving there until the year before his death. He was also chairman of the General Advisory Committee of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) from 1947 to 1952 and served thereafter as an adviser. In 1954, however, he was suspended from this position on charges that his past association with Communists and so-called fellow travellers made him a poor security risk. This action reflected the political atmosphere of the time, as well as the dislike of some politicians and military figures for Oppenheimer's opposition to the development of the hydrogen bomb and his support of arms control; his loyalty was not really in doubt. Subsequently, efforts were made to clear his name, and in 1963 the AEC conferred on him its highest honour, the Enrico Fermi Award. Oppenheimer devoted his final years to the study of the relationship between science and society; he died in Princeton on February 18, 1967. His writings include Science and the Common Understanding (1954) and Lectures on Electrodynamics (published posthumously, 1970). Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 13/04/2007 21:11:29 Keyhole surgery (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fhealthgate.partners.org%2Fimages%2Fexh4780.jpg&hash=f1ec6622e973b68cfd798ed010bdb816) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.informatik.umu.se%2F%7Ejwworth%2F3ApplicationAreas1.GIF&hash=1ddf1a43e6fdaad53602761434a61e94) http://healthgate.partners.org/images/exh4780.jpg http://www.informatik.umu.se/~jwworth/3ApplicationAreas1.GIF Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 13/04/2007 22:26:14 Lower Mantle. ........part of the interior of the Earth, about 2,300 km (1,430 mi) thick. Even though temperatures are higher here, this part of the mantle is solid. Tremendous pressures keep the rock material from melting. (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fimg.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fv286%2Fneilneil%2Funder_pressure_mantle.jpg&hash=9a37561ed3fdb753fadd62182eb7e3d5) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fimg.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fv286%2Fneilneil%2FInternal_layersUSGS.gif&hash=8614b3170fe07f0afc27e4ab929b8919) Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Seany on 14/04/2007 01:32:41 Magnifying Glass A magnifying glass is a single convex lens which is used to produce a magnified image of an object. The lens is usually mounted in a frame with a handle. A magnifying glass works by creating a magnified virtual image of an object behind the lens. The distance between the lens and the object must be shorter than the focal length of the lens for this to occur. Otherwise, the image appears smaller and inverted, and can be used to project images onto surfaces. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 15/04/2007 11:57:14 Negri Adelchi (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fclendening.kumc.edu%2Fdc%2Fpc%2Fnegri.jpg&hash=2cf84b4305393802ade7f75cdae5c5ad) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.pathguy.com%2Flectures%2Frabies.jpg&hash=5dd975b274375e868d49e571e90de8ac) http://clendening.kumc.edu/dc/pc/negri.jpg http://www.pathguy.com/lectures/rabies.jpg Italian physician, pathologist, and microbiologist, born August 2, 1876, Perugia; died February 19, 1912, Pavia. ...short biography from: http://www.whonamedit.com/doctor.cfm/2175.html Adelchi Negri was born in Perugia and studied medicine and surgery at Pavia University. While still a student he was assistant to Camillo Golgi (1843-1926) at the institute of pathology. He graduated 1900 and became Golgi's assistant. He was habilitated as lecturer in general pathology five years later, and in 1909 was appointed professor of bacteriology, thus becoming the first official teacher of that subject in Pavia. He became professor extraordinary in 1910. Negri's first works were on histology, haematology, cytology, protozoology, and hygiene. From 1899 to 1902 he worked mainly on the structure of red blood corpuscles and the origin of blood platelets as well as the cytology of glandular structures in mammals and the changes which took place in blood elements during clotting. In 1903, on the advice of Golgi, Negri began histological research to clarify the aetiology og rabies. On March 27, 1903, he announced to the Pavia Medical Society his fundamental scientific contribution of the rabies corpuscles - Negri's bodies. He was soon was able to see and demonstrate that the bodies which bear his name were a constant feature in the nervous system in animals and man infected with the disease. Negri mistakenly regarded the bodies as parasitic protozoa and the pathological agent of rabies. Some months after Negri's discovery, however, Alfonso Di Vesta in Naples, and Paul Remlinger at Riffat Bey in Constantinople, showed that the etiological agent of rabies is a filterable virus. Other contributions included work on bacillary dysentery, and his demonstration that vaccinia virus passed through bacterial filters then in use. During the last years of his life he became particularly interested in malaria and took a very active role in endeavours to eliminate it from Lombardy. In 1906 Negri married his colleague Lina Luzzani and six years later, at the age of thirty-five, died of tuberculosis. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 15/04/2007 14:13:18 Obsidian, dark, semi-translucent volcanic glass of the same composition as rhyolite, produced when molten igneous rock (magma) pushes its way up to the Earth's surface as lava and cools so rapidly that its constituent ions do not have time to crystallize. Obsidian is usually black, but may also be red or brown. Because it is easy to shape by flaking, it was prized by early peoples, who used it to make weapons and tools. (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fupload.wikimedia.org%2Fwikipedia%2Fcommons%2F8%2F8c%2FObsidianOregon.jpg&hash=fb50ce7bbb29e32ef56ee1f2907457da) Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Karen W. on 15/04/2007 17:24:37 Nichol Plated Steel Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 15/04/2007 18:18:17 Paca, common name for two species of large rodents found in forests from Mexico to central South America. The heavyset paca measures up to 80 cm (31 in) long and weighs up to 12 kg (26 lb). Its large head has bony cheek structures, and its brown fur is marked by white spots arranged in lines from front to rear. The animal lives in burrows near streams or marshy areas, and the usual litter of one or two young is born during the winter or early spring. Sometimes a second litter is born in July. The paca's flesh is considered delicious, and the possibility has been raised of breeding the animal for food. Scientific classification: Pacas belong to the family Dasyproctidae. The two species are classified as Agouti (or Cuniculus) paca and Agouti (or Cuniculus) taczanowskii. (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.guyana.org%2FGuyana_Photo_Gallery%2Fanimals%2Flabba%2520-%2520paca-2.jpg&hash=bb43455c34d50de448c69863f2c86974) Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 15/04/2007 18:23:16 Questran (Cholestyramine) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fhome.caregroup.org%2Fclinical%2Faltmed%2Finteractions%2FImages%2FDrugs%2Fcholesty.gif&hash=738f272449cb29e2b032d83923948aff) http://home.caregroup.org/clinical/altmed/interactions/Images/Drugs/cholesty.gif Cholestyramine (Questran®): These resins used for sequestering bile acids in order to decrease cholesterol, can decrease gastrointestinal (GI) absorption of vitamin B12. It is unlikely that this interaction will deplete body stores of vitamin B12 unless there are other factors contributing to deficiency. In a group of children treated with cholestyramine for up to 2.5 years there was not any change in serum vitamin B12 levels. Routine supplements are not necessary. from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vitamin_B12 Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 15/04/2007 18:53:47 Radar Gun Radar guns are used in some countries to detect speeding motorists. Here, a gun transmits waves at a given frequency (shown in blue) toward an oncoming car. Reflected waves (shown in red) return to the gun at a different frequency, depending on how fast the car being tracked is moving. A device in the gun compares the transmission frequency to the received frequency to determine the speed of the car. In this case, the high frequency of the reflected waves indicates the motorist in the red car is speeding. (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fimg.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fv286%2Fneilneil%2FIcarmage1.jpg&hash=12f3cf548d572f91af00ab3c23c0db32) Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Karen W. on 16/04/2007 00:14:43 Science Forum = A place to read and participate in learning about science and to exchange ideas theories and interesting facts , studies experiments results and and how things work in this universe.. Hee hee Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 16/04/2007 22:43:00 Table Mountain, mountain overlooking Cape Town, South Africa. It is a distinctive flat-topped mountain 1,086 m (3,563 ft) high, flanked by Lion’s Head (669 m/2,195 ft) to the north-west and Devil’s Peak (1,001 m/3,284 ft) to the east. One of the world’s most famous landmarks, Table Mountain provides a dramatic setting for the harbour and city of Cape Town. Its northern face is a sheer precipice 3 km (2 mi) long, broken only by the deep cleft of Platteklip gorge. The top 600 m (2,000 ft) is formed of horizontal layers of sandstone, deposited on the floor of a shallow sea between 400 million and 500 million years ago, resting on a foundation of slates and granites. The mountain is covered in fynbos—a major vegetation type unique to South Africa that includes proteas, ericas, and plants found nowhere else. A large variety of wildflowers blooms on the mountain, including Disa uniflora, a species of orchid known as the Pride of Table Mountain. The mountain top is rocky and treeless. Animal life includes baboons, dassies (the rock hyrax), and also Himalayan mountain goats descended from animals that escaped from the nearby Groote Schuur Zoo. In summer a strangely neat cap of cloud often unrolls across the flat summit and drapes itself over the edges, forming a “tablecloth”. When Cape Town’s strong south-easterly winds collide with the mountains of the Cape Peninsula they are forced to rise. As soon as they reach the cooler altitudes of the mountaintops they condense into thick white clouds. The National Botanical Gardens (1913) at Kirstenbosch on the eastern slopes of Table Mountain were originally a gift from Cecil Rhodes to the nation in 1895. About 9,000 of the 21,000 southern African flowering plants are cultivated in the 560-hectare (1,400-acre) garden. A cable car, built in 1929, takes visitors to the summit. It is used by over 300,000 passengers each year. There are also 350 recognized paths to the top. (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fphotosbymartin.com%2Fimages%2Fpcd0365%2Ftable-mountain-sunset1-42.3.jpg&hash=b8143fcebf02c27494e76057081aae4e) I've been up there !!! Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 16/04/2007 22:43:56 Besides the posters.......does anyone actually read this section ?...please let me know !! Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Seany on 16/04/2007 23:19:42 Uranus (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fupload.wikimedia.org%2Fwikipedia%2Fen%2Fthumb%2Fb%2Fbb%2FUranus.jpg%2F240px-Uranus.jpg&hash=703d5bd218abefad6a4ac9712b9dde70) Uranus (IPA: [ jʊˈɹeɪ.nəs, ˈjʊ.ɹə.nəs ], named after the Greek god of the sky (Uranus , Οὐρανός), is the seventh planet from the Sun. It is a gas giant, the third largest by diameter and fourth largest by mass. Its astronomical symbol is . The symbol is a combination of the devices for the Sun and Mars, as Uranus was the personification of heaven in Greek mythology, dominated by the light of the Sun and the power of Mars. It is also the alchemical symbol of platinum. Uranus is the first planet discovered in modern times. Sir William Herschel formally discovered the planet on March 13, 1781; the other planets (from Mercury out to Saturn) have been known since ancient times, since they are visible to the naked eye. Uranus' discovery expanded the boundaries of the solar system for the first time in modern human history. It was also the first planet discovered using technology (a telescope) rather than the naked eye (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fupload.wikimedia.org%2Fwikipedia%2Fen%2Fthumb%2F2%2F2a%2FUranus%252C_Earth_size_comparison.jpg%2F150px-Uranus%252C_Earth_size_comparison.jpg&hash=e0116b2a387c79b7a483836fe712f9b4) Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 17/04/2007 21:02:31 Vacuum Tubes, electronic devices, consisting of a glass or steel vacuum envelope and two or more electrodes between which electrons can move freely. The vacuum-tube diode was first developed by the English physicist John Ambrose Fleming. It contains two electrodes: the cathode, a heated filament or a small, heated, metal tube that emits electrons through thermionic emission; and the anode, or plate, which is the electron-collecting element. In diodes, the electrons emitted by the cathode are attracted to the plate only when the latter is positive with respect to the cathode. When the plate is negatively charged, no current flows through the tube. If an alternating potential is applied to the plate, the tube passes current only during the positive halves of the cycle and thus acts as a rectifier. Diodes are used extensively in the rectification of alternating current. The introduction of a third electrode, called a grid, interposed between the cathode and the anode, forms the triode, which for many years was the basic tube used for amplifying current. (The triode was invented in 1906 by the American engineer Lee De Forest.) The function of the grid is to control the current flow. At a certain negative potential, the grid, because it repels electrons, can impede the flow of electrons between the cathode and the anode. At lower negative potentials, the electron flow depends on the grid potential. The grid usually consists of a network of fine wire surrounding the cathode. The capacity of the triode to amplify depends on the small changes in the voltage between the grid and the cathode causing large changes in the number of electrons reaching the anode. Through the years more complex tubes with additional grids have been developed to provide greater amplification and to perform specialized functions. Tetrodes have an additional grid, closer to the anode, that forms an electrostatic shield between the anode and the grid to prevent feedback to the grid in high-frequency applications. The pentode has three grids between the cathode and the anode; the third grid, close to the anode, reflects electrons that are emitted by the anode as it is heated by electron impact when the electron current in the tube is high. Tubes with even more grids, called hexodes, heptodes, and octodes, find applications as frequency converters and mixers in radio receivers. Vacuum tubes have now been almost entirely replaced by transistors, which are cheaper, smaller, and more reliable. Tubes still play an important role in certain applications, however, such as in power stages in radio and television transmitters, and in military equipment that must resist the voltage pulse (which destroys transistors) induced by an atmospheric nuclear explosion. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 19/04/2007 21:54:23 West Nile virus (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.west-nile-virus-prevention.com%2Fimages%2Fwest-nile.jpg&hash=6b05ca4f807daf6754137f09c0db0bb8) http://www.west-nile-virus-prevention.com/ Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 20/04/2007 15:17:00 Xenarthra (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fupload.wikimedia.org%2Fwikipedia%2Fcommons%2Fb%2Fb5%2FCholoepus_hoffmanni.jpg&hash=e4c5bf1bb9a9ef2e6c857f38bd947996) The superorder Xenarthra is a group of placental mammals (infraclass Eutheria), extant today only in the Americas. The origins of the order can be traced back as far as the early Tertiary (about 60 million years ago, or only a short time after the end of the dinosaur era). The presence of these animals in North America is explained by the Great American Interchange. It includes the anteaters, sloths, and armadillos. In the past, these families were classified together with the pangolins and Aardvark as the order Edentata (meaning toothless, because the members do not have front incisor teeth or molars, or have poorly-developed molars). It was subsequently realized that Edentata was polyphyletic—that it contained unrelated families and was thus invalid by cladistic standards. Aardvarks and pangolins are now placed in individual orders, and the new order Xenarthra was erected to group the remaining families (which are all related). The name Xenarthra means "strange joints", and was chosen because their vertebral joints are unlike those of any other mammals. Because they lack characteristics believed to be present in the common ancestor of other known Eutherian mammals, morphological evidence suggests that the Xenarthra are outside the Epitheria, which contains all other known Eutherians today. The morphology of Xenarthrans generally suggests that the anteaters and sloths are closest together within Xenarthra. The order Xenarthra is more and more often divided into two orders: Pilosa, containing the Vermilingua and Folivora (previously Tardigrada), and the separate order Cingulata. Xenarthra now has the rank of cohort or super-order. The Xenarthra are part of the super-cohort Atlantogenata. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 20/04/2007 16:42:47 Yangtze river (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fcache.eb.com%2Feb%2Fimage%3Fid%3D96642%26amp%3BrendTypeId%3D4&hash=ddb2e3b00e12b93195a75bf08dbafc01) http://cache.eb.com/eb/image?id=96642&rendTypeId=4 Chinese (Pinyin) Chang Jiang or (Wade-Giles romanization) Ch'ang Chiang longest river in both China and Asia and the third longest river in the world, with a length of 3,915 miles (6,300 kilometres). Its basin, extending for some 2,000 miles (3,200 km) from west to east and for more than 600 miles (1,000 km) from north to south, drains an area of 698,265 square miles (1,808,500 square km). From its source on the Plateau of Tibet to its mouth on the East China Sea, the river traverses or serves as the border… more from: http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9110538/Yangtze-River Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 20/04/2007 16:52:09 Zambales Mountains, mountain range in the north-western Philippines, on western Luzon Island. Lying north to south, the Zambales extend 160 km (100 mi) from Lingayen Gulf and Pangasinan Province in the north, through Zambales Province, and end in Bataan Province in the south. The Zambales are home to Mount Pinatubo, which erupted, causing severe damage, in 1991 and 1992. The mountains reach their highest point at High Peak (2,037 m/6,683 ft) in the north-central part of the range. The range is a southern extension of the Cordillera Central, that was shifted west of the main range by faulting. Extensions of the Cordillera Central also appear to the south on Mindoro and Palawan islands. The range is a highly tilted block with a high eastern edge facing the Central Plain, a prime sugar- and rice-growing region. Much of the range was formed by the volcanic activity of the Quaternary Period (from 2.5 million years ago to the present). The Zambales include many kinds of volcanic rocks, such as andesites, diorites, and gabbros, all of which are exposed. Many minerals are also found in the range, the most important of which is chromite. A number of short, rapidly flowing streams, including the Pamatawan, Santo Tomas, Anonang, Jalakak, and Bucao, drain the western slopes and empty into the South China Sea. The slopes of the Zambales are forested with tall hardwood trees and, at higher elevations, pines. (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.traveltipid.com%2Flocal%2Fsubic%2Czambales%2Fimages%2F3Mt-PinatuboZambales.jpg&hash=8a14c44d2cca38f3bccbab70f89b2bf3) Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 20/04/2007 22:07:38 A-Z of Anything/Anyone Associated with Anything Science ...Don't we need a list of the previous terms to avoid repeats? and who should be in charge of this accessing/excelling business? [;D] [;D] [;D] Ikon't [:o)] apart from the 'oldies' like me and KarenW and Neilepus...yes! SuperSeany!!! He's as fast as a rocket and will do it in a second! So pleeeaaaase ShiningSeany help this dummies and let their silly game continue for another few months... [:D] Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 21/04/2007 00:43:41 That picture of the Yangtze River is absolutely mesmerising Iko..I've saved it on my pc..I luff it !! Previous terms ?.who is volunteering to go back 29 pages of ABC stuff ?..not me !!...Karen ? Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 24/04/2007 21:24:36 Baade, (Wilhelm Heinrich) Walter (1893-1960), German-born American astronomer: Educated at the University of Göttingen, whose studies of stars in the Andromeda galaxy led him, in the 1950s, to double the common estimate of the size and age of the universe. Begun at Mount Wilson Observatory in 1931, these studies established two major types of stars: the younger, hotter, Population I type and the older, cooler, Population II (see Milky Way). In his career in Germany prior to 1931, Baade discovered the asteroids Icarus and Hidalgo. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Batroost on 24/04/2007 21:42:28 Cherenkov radiation ...(also spelled Cerenkov, scientific transliteration: Čerenkov) is electromagnetic radiation emitted when a charged particle passes through an insulator at a speed greater than the speed of light in that medium. The characteristic "blue glow" of nuclear reactors is due to Cherenkov radiation. It is named after Soviet scientist Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov, the 1958 Nobel Prize winner who was the first to rigorously characterize it. (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.atomic-album.com%2FshowPic.php%2F39276%2Fpic1.jpg&hash=ca88587233fb82c212d4523cf758db8c) Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 24/04/2007 21:59:06 Digital-to-Analogue Converter or DAC, Device for converting digital data into current or voltage analogues. DACs are now widely used in compact disc (CD) players, in digital audiotape and videotape players, in digital signal processing audio and video equipment, and in digital radio and television receivers. In their simplest form, DACs use some form of resistor network . Digital data is applied to the resistors in groups of bits. The resistances vary in definite ratios; the current flow in each one relates directly to the binary value of the bit received. In the practical form, a more complicated network involving current switching into a net of different resistance networks is used. The brief successive currents occur end to end in time, so giving a continuously varying current that when converted into a voltage reconstructs the original analogue signal voltage that had been converted into digital form. This voltage still has minute quantized steps in it, but these are simply removed by a low-pass frequency filter. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 25/04/2007 18:35:34 Enterobius vermicularis ..."The" human parasite: over 2x10E8 people carry it around! (from ikopedia) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.stanford.edu%2Fclass%2Fhumbio103%2FParaSites2006%2FEnterobius%2Flife%2520cycle_clip_image002_0001.jpg&hash=87581098ad9a772966aca46443b08dfd) http://www.stanford.edu/class/humbio103/ParaSites2006/Enterobius/life%20cycle_clip_image002_0001.jpg (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.medicine.mcgill.ca%2Ftropmed%2Fimagesplaty%2Fmapworm.jpg&hash=d37d9bcb30353f5a8dcfad307722341e) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.smittskyddsinstitutet.se%2Fupload%2FAnalyser%2FBild20-MLa.jpg&hash=b9ac2c1ca883b54fe59e0d46ef9ccca6) http://www.medicine.mcgill.ca/tropmed/imagesplaty/mapworm.jpg http://www.smittskyddsinstitutet.se/upload/Analyser/Bild20-MLa.jpg Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 26/04/2007 00:25:07 Fahrenheit, Gabriel Daniel (1686-1736) German physicist, born in Danzig (now Gdańsk, Poland). He settled in the Netherlands and engaged in the manufacture of meteorological instruments. In 1714 he constructed the first thermometer employing mercury instead of alcohol. Using this thermometer, he devised the temperature scale now known by his name. Fahrenheit also invented a hygrometer of improved design. He discovered that other liquids besides water have a fixed boiling point and that these boiling points vary with changes in atmospheric pressure. (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.vecernji.hr%2Fsystem%2Fgalleries%2Fpics%2FSpecials%2FCelebrities%2FFahrenheitText.jpg&hash=21dc40b8de43cea493db5a497aca5b97) Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Seany on 26/04/2007 00:26:10 Frankenstein (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fupload.wikimedia.org%2Fwikipedia%2Fen%2Fa%2Fa8%2FFrankenstein_Karloff.jpg&hash=0fac920dda077715f8d637f7d4822b4f) A VERY scary monster. [;D] Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 26/04/2007 01:45:13 Gadolinium, symbol Gd, silvery-white metallic element with an atomic number of 64. Gadolinium is one of the rare earth elements in the lanthanide series of the periodic table. It is named after the Finnish chemist John Gadolin. Gadolinium occurs with other rare earth elements in many minerals, such as samarskite, gadolinite, monazite, and some varieties of Norwegian ytterspar. It is the 41st element in order of abundance in the crust of the Earth. Gadolinium melts at about 1313° C (about 2395° F), boils at about 3273° C (about 5923° F), and has a relative density of 7.9. The atomic weight of the element is 157.25. Gadolinium oxide was first separated from other rare earth elements by the Swiss chemist Jean de Marignac in 1880. The oxide and many salts of gadolinium have been prepared. Gadolinium oxide is white and the salts are colourless. Because gadolinium has the largest known cross section, or stopping power, for neutrons of any element, it is used as a component of control rods in nuclear reactors (see Nuclear Energy). Like the other rare earth elements, it is used in electronic apparatus such as capacitors and masers; in metal alloys; in high-temperature furnaces; and in apparatus for magnetic cooling. (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fupload.wikimedia.org%2Fwikipedia%2Fcommons%2Fb%2Fb7%2FGadolinium.jpg&hash=56b6da28e600e9a71df61ba1970c1a42) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fupload.wikimedia.org%2Fwikipedia%2Fcommons%2Ff%2Ffe%2FGd%252C64.jpg&hash=716d003e02fbe7e17a4993f6f825805b) Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Mjhavok on 26/04/2007 02:08:51 Hadron Hahn, Otto Half life Hamilton, William Rowan Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 26/04/2007 22:06:46 Instrument Landing System (ILS) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fsprott.physics.wisc.edu%2Ffractals%2Fcollect%2F1998%2Fils-runway.jpg&hash=32a687de224b4791d8ba0c757791591e) http://sprott.physics.wisc.edu/fractals/collect/1998/ils-runway.jpg historical notes: http://www.airwaysmuseum.com/DC3%20ILS%20calibration.htm Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Karen W. on 30/04/2007 06:44:44 Joe-pye weed [The name of an Indian Doctor said to have used the plant as medicine] any of a number of periniel American plants (genus Eupatorium) of the composite family, with whorled leaves and clusters of rayless, pinkish or purple flower heads. (New World Dictionary of the American Language, second college edition) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi17.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fb73%2Fkarenw44%2FJoe_Pye_54262.jpg&hash=289185298565f86e68c68635efb8b8a7) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi17.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fb73%2Fkarenw44%2F180px-Bombus_6867Joe-pyeweed1.jpg&hash=8c9c5f2d4f3643e12afca25eb02efd05) Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: JimBob on 01/05/2007 02:54:53 Klingon A humanoid being with ... oh ....... Kaolinite A type of clay mineral that is the chief component of fine china. It is also used for most pottery when it isn't found in a relative impure clay (lots of other clay mineral in the mix.) [Assumes refined British accent] It is of the latter that you Brown Betty is made, as well as all and sundry other pottery (Sneers) Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 01/05/2007 13:41:37 Lapislazzuli (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi7.ebayimg.com%2F03%2Fi%2F07%2F75%2F2d%2Fed_1_sbl.JPG&hash=5cbb971b12c0ef1d73d96b4b1bb8918a) http://i7.ebayimg.com/03/i/07/75/2d/ed_1_sbl.JPG Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 01/05/2007 18:31:02 McDonnell Douglas McDonnell Douglas was a major American aerospace manufacturer, producing a number of famous commercial and military aircraft. It merged with Boeing in 1997 to form The Boeing Company. The company was founded from the firms of James Smith McDonnell and Donald Wills Douglas. Both men were of Scottish ancestry, graduates of MIT and had worked for the aircraft manufacturer Glenn L. Martin Company. Douglas had been chief engineer at Martin before leaving to establish Davis-Douglas Company in early 1920 in Los Angeles. He bought out his backer and renamed the firm the Douglas Aircraft Company in 1921. McDonnell founded J.S. McDonnell & Associates in Milwaukee, Wisconsin in 1928. His idea was to produce a personal aircraft for family use. The economic depression from 1929 ruined his ideas and the company collapsed. He went to work for Glenn L. Martin. He left in 1938 to try again with his own firm, McDonnell Aircraft Corporation, this time based near St. Louis, Missouri. World War II was a major earner for Douglas. The company produced almost 30,000 aircraft from 1942 to 1945 and the workforce swelled to 160,000. Both companies suffered at the end of hostilities, facing an end of government orders and a surplus of aircraft. Both heavily cut their work forces. After the war, Douglas continued to develop new aircraft, including the DC-6 (1946) and the DC-7 (1953). The company moved into jet propulsion, producing their first for the military - the conventional F3D Skyknight in 1948 and then the more 'jet age' F4D Skyray in 1951. Douglas also made commercial jets, producing the DC-8 in 1958 to compete with the Boeing 707. McDonnell was also developing jets, but being smaller they were prepared to be more radical, building on their successful FH-1 Phantom to become a major supplier to the Navy with the F2H Banshee, F3H Demon, and the F-101 Voodoo. The advent of the Korean War helped push McDonnell into a major military fighter supply role, especially with the noted F-4 Phantom II (1958). Both companies were eager to enter the new missile business, Douglas moving from producing air-to-air rockets and missiles to entire missile systems under the 1956 Nike program and becoming the main contractor of the Skybolt ALBM program and the Thor ballistic missile program. McDonnell made a number of missiles, including the unusual ADM-20 Quail, as well as experimenting with hypersonic flight, research that enabled them to gain a substantial share of the NASA projects Mercury and Gemini. Douglas also gained contracts from NASA, notably for part of the enormous Saturn V rocket. Both companies were now major employers, but both were having problems. (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fimg.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fv185%2Fneilep%2Fmaccy.jpg&hash=5889bc4534ff4bbd6977a9f263c1bf0d) Douglas was strained by the cost of the DC-8 and DC-9, and the companies began to sound each other out about a merger. Inquiries began in 1963; Douglas offered bid invitations from December 1966 and accepted that of McDonnell. The two firms were officially merged on April 28, 1967 as the McDonnell Douglas Corporation (MDC). Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 01/05/2007 20:03:17 (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fweather.stives-town.info%2Fimages%2Fclouds%2Fcululo_nimbus.jpg&hash=562cbd6c0c6d3d9b8a0ae20d3178cc79) Nimbus 4D (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.mandhsoaring.com%2Fnimbus4d-5.jpg&hash=ba56fe6eb6b03ae0473024ab1219ad0d) http://www.mandhsoaring.com/nimbus4d-5.jpg The Nimbus 4D is a high-performance two-seat sailplane, constructed from fiber reinforced plastic, and, with a wing span of 86.94 ft (26,5 m, aspect ratio 39.1), is the largest aircraft so far produced in series by Schempp-Hirth. With a best L/D of about 1:60 and outstanding abilities at low speed and in circling flight, the Nimbus 4D is a match for the comparable single seaters, but possesses distincly improved flight handling. Both its harmony of controls and maneuverability convey the impression of a considerably smaller two-seater - a result which could only be achieved by the extraordinary aerodynamic design of the wing, combined with an elaborate control system. Hence the most significant feature of this super two-seat sailpane is - apart from its span - its still unconventional multi-stage swept-back wing leading edge (as also used on the Discus and Ventus 2), the aerodynamic advantages of which are even more enhanced by the dihedral of the wing tips. This wing concept guarantees a perfect utilization of the span and also offers outstanding low speed handling qualities more from: http://www.mandhsoaring.com/nimbus4d.html Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 01/05/2007 20:26:49 Oak, common name for a large genus of hardwood trees that are widespread in the North Temperate Zone. The oak genus contains about 600 species. Oaks are distinguished from the other ten or so genera in the beech family, to which the oak genus belongs, by various technical characteristics of their minute, clustered flowers, but they are easily recognized by their distinctive fruit, the acorn. The related tan oak also produces an acorn but differs from the oak genus in its erect, rather than hanging, male flower clusters. About 27 species of oak occur in Europe where several are major forest trees. The trees may be deciduous (losing their leaves in the autumn) or evergreen (keeping their leaves in winter). In central and northern Europe, forest species such as sessile oak and pendunculate or English oak are deciduous, but in the Mediterranean region evergreen species, such as kermes oak and holm oak, are dominant in the evergreen forests that formerly occupied much of the region. Oaks grow in a variety of habitats but prefer deep, rich soils, although some species are found in poorer, dry soils. Flowering occurs in the spring, before or just as the new leaves appear, and large quantities of pollen are shed into the wind. Oaks vary considerably in size; some may grow no taller than a shrub while others reach heights of over 30 m (98 ft). Oaks produce durable, tough wood and are important timber trees. The wood is used in cabinet-making and barrel-making, and for flooring and veneers. Oak wood was long used in the construction of houses and English ships. Corks are made from the thick, spongy bark of the cork oak, which occurs in the Mediterranean region. Several species yield tannins, which are used in the leather-tanning industry, and others yield dyes from their bark. Oaks are of some horticultural importance but, because most grow slowly, they are more often planted in public parks than in private gardens. Scarlet oak and pin oak, however, are moderate- to fast-growing species that are well suited to both purposes. Scientific classification: Oaks make up the genus Quercus of the family Fagaceae. The sessile oak is classified as Quercus petraea; the pendunculate or English oak as Quercus robur; the holm oak as Quercus ilex; the kermes oak as Quercus coccifera; the cork oak as Quercus suber; the scarlet oak as Quercus coccinea, and the pin oak as Quercus palustris. The tan oak is classified in the genus Lithocarpus. (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.oregonscenics.com%2Foak-trees.jpg&hash=ab6b2fd834ce052266f2d9c04d1a8fec) Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Ben6789 on 02/05/2007 16:56:26 Photosynthesis. The thing plants do to keep the earth running. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 02/05/2007 18:24:06 Quadriplegia (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.humanillnesses.com%2Foriginal%2Fimages%2Fhdc_0001_0003_0_img0192.jpg&hash=9403018fc12172253520671180765c9c) http://www.humanillnesses.com/original/images/hdc_0001_0003_0_img0192.jpg (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.darrellgwynn.com%2FGolfClassic%2FImages%2FWhy2.gif&hash=15950cdc284c389752b16b211438466c) http://www.darrellgwynn.com/GolfClassic/Images/Why2.gif Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 02/05/2007 22:21:27 Robot, self-governing, programmable electromechanical device used in industry and in scientific research to perform a task or a limited repertoire of tasks. Robots are a subcategory of automated devices (see Automation). Although no generally recognized criteria exists that distinguishes them from other automated systems, robots tend to be more versatile and adaptable (or reprogrammable) than less sophisticated devices. They offer the advantages of being able to perform more quickly, cheaply, and accurately than humans in conducting set routines. They are capable of operating in locations or under conditions hazardous to human health, ranging from areas of the factory floor to the ocean depths and outer space. The concept of robots dates back to ancient times, when some myths told of mechanical beings brought to life. Such automata also appeared in the clockwork figures of medieval churches, and in the 18th century some clockmakers gained fame for the intricately clever mechanical figures that they constructed. Today the term automaton is usually applied to these handcrafted, mechanical (rather than electromechanical) devices that are restricted merely to imitating the motions of living creatures. Some of the “robots” used in advertising and entertainment are actually automata, even with the addition of remote radio control. The term robot itself is derived from the Czech word robota, meaning “compulsory labour”. It was first used in the 1921 play R.U.R. (which stands for “Rossum's Universal Robots”) by the Czech novelist and playwright Karel Čapek, to describe a mechanical device that looks like a human but, lacking human sensibility, can perform only automatic, mechanical operations. In the play, however, the robots proved much more capable than that, eventually conquering and destroying their makers—a recurrent theme in science fiction since that time. The term androids is now generally reserved for human-like figures of this sort, ranging from electromechanical robots in human form to human-like creatures made entirely of biological materials. Robots as they are known today are not really imitative of human or other living forms except in the limited aspect of digital dexterity. The roots of their development lie in the effort to automate some or all of the operations required on the factory floor. This effort began in the 18th century in the textile industry, when some looms were designed to perform under the control of punched paper tapes. With the burgeoning of the Industrial Revolution, factories sought to bring a greater degree of automation to the repeated processes of the assembly line. True robots did not become possible, however, until the invention of the computer in the 1940s and the progressive miniaturization of computer parts. One of the first true robots was an experimental model called SHAKEY, designed by researchers at the Stanford Research Institute in the late 1960s. It was capable of arranging blocks into stacks through the use of a television camera as a visual sensor, processing this information in a small computer. Thereafter engineers tried to adapt robot-like devices to useful tasks. In the mid-1970s, General Motors financed a development programme in which Massachusetts Institute of Technology researcher Victor Scheinman improved upon a motor-driven “arm” he had invented to produce a so-called “programmable universal manipulator for assembly”, or PUMA. The PUMAs that resulted mark the beginning of the age of robots. Computers today are equipped with a small microprocessor or microprocessors that can handle the data being fed to them by various sensors of the surrounding environment. Making use of the principle of feedback (see Cybernetics), robots can then change their operations to some degree in response to changes in that environment. The commercial use of robots is spreading, with the increasing automation of factories, and they have long since become essential to many laboratory procedures. Japan is in the forefront of nations exploring robot technology. Whether the androids of science fiction will ever become a reality is not yet possible to predict, because duplication of even such seemingly simple acts as bipedal walking has proved enormously difficult. The question of “intelligent” androids must similarly be left to the future of artificial intelligence as a whole. In the meantime, however, robots should continue to expand their applications; the home-made-robot kits available today may be one sign of the future (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.13a.co.uk%2Fimages%2Ftobar%2FMechanoid%2520Robot.jpg&hash=acf8cf313a6b1fb763c673af97b6f945) An Advanced Robot !! (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.pinktentacle.com%2Fimages%2Fkoi_robot.jpg&hash=cb3659a88867f627a4f1a9855a85e087) A Robot Fish !!...........which is nice !! Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 03/05/2007 09:15:01 Syphilis (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.cbc.ca%2Fideas%2Ffeatures%2FAids%2Fpictures%2Fduties.gif&hash=144ff4746fe9b207b3665f1c86ed4bed) http://www.cbc.ca/ideas/features/Aids/pictures/duties.gif Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 05/05/2007 19:16:43 T cells belong to a group of white blood cells known as lymphocytes and play a central role in cell-mediated immunity. They can be distinguished from other lymphocyte types, such as B cells and NK cells by the presence of a special receptor on their cell surface that is called the T cell receptor (TCR). The abbreviation "T", in T cell, stands for thymus since it is the principal organ for their development. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 05/05/2007 22:48:26 Urolithiasis (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.vin.com%2FImageDBPub%2FIM25000%2FIMC24095.jpg&hash=cdae4aeadfdc7ea00249ac3a0c8026ac) http://www.vin.com/ImageDBPub/IM25000/IMC24095.jpg Urinary Calculus analysis It has been published the typical descriptions of size, shape, color and texture for the diverse uroliths (see Figure 1). Nevertheless, the macroscopic morphology is too diverse as for to allow a diagnosis based on the physical aspect. Besides, many uroliths are composed by two or more substances arranged in several layers, principally in the dogs. It is necessary to carry out a correct analysis of each one of them to determine the types of mineral that they are constituted. The majority of the dogs and cats that form uroliths from metabolic origin, as soon as they did it, they will do it again until a preventive treatment begins. Some other very useful methods exist to determine the mineral composition of the uroliths as: optical crystallography by oil dip with a polarized light, difractometry of X-rays, electronic microscopy, high pressure liquid chromatography, infrared spectroscopy, nevertheless, we have little experience with the use of these methods in the daily practice of our country. The only available skill of commercial form in Mexico, to determine the mineral composition of an urolith is the mineral chemical semiquantitative analysis that allows us to determine the percentage of mineral compounds as phosphate, ammonium, magnesium, calcium, oxalate, urate, carbonate and cystine that can form the urolith. As a general rule, is important to send all the uroliths that are extracted from the urinary tract for their analysis. more reading from: http://www.vin.com/proceedings/Proceedings.plx?CID=WSAVA2005&PID=11003&O=Generic Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 08/05/2007 00:08:58 V-2 Rocket First fired in 1942, the V-2 rocket was the first successful large liquid-propellant rocket. Developed by German engineer Wernher von Braun, the V-2 was used by the Germans to bombard England during World War II. (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.sterrenkids.nl%2Fe107_images%2Fnewspost_images%2Fv2.gif&hash=7bd2d539b6fdc6a554ebb4808a0ee1fe) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fimg.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fv280%2Fwithdrawnmist%2Fv2_at_peenemuende-usedom.jpg&hash=28e23a783fc3e4a252af120f813724aa) Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 09/05/2007 18:10:30 Hi Neil, why did you CHANGE the previously posted V-2 pic? ...the one from your garden was much better!!! [;D] Wernher von Braun (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.photos.org.au%2Fuserimages%2Fuser756_1155700528.jpg&hash=d65b3313fd14d80db0cce254dd1fd929) http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/16/S-IC_engines_and_Von_Braun.jpg/180px-S-IC_engines_and_Von_Braun.jpg Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 10/05/2007 18:36:08 X-Ray Painting, style in Australian aboriginal art in which the skeletons and internal organs of animals, fish, and birds are superimposed with the animals’ external features. X-ray paintings are often highly stylized, with complex, decorative designs. Found in the Northern Territory of Australia, the style appears in paintings on rock faces and bark. The origin of the style can be traced back to the Mesolithic art of northern Europe. Figures painted in the X-ray style can be up to 2.5 m (8 ft) long . (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.didgeridoos.net.au%2Fdreamtime%2520stories%2Fimages%2Fxray_roo.gif&hash=2c6450cf034b1098c5925dbb7a84c93b) Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Karen W. on 10/05/2007 18:55:48 Yttria= yttrium oxide, Y2 O2 A heavy , white powder, insoluble in water: used in electronics, colored television tubes, etc. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 11/05/2007 17:51:43 Zoological Gardens .........known popularly as zoos, in which live animals are kept for public recreation, education, and conservation purposes. Modern zoos offer veterinary facilities, provide opportunities for threatened species to breed in captivity, and usually build environments that simulate the native habitats of the animals in their care. Zoos differ from menageries, in which animals are displayed in cages for profit-making purposes, and from so-called zoological stations, which are established in the actual living areas of animals studied for scientific purposes. Collections of captive animals have been kept since ancient times by rulers of countries as diverse as Egypt and China, but the concept of a zoological garden or park, in which animals may be given a practicable freedom of movement, is a recent development. The first modern zoological gardens were the Imperial Menagerie established in Vienna in 1752 and opened to the public in 1765, and the zoo established in 1793 in connection with the Jardin des Plantes (Botanical Garden) in Paris. The famous zoological garden in Regent's Park, London, was established in 1828 by the Zoological Society of London. In 1931 the society opened Whipsnade Park, in Bedfordshire, an area of approximately 230 hectares (567 acres) that has become one of the world's best-known zoos. The oldest zoos in the United States are Chicago's Lincoln Park Zoo, opened to the public in 1868, and the Philadelphia Zoo, chartered in 1859 and opened in 1874. The International Wildlife Conservation Park, situated in Bronx Park, New York, and known popularly as the Bronx Zoo, opened in 1899. The Zoo was founded by the New York Zoological Society (now the Wildlife Conservation Society), and has one of the largest collections of animals in the world. Other large and particularly important collections are found in Missouri, California, Mumbai and Kolkata, Cairo, Tokyo, and Berlin and Munich. From the 19th century onwards, the steel bars formerly used to restrain dangerous animals and protect the public were frequently replaced by ditches or moats, too wide and deep for the animals to cross. Hardy animals are permitted to roam over large, open-air ranges, while in cool seasons and climates, tropical animals are housed in heated buildings. In some zoological gardens animals of different species are exhibited in a common enclosure, sometimes including nearly all the animals of a region. Many modern zoos incorporate aquariums and aviaries for the purpose of accommodating and displaying exotic fish and birds, and frequently include a special children's zoo for very young visitors to play in and to ride on animals such as elephants and camels. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 11/05/2007 18:34:10 Airplane December 17, 1903 (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.clt.astate.edu%2Fsparks%2Fbook%2520images%2FVolume%25202%2FVol%25202%2520Iss%25204%2FFirst%2520to%2520Fly%2520How%2520Wilbur%2520%26amp%3B%2520Orville%2520Wright%2520Invented%2520the%2520Airpla.jpg&hash=4e7fcf08da4bb13a29ba71585e90791d) http://www.clt.astate.edu/sparks/book%20images/Volume%202/Vol%202%20Iss%204/First%20to%20Fly%20How%20Wilbur%20&%20Orville%20Wright%20Invented%20the%20Airpla.jpg Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Karen W. on 23/05/2007 08:45:32 BI-PLANES Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 23/05/2007 20:29:32 Crash (aircraft) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fgrowabrain.typepad.com%2Fgrowabrain%2Fimages%2Fplane_crash.jpg&hash=23322a4d266d3c5035f95b14bba0d1c2) http://growabrain.typepad.com/growabrain/images/plane_crash.jpg http://growabrain.typepad.com/growabrain/2004/05/have_a_nice_fli.html Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 01/06/2007 08:14:27 Dopplar DNA Density D-Dimer dosage ...fibrinogen degradation products in plasma. High levels indicate disseminated intravascular coagulation or massive thrombosis. (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fjuno.ucsd.edu%2Fimages%2Fdoolittle-ill2bg.jpg&hash=b7ee3effb2c4bd36465a246a46a3e233) http://juno.ucsd.edu/images/doolittle-ill2bg.jpg ikod What happened to ' X' and ' y ' ? you mean : "WHY are they EXcluded ?" LOL..that's clever Eric ! [:)] Diagnositc Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the biological development of a cellular form of life or a virus. All known cellular life and some viruses have DNAs. DNA is a long polymer of nucleotides (a polynucleotide) that encodes the sequence of amino acid residues in proteins, using the genetic code. Doppler shift-The "police siren" effect,when waves propagated by a moving body have their wavelength stretched as the body moves away. Diurnal motion: The apparent daily rotation of the sky from east to west. It is due to the real rotation of the earth from west to east. Dichotomy: The exact half-phase of Mercury, Venus or the Moon. Diuretic A diuretic (colloquially called a water pill) is any drug or herb that elevates the rate of bodily urine excretion (diuresis). Diuretics also decrease the extracellular fluid (ECF) volume, and are primarily used to produce a negative extracellular fluid balance. Caffeine, cranberry juice and alcohol are all weak diuretics. Uses In medicine, diuretics are used to treat heart failure, liver cirrhosis, hypertension and certain kidney diseases. Diuretics alleviate the symptoms of these diseases by causing sodium and water loss through the urine. As urine is produced by the kidney, sodium and water – which cause edema related to the disease – move into the blood to replace the volume lost as urine, thereby reducing the pathological edema. Some diuretics, such as acetazolamide, help to make the urine more alkaline and are helpful in increasing excretion of substances such as aspirin in cases of overdose or poisoning. The antihypertensive actions of some diuretics (thiazides and loop diuretics in particular) are independent of their diuretic effect. That is, the reduction in blood pressure is not due to decreased blood volume resulting from increased urine production, but occurs through other mechanisms and at lower doses than that required to produce diuresis. Indapamide was specifically designed with this is mind, and has a larger therapeutic window for hypertension (without pronounced diuresis) than most other diuretics. Diode 1889 (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.scienceandsociety.co.uk%2FPix%2FSCI%2F47%2F10324047_T.JPG&hash=0f075fa802b7754f9bba4b63700eaf3c) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.cjseymour.plus.com%2Felec%2Fvalves%2FVDIODE.jpg&hash=3713a82831be10ef0d3338f639b77872) http://www.scienceandsociety.co.uk/Pix/SCI/47/10324047_T.JPG http://www.cjseymour.plus.com/elec/valves/VDIODE.jpg ikod Delta-aminolaevulinic acid dehydratase (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fpir.georgetown.edu%2Fpirwww%2Fimages%2Fpdb%2F1H7Nx500c.jpg&hash=e9adebfcdd27a90bfa6a31dcdb54912c) http://pir.georgetown.edu/pirwww/images/pdb/1H7Nx500c.jpg Lead poisoning Lead has no known biological role in the body. The toxicity comes from its ability to mimic other biologically important metals, the most notable of which are calcium, iron and zinc. Lead is able to bind to and interact with the same proteins and molecules as these metals, but after displacement, those molecules function differently and fail to carry out the same reactions, such as in producing enzymes necessary for certain biological processes. Most lead poisoning symptoms are thought to occur by interfering with an essential enzyme Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, or ALAD. ALAD is a zinc-binding protein which is important in the biosynthesis of heme, the cofactor found in hemoglobin. Genetic mutations of ALAD cause the disease porphyria, a disease which was highlighted in the movie The Madness of King George. Lead poisoning is sometimes mistaken for porphyria but the distinction is that lead poisoning usually causes anemia while true porphyria does not. more from Wikipedia clicking here: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lead_poisoning Dawkins,Richard = Author of, The Selfish Gene; The Extended Phenotype; The Blind Watchmaker; River Out Of Eden; and Cimbing Mount Improbable. Darwins Theory Desmodromic Valve Control (Ducati-Italy) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.engr.colostate.edu%2F%7Edga%2Fme324%2Fhandouts%2Fcam_stuff%2FDucati_desmodromic_cam_animation.gif&hash=5f877befa195f0af557e8b88b76cb2d9) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.bevel-enthusiasm.com%2Fimage%2Fparts%2Fdesmoanime.gif&hash=7e48ab2ef65373bc2dbea9498959c04b) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.italiaspeed.com%2F2006%2Fmotorsport%2Fothers%2Fducati%2F06_mugello%2F005.jpg&hash=f936aeb868c330de359f5aede4c924bc) http://www.engr.colostate.edu/~dga/me324/handouts/cam_stuff/Ducati_desmodromic_cam_animation.gif http://www.bevel-enthusiasm.com/image/parts/desmoanime.gif http://www.italiaspeed.com/2006/motorsport/others/ducati/06_mugello/005.jpg Dendrochronology Dendrochronology or tree-ring dating is the method of scientific dating based on the analysis of tree-ring growth patterns. This technique was invented and developed during the 20th century originally by A. E. Douglass, the founder of the Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research at the University of Arizona. The technique can date wood to exact calendar years. Overview Many trees in temperate zones grow one growth ring each year, the newest ring being under the bark. For the entire period of a tree's life, a year-by-year record or ring pattern is formed that reflects the climatic conditions in which the tree grew. Adequate moisture and a long growing season result in a wide ring. A drought year may result in a very narrow one. Trees from the same region will tend to develop the same patterns of ring widths for a given period. These patterns can be compared and matched ring for ring with trees growing in the same geographical zone and under similar climatic conditions. Following these tree-ring patterns from living trees back through time, chronologies can be built up, both for entire regions, and for sub-regions of the world. Thus wood from ancient structures can be matched to known chronologies (a technique called cross-dating) and the age of the wood determined precisely. Cross-dating was originally done by visual inspection. Nowadays, computers are used to do the statistical matching. To eliminate individual variations in tree ring growth, dendrochronologists take the smoothed average of the tree ring widths of multiple tree samples to build up a ring history. This process is termed replication. A tree ring history whose beginning and end dates are not known is called a floating chronology. It can be anchored by cross-matching either the beginning or the end section against the end sections of another chronology (tree ring history) whose dates are known. Fully anchored chronologies which extend back more than 10,000 years exist for river oak trees from South Germany (from the Main and Rhine rivers). A fully anchored chronology which extends back 8500 years exists for the bristlecone pine in the Southwest US (White Mountains of California). In areas where the climate is reasonably predictable, trees develop annual rings of different properties depending on weather, rain, temperature, etc. in different years. These variations may be used to infer past climate variations — [ Invalid Attachment ] Dermatoglyphics (Fingerprints) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.humanhand.com%2Fimages%2Ffingerprints.jpg&hash=b59e95b14717e837438b6e07687f69f8) http://www.humanhand.com/images/fingerprints.jpg Dialysis In medicine, dialysis is a type of renal replacement therapy which is used to provide an artificial replacement for lost kidney function due to renal failure. It is a life support treatment and does not treat any kidney diseases. Dialysis may be used for very sick patients who have suddenly lost their kidney function (acute renal failure) or for quite stable patients who have permanently lost their kidney function (end stage renal failure). When healthy, the kidneys remove waste products (for example potassium, acid and urea) from the blood and also remove excess fluid in the form of urine. Dialysis treatments have to duplicate both of these functions as dialysis (waste removal) and ultrafiltration (fluid removal). Diode Semiconductor electronic component. Ideally, a diode conducts electricity in one direction and does not allow the current to flow in the opposite direction. Thanks to this property diodes are used to rectify alternating currents, i.e., to convert alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC). (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi154.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fs262%2Fpf0604%2Fdiodes2.jpg&hash=b1ee1ce67c829ef6b53219c8905ecb37) Diatrophism = The process by which the earths surface is reshaped through rock movements and it's displacements. Dermatomeri (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.msd-italia.it%2Faltre%2Fmanuale%2Ffigure%2Fimmagini%2F16502.gif&hash=39f5fa51c99515d0a0ec19c590d8585c) http://www.msd-italia.it/altre/manuale/figure/immagini/16502.gif THOSE ARE VERY COOL!! Dioscuri = Greek mythology, meaning Castor and Pollux, twin sons of zues: identified as stars in the constellation Gemini. History of the Depth Charge The depth charge or bomb is a waterproof weapon used by ships or aircraft to attack submerged submarines. First Depth Charges The first depth charges were developed by the British in World War I for use against German submarines or U-boats, beginning in late 1915. They were steel canisters, the size of an oil drum, filled with TNT explosives. They were dropped off the side or stern of a ship, on top of where the crew estimated the enemy submarines were. The canister sank and exploded at a depth that was preset by the use of a hydrostatic valve. The charges often did not hit the submarines but the shock of the explosions still damaged the submarines by loosening the submarine enough to create leaks and forcing the submarine to surface. The first depth charges were not effective weapons. Between 1915 and the end of 1917, depth charges destroyed only nine U-boats. They were improved in 1918 and that year were responsible for destroying twenty-two U-boats, when depth charges were propelled through the air over distances of 100 or more yards with special cannons, increasing the damage range of the naval ships. [ Invalid Attachment ] Diagramming software Diagramming software From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Diagramming Software) Jump to: navigation, search Diagramming software consists of computer programs that are used to produce graphical diagrams.  Types of diagramming software User-generated diagrams. As computer users seek to represent visual information, such as a flowchart, tools such as SmartDraw, Boxily, Dia, OmniGraffle, Microsoft Visio, Inspiration, Fun With MindBook, ConceptDraw V, First Diagramming allow them to express the information in the form of a diagram. Such programs are usually GUI-based and feature WYSIWYG diagram editing. There are also several Diagramming tools available for developers, including Corgent Diagram for Microsoft's .NET Platform and JGraph for the Java platform. Some user-generated diagram software is UML compatible, allowing model-driven translation between graphic representation and functional programming languages. Automatically generated diagrams. Programs are available as debugger front-ends, computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools, or profilers. Diagrams are usually automatically generated by the program in this type of software. Tool examples with automatically generated diagrams are Visustin, Project Analyzer and VB Watch. Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diagramming_software" From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Diagramming Software) Jump to: navigation, search Diagramming software consists of computer programs that are used to produce graphical diagrams.  Types of diagramming software User-generated diagrams. As computer users seek to represent visual information, such as a flowchart, tools such as SmartDraw, Boxily, Dia, OmniGraffle, Microsoft Visio, Inspiration, Fun With MindBook, ConceptDraw V, First Diagramming allow them to express the information in the form of a diagram. Such programs are usually GUI-based and feature WYSIWYG diagram editing. There are also several Diagramming tools available for developers, including Corgent Diagram for Microsoft's .NET Platform and JGraph for the Java platform. Some user-generated diagram software is UML compatible, allowing model-driven translation between graphic representation and functional programming languages. Automatically generated diagrams. Programs are available as debugger front-ends, computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools, or profilers. Diagrams are usually automatically generated by the program in this type of software. Tool examples with automatically generated diagrams are Visustin, Project Analyzer and VB Watch. Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diagramming_software" Quote ...and NOW? Dead topic ? Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Karen W. on 07/06/2007 07:18:51 *tears* Thank you Iko... EPICENTER= The area of the earths surface directly above the place of origin, focus, of an earthquake: Also epicentrim 2. A focal or central point. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Karen W. on 11/06/2007 20:44:33 Fault= A fracture in the earth's crust which has allowed movement Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Karen W. on 15/06/2007 07:21:00 GENUS = An artificial grouping of apparently allied species. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Karen W. on 16/06/2007 07:13:04 Hydrocarbons = A compound such as methane that contains only hydrogen and carbon atoms. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: DoctorBeaver on 16/06/2007 07:18:20 I am a Jolly beaver Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Karen W. on 16/06/2007 08:02:30 (KNOWLEDGE is a WEALTH all of it's OWN) KINETIC =To do with Movement as in "kenetic sculpture race"(from my home town) Kinetic Sculpture Race The Osgood File (CBS Radio Network): 11/27/03 The Osgood File (CBS Radio Network): 6/25/03 Human powered works of mobile art compete in a race each spring. The sculptures that competed in the April 2003 Kinetic Sculpture Race are designed to travel on land, through mud and over deep harbor waters, and they are constructed of any imaginable material, including used bicycles, gears, feathers, tin foil and paper mache. Some of the machines are simple crafts piloted by only one brave soul, while others might be as large as 50-foot long, highly sophisticated and well-engineered vehicles powered by a team of pilots. This year 32 entries, including a 14-foot green frog, a 14-foot powder blue elephant and a mobile volcano will compete for prizes in "Art" and "Engineering" categories, as well as the coveted "Mediocre" and "Next to Last" awards. Art meets engineering at the Kinetic Sculpture Race, which provides an opportunity for anyone to build and race an imaginative work of art. The race started inauspiciously when Hobart Brown, an art dealer and sculptor, was repairing his son's tricycle in 1969. "It was an accident. I didn't know the world was hungry for this kind of thing. I was repairing my son’s tricycle, and I kept building stuff on it and pretty soon it was seven feet tall. And it got in the newspaper and my friend built one (another kinetic sculpture) and we had a race and it (the competition) grew and grew. And I thought, oh my God, now we need to do it right." The race grew into an annual three-day event in Northern California, from Arcata to Ferndale during Memorial Day weekend each year, over a 38-mile route of road, water, sand and mud. Since then, Hobart, known as the "Glorious Founder," has taken his "festival of art and madness" to Baltimore, as well as Boulder, Colorado, Portland Oregon, Port Townsend, Washington and even Poland and Australia. CONTACTS Humboldt Kinetic Association PO Box 4227 Arcata, CA 95518 (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi17.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fb73%2Fkarenw44%2F3308381315keneticsculptureentryrace.jpg&hash=cefad6ddc746f1c112550ad4f3f3c0e1) Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: DoctorBeaver on 16/06/2007 08:08:26 Bloody L Karen! [:0] Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Karen W. on 16/06/2007 08:13:59 MULTIPLE PERSONALITY DISORDER [:)] :) :) Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: DoctorBeaver on 16/06/2007 08:20:43 (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi148.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fs26%2FDoctorBeaver%2Fstronger1_sm-1.jpg&hash=422ade81a294d1d9c49284237b8bebf6) Olivia Neutron-bomb [:D] Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Karen W. on 16/06/2007 08:28:24 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi17.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fb73%2Fkarenw44%2F2091259748cupids.jpg&hash=74a32e0e392357405e0594ce8f64ccb9) Organic chemistry From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organic_chemistry Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting primarily of carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, halogens as well as phosphorus, silicon and sulfur.[1][2] Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 16/06/2007 18:25:04 Psoralens (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.planet-science.com%2Fabout_sy%2Fnews%2Fps_151-175%2F175%2Fparsnips.jpg&hash=987d7821f9caa92d1d1bbc89138f604d) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.itmonline.org%2Fimage%2Fvitiligo1.gif&hash=cb94469b78719e4ee11ac07bc86007bb) http://www.planet-science.com/about_sy/news/ps_151-175/175/parsnips.jpg http://www.itmonline.org/image/vitiligo1.gif “Psoralens are part of a group of plant compounds referred to as furocoumarins. These are predominantly found the umbelliferae family, which includes celery, parsnips, fennel and parsley. Psoralens form part of the plants’ natural defence system and although they’re safe at low levels, their concentrations increase when the plants are damaged, attacked by fungi (mould), or when exposed to extreme temperatures." The compounds are absorbed into the skin on contact, and they also end up in the skin after being ingested. Not that you would notice… until you went out into the sun, that is. Psoralens are partial to UV-A radiation, and have the amazing ability to absorb three times as much light energy compared to their ground state – and when they release this energy again, the trouble starts. Photochemical reactions take place which damage to the body’s cell membranes and DNA, causing inflammation and blisters, a condition medically referred to as “phytophotodermatitis”. In other words, victims end up with the equivalent of pretty bad sunburn. And because of the DNA damage, there is also an increased cancer risk (as there is with sunburn). Don’t let this put you off your veg though – you’d have to eat large amounts of mouldy celery to run any serious risk of blistering up while out on the football pitch. The people most at risk from phytophotodermatitis are agricultural workers and food handlers who are exposed to these compounds on a near-daily basis. Dangerous though they can be, psoralens can also be put to very positive use, by means of a therapeutic application called ‘PUVA’. Psoralen + UV-A therapy can help certain difficult-to-treat skin conditions, such as psoriasis, eczema and vitiligo. The psoralens are applied topically to the affected skin areas or, in more severe cases affecting large areas of the body, they are given orally. The patients are then exposed to UV-A light, and this can help to clear up the condition. The medical team take care not to burn the patients, of course. In vitiligo, the condition Michael Jackson has claimed to suffer from, where the skin’s natural pigment (melanin) is lost, PUVA therapy can help re-pigment the skin. The word of warning though is that during PUVA therapy, patients are advised not to consume psoralen-containing foods in excess. more from: http://www.scienceyear.com/about_sy/news/ps_151-175/ps_issue175.html Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Karen W. on 16/06/2007 19:33:41 QUANTUM ELECTRODYNAMICS = A theory that describes both wave and particle behavior of electromagnetic radiation. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Karen W. on 19/06/2007 06:11:32 Recombination = The shuffling of genetic information during the creation of reproductive cells that make offspring different from their parents. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Karen W. on 25/06/2007 10:13:26 SPREADING CENTER = A SITE WHERE OCEANIC CRUST IS BEING FORMED! Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Karen W. on 28/06/2007 23:19:20 TOPOLOGY = Branch of mathematics that is concerned with surface properties that do not change under distortion. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Karen W. on 12/07/2007 22:45:07 Uncostate = having only one main rib: said of a leaf. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 18/07/2007 22:01:27 Vein (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fupload.wikimedia.org%2Fwikipedia%2Fcommons%2Fe%2Fe6%2FVeincrosssection.png&hash=04dc0d4637f1700f44e93bc33338101f) Cross section of a vein showing a valve which prevents backflow In the circulatory system, a vein is a blood vessel that carries blood toward the heart. The majority of veins in the body carry low-oxygen blood from the tissues back to the heart; the exceptions being the pulmonary and umbilical veins which both carry oxygenated blood. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Karen W. on 18/07/2007 22:13:09 White dwarf = any of a class of small, extremely dense stars of low luminosity, often no larger then the earth but weighing as much as the sun. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 18/07/2007 22:32:09 Zebu, common name for several breeds of domesticated humped cattle native to southern Asia. A large, muscular hump on the back above the shoulders is its most conspicuous characteristic. Most zebus have short horns, pendulous ears, and huge dewlaps. The animals are used extensively in Africa and Asia as beasts of burden, and for their milk and flesh. White bulls are regarded as sacred by certain sects of Hindus; hence the entire species is known in some parts of the world as Brahman cattle. Because the zebu is highly resistant to heat and tropical diseases, it has been introduced into the United States and South America for cross-breeding with native cattle to develop strains with similar qualities. (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fupload.wikimedia.org%2Fwikipedia%2Fcommons%2Fthumb%2F1%2F11%2FBos_taurus_indicus.jpg%2F240px-Bos_taurus_indicus.jpg&hash=38b98967aa5b2bc55429a7f74f7af182) A Zebu doing what Zebus do best..............being a Zebu !! Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 18/07/2007 22:33:39 ooops...i missed out 'X' and ' Y '............oh well..I'm forgiven..I'm out of practice !! [;D] Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Karen W. on 18/07/2007 22:43:19 Yes you Are Forgiven.. Definitely out of Practice! LOL Lets start over! ARTERIAL SCLEROSIS: arteriosclerosis, arterial sclerosis, hardening of the arteries, induration of the arteries, coronary-artery disease sclerosis of the arterial walls (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi17.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fb73%2Fkarenw44%2F3973185060ArterialSclerosis.jpg&hash=f9cd761a0f663ad4f245c12668eb9a07) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi17.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fb73%2Fkarenw44%2F1939960743ArterialSclerosis.jpg&hash=8de8b300ed1ce42fe272b3bcfb9d1616) Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 18/07/2007 23:31:24 Brain In animals, the brain or encephalon (Greek for "in the head"), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behaviour. In most animals, the brain is located in the head, protected by the skull and close to the primary sensory apparatus of vision, hearing, equilibrioception (balance), sense of acceleration, taste, and olfaction. While all vertebrates have a brain, most invertebrates have either a centralized brain or collections of individual ganglia. Primitive animals such as sponges do not have a brain at all. Brains can be extremely complex. For example, the human brain contains more than 100 billion neurons, each linked to as many as 10,000 other neurons. (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fupload.wikimedia.org%2Fwikipedia%2Fcommons%2F4%2F42%2FBrain_animated_color_nevit.gif&hash=eb8cf9eacc99bd5c1f5b921502188681) Animation showing the human brain with the lobes highlighte Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Karen W. on 19/07/2007 02:29:52 Cerebral Cortex From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The cerebral cortex is a structure within the vertebrate brain with distinct structural and functional properties. In non-living, preserved brains, the outermost layers of the cerebrum has a grey color, hence the name "grey matter". Grey matter is formed by neurons and their unmyelinated fibers while the white matter below the grey matter of the cortex is formed predominantly by myelinated axons interconnecting different regions of the central nervous system. The human cerebral cortex is 2-4 mm (0.08-0.16 inches) thick and plays a central role in many complex brain functions including memory, attention, perceptual awareness, "thinking", language and consciousness. The surface of the cerebral cortex is folded in large mammals where more than two thirds of the cortical surface is buried in the grooves, called "sulci". The phylogenetically more ancient part of the cerebral cortex, the hippocampus, is differentiated in five layers of neurons, while the more recent neo-cortex is differentiated in six basic layers. Relative variations in thickness or cell type (among other parameters) allows us to distinguish among different neocortical architectonic fields. The geometry of these fields seems to be related to the anatomy of the cortical folds and, for example, layers in the upper part of the cortical grooves (called gyri) are more clearly differentiated than in its deeper parts (called sulcal "fundi"). (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi17.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fb73%2Fkarenw44%2F200px-Cerebral_Cortex_location.jpg&hash=bb7aab54552bd3631d3663e0ef773235) Location of the cerebral cortex (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi17.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fb73%2Fkarenw44%2F200px-Cerebral_Cortex_10.5mm.jpg&hash=a8a1fd8876b630dce1e26ad01522d0fe) Slice of the cerebral cortex, ca. 10.5mm wide (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi17.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fb73%2Fkarenw44%2F250px-NeuronGolgi.png&hash=ca6a00b1123640c04a53cf1c5eeee3d7) Golgi-stained neurons in the somatosensory cortex of the macaque monkey. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 19/07/2007 03:36:26 Da Vinci (T-Shirt) As I have never enjoyed the luxury of a naked Scientist T Shirt I managed to procure this Da Vinci T Shirt (as worn by yours truly) in Florence ! I have been there recently...did I mention it ? Notice how Da Vinci copied the TNS Logo !! [ Invalid Attachment ] Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Karen W. on 19/07/2007 03:52:48 Yes That is a very cool Shirt! I hope you had loads of fun! HEY WE POSTED AT THE SAME TIME WHEN YOU CHANGED YOUR PICTURE AND THE SITE SUCKED MY POST AWAY!!! NO FAIR!! CRIMANY!! IT WAS DONE AND BOOM! LOL ARRRRRG! Evolution.. concept that embodies the belief that existing animals and plants developed by a process of gradual, continuous change from previously existing forms. This theory, also known as descent with modification, constitutes organic evolution. Inorganic evolution, on the other hand, is concerned with the development of the physical universe from unorganized matter. Organic evolution, as opposed to belief in the special creation of each individual species as an immutable form, conceives of life as having had its beginnings in a simple primordial protoplasmic mass (probably originating in the sea) from which, through the long eras of time, arose all subsequent living forms. (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi17.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fb73%2Fkarenw44%2F3589344705evolution.jpg&hash=bbfaef63c6f2a472da0cccfb04e7f1a8) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi17.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fb73%2Fkarenw44%2Fevolution.jpg&hash=3147b17d10c71a05217d13a3276337f1) Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Mjhavok on 19/07/2007 04:18:42 Faraday, Michael Feinberg, Gerald Fermi, Enrico Feynman digrams Field Theory Freund, Peter Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Karen W. on 19/07/2007 08:05:56 Galvanism = Electricity produced by a chemical action. 2. A direct electrical current used to stimulate nerves and muscles. You will find more through wiki http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galvanism Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 19/07/2007 10:51:48 Habit, an act acquired by experience and performed regularly and automatically. Habits include mannerisms, such as moving the hands when talking; satisfying psychological cravings such as smoking or overeating; and even characteristic reading preferences, such as a regular diet of horror novels or Shakespearean tragedies. Psychologists are interested in habits because of their function as a basic element of learning and as problems to be treated when they prove disruptive to a person's well-being. Psychoanalysts consider habits as expressions of erotic and aggressive impulses. Repressed, these impulses find an outlet through the counter-productive, repetitive behaviour that comprises habits. In contrast, American psychologist and learning theorist Clark Hull defined habit with great precision in terms of the laws of conditioning and reinforcement. A majority of contemporary psychologists view habits as learned or conditioned behaviour over which one has little voluntary control. Some theorists even consider more complex but commonly practised human activities, such as playing football or speaking French, as composed of “habit hierarchies”. Habits may begin as reactions to a major event, such as a bodily injury, and then continue on other occasions that reproduce certain cues or stimuli from the original event. A habit is influenced not only by elements that produce the behaviour but also by rewards or punishments that follow it. An action that is lavishly rewarded as soon as it is performed is well on its way to becoming a habit. Once a habit is firmly entrenched, it can be sustained by cues different from those that originally created it, and it need not be rewarded so regularly or well. Indeed, the habit may become its own reward. Psychologists can effectively assist people in breaking such habits as hair and eyebrow pulling, fingernail biting, shoulder jerking, scratching, overeating, smoking, drinking, and exhibitionism. With children, self-destructive habits such as head banging can be eliminated by behaviour modification or counterconditioning techniques. These involve increasing one's awareness of the act, interrupting its performance so that it no longer seems such a natural thing to do, and reinforcing another act as a competitor. Recognizing the social benefits of breaking an undesirable habit makes doing so easier. In the serious mental defect known as obsessive-compulsive disorder, people feel compelled to repeat actions such as washing hands or switching off lights and appliances. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Karen W. on 19/07/2007 11:53:31 Invar From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Invar variation due Ni percentage Invar, also called FeNi, is an alloy of iron (64%) and nickel (36%) with some carbon and chromium. This alloy is known for its unique properties of controlled coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). It was invented in 1896 by a Swiss Charles Edouard Guillaume, who later received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1920. Due to its low coefficient of thermal expansion at room temperature (about 10-6 K-1 in length; some formulations have negative thermal expansion, NTE) it is used in precision instruments (clocks, physics laboratory devices, seismic creep gauges, shadow-mask frames,[1] valves in motors, antimagnetic watches, etc.) However, it has a propensity to creep. Although Invar is today a widely used material in many industries and applications, this is a particular trademark of a French company named Imphy Alloys: this company originates from Aciéries d’Imphy (a small city near Nevers, France) where the alloy was initially industrialised after its invention. The generic reference for Invar® is FeNi36. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 21/07/2007 18:04:29 Jabir (c. 721-c. 815), Arabian alchemist. Born Abu Musa Jabir ibn Hayyan, he is supposed to have lived in Al Kūfah and Baghdad (both now in Iraq). More than 500 treatises have been ascribed to him. Contemporary scholars, however, believe that most of these works date from the 9th to the 12th century. In addition, several works printed in Latin and ascribed to Geber, which is the Latin transcription of his Arabic name, probably date from the 14th century. These works give detailed descriptions of chemical processes, including experiments on the properties of metals. They develop the theory—of great importance to medieval and Renaissance scholars—that all metals are composed of mercury and sulphur and that it is possible to transmute base metals into gold. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Simulated on 21/07/2007 18:12:49 Kraner did his Science Fair..Just Messing.. Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant The Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant (柏崎刈羽原子力発電所, Kashiwazaki-Kariwa genshiryoku-hatsudensho?, Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPP) is a relatively modern nuclear power plant located in the towns of Kashiwazaki and Kariwa in the Niigata Prefecture, Japan (coordinates: 37° 25' 35" N, 138° 35' 40" E). It is owned and operated by The Tokyo Electric Power Company, which is the 3rd largest electric utility in the world. By net electrical power rating, it is the largest nuclear plant in the world, with a total output of 8,212 MW. This is sufficient to provide electricity to about 16 million households. Since there are some 47 million households reported by the Japanese census (see Demography of Japan), this makes the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPP an extremely important cornerstone in the electricity market of Japan. Furthermore, this gives the KK NPP the title of the 4th largest electric generating station in the world, behind 3 hydroelectric plants: Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 21/07/2007 19:11:38 Loach, common name for any of about 200 species of freshwater elongated fishes of the carp order. Usually found at the bottom of streams and lakes, loaches occur in southern and Central Asia; several species are found in Europe, north-eastern Africa, and Ethiopia. Loaches reach a maximum length of about 30 cm (12 in). Their bodies have few, if any, scales. Three to six pairs of barbels (“whiskers”) are clustered about the mouth. The stone loach is a common European species used as food. The spined loach is found from Europe to Japan and has a collapsible spine between and slightly below its eyes. Two related Asian families are known as suckerbelly loaches and hillstream loaches. Scientific classification: Loaches make up the family Cobitididae of the order Cypriniformes. The stone loach is classified as Noemacheilus barbatulus and the spined loach as Cobitis taenia. (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fanimal-world.com%2Fencyclo%2Ffresh%2Floaches%2Fimages%2FPepperedLoachWFLo_Ap4A.jpg&hash=6015d1f82d83b90f45d3791f0909746e) Some Loaches chillin !! Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Simulated on 21/07/2007 20:48:51 Mr. J, our Science Teacher that taught be lots! Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Karen W. on 23/07/2007 12:36:39 Nucleic Acid = From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia To read more extensively see: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nucleic_acid A nucleic acid is a complex, high-molecular-weight biochemical macromolecule composed of nucleotide chains that convey genetic information. The most common nucleic acids are deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). Nucleic acids are found in all living cells and viruses. Artificial nucleic acids include peptide nucleic acid (PNA), Morpholino and locked nucleic acid (LNA), as well as glycol nucleic acid (GNA) and threose nucleic acid (TNA). Each of these is distinguished from naturally occurring DNA or RNA by changes to the backbone of the molecule. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 23/07/2007 22:28:24 Oak Bark The bark of many species of oak, including that of the common oak, provide tannin, which is used for curing leather and for making blue-black ink. [ Invalid Attachment ] Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Karen W. on 23/07/2007 22:41:40 ( Really, I did not know that about an oak! Cool ) Pirite (synonym of Pyrite)= Ambasaguas (Ambas Aguas; Ambas-Aguas), Muro de Aguas, La Rioja, Spain © 2002 John H. Betts Show Pyrite Photos (1279) Formula: FeS 2 System: Isometric Colour: Pale brass-yellow Hardness: 6 - 6½ Name: Named in antiquity from the Greek "pyros" for "fire" because sparks flew from it when hit with another mineral or a metal. Pyrite Group Pyrite is a very common mineral, found in a wide variety of geological formations from sedimentary deposits to hydrothermal veins and as a constituent of metamorphic rocks. The brassy-yellow metallic colour of Pyrite has in many cases lead to people mistaking it for Gold, hence the common nickname 'Fools Gold'. Pyrite is quite easy to distinguish from Gold, it is much lighter, but harder and cannot be scratched with a fingernail or pocket knife. (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi17.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fb73%2Fkarenw44%2Fimagespirite.jpg&hash=683e5a0a9a293893606c4842eadf22f6) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi17.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fb73%2Fkarenw44%2FimagesgreenPirite.jpg&hash=c2c201fb367d07c1e34712ebf9de7245) Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Simulated on 30/07/2007 03:10:26 Quails. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 30/07/2007 03:28:55 Rigel .............. is the brightest star in the constellation Orion and the seventh brightest star in the sky, with visual magnitude 0.12. Although it has the Bayer designation "beta", it is almost always brighter than Alpha Orionis (Betelgeuse). It also has the alternative traditional names Algebar or Elgebar, but these are almost never used. The star's name comes from its location at the "left foot" of Orion. It is a contraction of Riǧl Ǧawza al-Yusra, this being Arabic for "Left Foot of the Central One". Another Arabic name is الرجل الجبار ar-riǧl al-ǧabbār, "the foot of the great one" (giant, conqueror, etc.), which is also the source of the variant name Algebar. It is known as 参宿七 (Shēnxiù Qī, "The Seventh of the Three Stars") in Chinese. The mathematically questionable name is due to the fact that the Asterism of Three Stars was originally composed of just three stars, all of them in the girdle of the Orion. Later, four more stars were added to this asterism, but the name remained unchanged. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Karen W. on 30/07/2007 13:17:57 Sagitta Abbreviation:(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi17.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fb73%2Fkarenw44%2Fsagitta_s.gif&hash=968fcc694769dd78afa67fa4fcb45922) Sge English name: Arrow Coordinates see Stellar data Particulars: * Double star zeta Sge * Recurrent Nova WZ Sge * Globular cluster M 71 General: A very small constellation lying south of the Fox, Vulpecula, and north of the Eagle, Aquila. As a matter of fact Sagitta is the third smallest constellation in the sky. It shows clearly the shape of an arrow flying towards the Swan, Cygnus. Stars and other objects The A3 main sequence star zeta Sge (5.00 mag) has a 9th mag companion. Small telescopes can resolve this pair. WZ Sge is a nova which lightens up from time to time from 15th mag to 7th mag. It has been observed twice in this century: in 1913 and in 1946. Further outbursts may occur at any time. In binoculares and small telescopes the globular cluster M71 appears as a misty patch of a sperical shape. Although it is nowadays classified as a globular cluster some authorities still refer to it as open star cluster. See the Messier database for details. Mythological Background: Sagitta is thought to be the arrow shot by Hercules as he is hunting the two birds, Aquila and Cygnus. But it seems that the had luck and escaped. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Simulated on 30/07/2007 15:27:21 Tyrannosaurus Rex! Everyone knows that's the worlds most known dinosaur! Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 30/07/2007 16:36:25 Unicode .............is an industry standard allowing computers to consistently represent and manipulate text expressed in any of the world's writing systems. Developed in tandem with the Universal Character Set standard and published in book form as The Unicode Standard, Unicode consists of a repertoire of about 100,000 characters, a set of code charts for visual reference, an encoding methodology and set of standard character encodings, an enumeration of character properties such as upper and lower case, a set of reference data computer files, and rules for normalization, decomposition, collation and rendering.[1] Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Karen W. on 30/07/2007 17:00:51 Vortex (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi17.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fb73%2Fkarenw44%2F737px-Airplane_vortex_edit.jpg&hash=33f60fd7e4249fb534828b29ab652107) From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search For other uses, see Vortex (disambiguation). Vortex created by the passage of an aircraft wing, revealed by coloured smoke Vortex created by the passage of an aircraft wing, revealed by coloured smoke A vortex (pl. vortices) is a spinning, often turbulent, flow (or any spiral motion) with closed streamlines. The shape of media or mass swirling rapidly around a center forms a vortex. It flows in a circular motion. Contents [hide] * 1 Dynamics * 2 Two types of vortex o 2.1 Free (irrotational) vortex o 2.2 Forced (rotational) vortex * 3 Observations o 3.1 Instances * 4 See also * 5 References and further reading * 6 External links  Dynamics A vortex can be any circular or rotary flow that possesses vorticity. Vorticity is a mathematical concept used in fluid dynamics. It can be related to the amount of "circulation" or "rotation" in a fluid. In fluid dynamics, vorticity is the circulation per unit area at a point in the flow field. It is a vector quantity, whose direction is (roughly speaking) along the axis of the swirl. Also in fluid dynamics, the movement of a fluid can be said to be vortical if the fluid moves around in a circle, or in a helix, or if it tends to spin around some axis. Such motion can also be called solenoidal. In the atmospheric sciences, vorticity is a property that characterizes large-scale rotation of air masses. Since the atmospheric circulation is nearly horizontal, the (3 dimensional) vorticity is nearly vertical, and it is common to use the vertical component as a scalar vorticity. Mathematically, it is defined as, \vec \omega = \nabla \times \vec \mathit{u} where \vec \mathit{u} is the fluid velocity. The properties of vorticity in 2 and 3 dimensions are treated in some depth in George Batchelor's famous textbook (ch 5 & ch 7 et seq.). Of particular importance in practical situations is the intensification of vorticity which takes place in three dimensions when a vortex-line is extended (p270 et seq). Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Simulated on 01/08/2007 21:37:43 Watermelon! Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 12/08/2007 18:59:23 XANTHIUM (Cocklebur) The Cockleburs (Xanthium) are a genus of flowering plants in the family Asteraceae, native to the Americas and eastern Asia. They are coarse, herbaceous annual plants growing to 50-120 cm tall. The leaves are spirally arranged, with a deeply toothed margin. Some species, notably X. spinosum, are also very thorny with long, slender spines at the leaf bases. The flowers are of two types; One, in short terminal branches, produces only pollen. The other, in clusters in the axils of the leaves, produces seed. Unlike many other members of the family Asteraceae, whose seeds are airborne with a plume of silky hairs resembling miniature parachutes, cocklebur seeds are produced in a hard, spiny, globose or oval double-chambered, single-seeded bur 8-20 mm long. It is covered with stiff, hooked spines, which sticks to fur and clothing and can be quite difficult to extract. These remarkable burred seeds have allowed this plant to be carried all over the world by unsuspecting travelers. This plant reproduces only by means of its seed. Cockleburs are short-day plants, meaning they only initiate flowering when the days are getting shorter in the late summer and fall, typically from July to October in the northern hemisphere. They can also flower in the tropics where the daylength is constant. (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fupload.wikimedia.org%2Fwikipedia%2Fen%2Fthumb%2F9%2F94%2FXanthium_strumarium_L..jpg%2F412px-Xanthium_strumarium_L..jpg&hash=23665553c9b1fe3e294452c74ac46fa6) Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Karen W. on 12/08/2007 19:22:21 Yodeling http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yodeling Yodeling (or yodelling, jodeling) is a form of singing that involves singing an extended note which rapidly and repeatedly changes in pitch from the vocal chest register (or "chest voice") to the head register (or "head voice"), making a high-low-high-low sound. This vocal technique is used in many cultures throughout the world. In Swiss folk music, it was probably developed in the Swiss and Austrian Alps as a method of communication between mountain peaks, and it later became a part of the traditional music of the region. In Persian and Azeri classical music, singers frequently use tahrir, a yodeling technique that oscillates on neighbor tones. In Georgian traditional music, yodelling takes the form of krimanchuli technique. In Central Africa, Pygmy singers use yodels within their elaborate polyphonic singing. Yodeling is often used in American bluegrass and country music. Technique All human voices are considered to have at least two distinct vocal registers, called the "head" and "chest" voices, which result from different ways that the tone is produced. Most people can sing tones within a certain range of relatively lower pitch in their chest voices, and then a certain range of relatively higher pitch in their head voices. There is often a gap between these ranges, especially in inexperienced or untrained singers. Experienced singers, who can control their voices to the point where these ranges overlap, can easily switch between them to produce high-quality tones in either. Yodelling is a particular application of this technique, wherein a singer might switch between these registers several times in but a few seconds, at a high volume. Going back and forth over this "voice break" repeatedly produces a very distinctive type of sound. For example, in the famous example syllable "Yodl - Ay - EEE - Ooooo", the "EEE" is sung in the head voice, while all other syllables are in the chest voice. For examples please see Wiki Links! Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 15/08/2007 12:10:30 Zulu ...Last 'word' in our International Radio Operator Alphabet! http://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/index.php?topic=5250.msg48296 (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.africancraftsmarket.com%2FZulu-shield.jpg&hash=57823e32dead80a14179f3fdb8a78517) http://www.africancraftsmarket.com/Zulu-shield.jpg Alpha Bravo Charlie Delta Echo Fox Golf Hotel India Juliet Kilo Lima Mike November Oscar Papa Quebec Romeo Sierra Tango Uniform Victor Whiskey X-Ray Yankee Zulu http://www.electronicaviation.com/articles/General/281 Zand zow, zear zrendos zI zink zis zud ze zhe zend zof zit!!! [;D] Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 15/08/2007 18:19:44 Zzzzzzzzzzzzzzz.... (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.blork.org%2Fblog%2Fimyjiz3%2Fsleepy-mini.jpg&hash=c93b6205533ccad9b73166e52df4082c) http://www.blork.org/blog/imyjiz3/sleepy-mini.jpg Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 15/08/2007 19:01:02 WONDERFUL TO SEE IKO HERE....Friendus Wonderfulus ! Antimony (IPA: 'æntəməʊni) is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Sb (Latin: stibium, meaning "mark") and atomic number 51. A metalloid, antimony has four allotropic forms. The stable form of antimony is a blue-white metalloid. Yellow and black antimony are unstable non-metals. Antimony is used in flame-proofing, paints, ceramics, enamels, a wide variety of alloys, electronics, and rubber. (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.galleries.com%2Fminerals%2Fsulfides%2Fstibnite%2Fstibnite.jpg&hash=126fd79545a7b4083b5780b9f32a2230) Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 17/08/2007 16:01:20 Bauxite (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fupload.wikimedia.org%2Fwikipedia%2Fcommons%2Fthumb%2Fc%2Fcd%2FBauxite.jpg%2F250px-Bauxite.jpg&hash=4ecd05bbf5b81474b6e3959106e3faed) http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/cd/Bauxite.jpg/250px-Bauxite.jpg Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 17/08/2007 16:59:55 Coldest temperature recorded on Earth Cold in nature Antarctica is the coldest place on Earth, with the lowest natural temperature ever recorded on Earth of -89 °C (-129°F) having been recorded there in 1983 at the Russian Vostok Station. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Karen W. on 18/08/2007 06:16:38 Dreams Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: JimBob on 19/08/2007 22:14:08 Epigallocatechin gallate An antioxidant found in tea (or chi) Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Karen W. on 19/08/2007 22:33:35 HUH? Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 19/08/2007 22:56:44 Karen..Jimbob somehow had the size of the font set to 1. I corrected it. follicle,Hair A hair follicle is part of the skin that grows hair by packing old cells together. Attached to the follicle is a sebaceous gland, a tiny sebum-producing gland found everywhere except on the palms, lips and soles of the feet. The thicker density of hair, the more sebaceous glands are found. At the base of the follicle is a large structure that is called the papilla. The papilla is made up mainly of connective tissue and a capillary loop. Cell division in the papilla is either rare or non-existent. Around the papilla is the hair matrix, a collection of epithelial cells often interspersed with melanocytes. Cell division in the hair matrix is responsible for the cells that will form the major structures of the hair fibre and the inner root sheath. The hair matrix epithelium is one of the fastest growing cell populations in the human body, which is why some forms of chemotherapy that kill dividing cells or radiotherapy may lead to temporary hair loss, by their action on this rapidly dividing cell population. The papilla is usually ovoid or pear shaped with the matrix wrapped completely around it except for a short stalk-like connection to the surrounding connective tissue that provides access for the capillary. Also attached to the follicle is a tiny bundle of muscle fiber called the arrector pili that is responsible for causing the follicle and hair to become more perpendicular to the surface of the skin, and causing the follicle to protrude slightly above the surrounding skin. This process results in goose bumps (or goose flesh). Stem cells are located at the junction of the arrector and the follicle, and are principally responsible for the ongoing hair production during a process known as the Anagen stage. The average growth rate of hair follicles on the scalp is .04 cm per day. (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fupload.wikimedia.org%2Fwikipedia%2Fcommons%2F4%2F49%2FHairFollicle.png&hash=b512c96bc5de3aad6422c7dc2763eac4) Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 20/08/2007 20:14:41 Griseofulvin (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.biosite.dk%2Fleksikon%2Fimages%2Fgriseofulvin.gif&hash=ba95d92db29aa8d4b6dac3c0402f2dda) http://www.biosite.dk/leksikon/images/griseofulvin.gif Griseofulvin (also known as Grisovin) is an antifungal drug. It is used both in animals and in humans, to treat ringworm infections of the skin and nails. It is derived from the mold Penicillium griseofulvum. It is administered orally. ...more from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Griseofulvin Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 22/08/2007 19:54:42 Hallucination A hallucination is a sensory perception experienced in the absence of an external stimulus, as distinct from an illusion, which is a misperception of an external stimulus. Hallucinations may occur in any sensory modality—visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory, tactile, proprioceptive, equilibrioceptive, nociceptive, thermoceptive. Prevalence and types of hallucinatory experience Studies have now shown hallucinatory experiences take place across the population world wide. Previous studies, one as early as 1894[1], have reported that approximately 10% of the population experience hallucinations. A recent survey of over 9,000 people[2] reported a much higher figure with almost 39% of people reported hallucinatory experiences, 27% of which reported daytime hallucinations, mostly outside the context of illness or drug use. From this survey, olfactory (smell) and gustatory (taste) hallucinations seem the most common in the general population. Hypnagogic hallucinations and hypnopompic hallucinations are considered normal phenomena. Hypnagogic hallucinations can occur as one is falling asleep and hypnopompic hallucinations occur when one is waking up. Auditory hallucinations, particularly of one or more talking voices, are particularly associated with psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia, and hold special significance in diagnosing these conditions, although many people not suffering from diagnosable mental illness may sometimes hear voices as well.[3] The Hearing Voices Movement is a response to the Psychiatric interpretation of auditory hallucination. Other types of auditory hallucinations include musical hallucinations, where people will hear music playing in their mind, usually songs they are familiar with. This can be caused by lesions on the brain stem, occurring most often from strokes, but also tumors, sencephalitis, or abscesses.[4] Recent reports have also mentioned that it is possible to get musical hallucinations from listening to music for long periods of time.[1] Florid hallucinations are usually associated with drug use (particularly hallucinogenic drugs), sleep deprivation, psychosis or neurological illness. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Karen W. on 24/08/2007 14:01:30 id·i·o·blast a plant cell (as a sclereid) that differs markedly from neighboring cells a botanical term for an individual cell which is distinguished by its shape, size or contents, such as the stone-cells in the soft tissue of a pear. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 24/08/2007 14:05:28 Jute is a long, soft, shiny vegetable fibre that can be spun into coarse, strong threads. It is produced from plants in the genus Corchorus, family Malvaceae. Jute is one of the cheapest natural fibres and is second only to cotton in amount produced and variety of uses. Jute fibres are composed primarily of the plant materials cellulose (major component of plant fibre) and lignin (major components wood fibre). It is thus a ligno-cellulosic fibre that is partially a textile fibre and partially wood. It falls into the bast fibre category (fibre collected from bast or skin of the plant) along with kenaf, industrial hemp, flax (linen), ramie, etc. The industrial term for jute fibre is raw jute. The fibres are off-white to brown, and 1–4 meters (3–12 feet) long. Jute fibre is often called hessian; jute fabrics are also called hessian cloth and jute sacks are called gunny bags in some European countries. The fabric made from jute is popularly known as burlap in North America. (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fupload.wikimedia.org%2Fwikipedia%2Fen%2Fb%2Fb3%2FTossa-n-white.gif&hash=b00224756cb21734c93bdfd22894f3fd) Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 25/08/2007 20:08:50 Kevlar (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.designdictionary.co.uk%2Fimages%2Fcover%2Fkevlar.jpg&hash=70b455c2d13957c753d33f8875df4860)(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.crystalmobilesound.com%2Fimages%2FKevlar.jpg&hash=ddca0eeb2123754300a604227c119f30) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fimg.search.com%2F4%2F49%2FKevlar.JPG&hash=4524bc59c3b04e4db2be5972c3fd06c6) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.sciencebase.com%2Fimages%2Fkevlar.jpg&hash=a2d63e3fb67b7e7a9f82ca42c3573516) http://www.designdictionary.co.uk/images/cover/kevlar.jpg http://img.search.com/4/49/Kevlar.JPG http://www.crystalmobilesound.com/images/Kevlar.jpg http://www.sciencebase.com/images/kevlar.jpg Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 31/08/2007 17:28:14 Lake A lake (from Latin lacus) is a body of water or other liquid of considerable size contained on a body of land. A vast majority of lakes on Earth are fresh water, and most lie in the Northern Hemisphere at higher latitudes. In ecology the environment of a lake is referred to as lacustrine. Large lakes are occasionally referred to as "inland seas" and small seas are occasionally referred to as lakes. Smaller lakes tend to put the word "lake" after the name, as in Green Lake, while larger lakes often invert the word order, as in Lake Ontario, at least in North America. In some places, the word "lake" does not correctly appear in the name at all (eg Windermere in Cumbria). Most lakes have a natural outflow in the form of a river or stream, but some do not, and lose water solely by evaporation and/or underground seepage. They are termed endorheic lakes (see below). The term lake is also used to describe a feature such as Lake Eyre, which is a dry basin most of the time but may become filled under seasonal conditions of heavy rainfall. Many lakes are artificial and are constructed for hydro-electric power supply, recreational purposes, industrial use, agricultural use, or domestic water supply. Evidence of extra-terrestrial lakes exists; "definitive evidence of lakes filled with methane" was announced by NASA as returned by the Cassini Probe observing the moon Titan, which orbits the planet Saturn. [ Invalid Attachment ] A Lake !! Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 31/08/2007 21:17:30 Lake A lake (from Latin lacus) is a body of water or other liquid of considerable size contained on a body of land. A vast majority of lakes on Earth are fresh water, and most lie in the Northern Hemisphere at higher latitudes. In ecology the environment of a lake is referred to as lacustrine. Large lakes are occasionally referred to as "inland seas" and small seas are occasionally referred to as lakes. Smaller lakes tend to put the word "lake" after the name, as in Green Lake, while larger lakes often invert the word order, as in Lake Ontario, at least in North America. In some places, the word "lake" does not correctly appear in the name at all (eg Windermere in Cumbria). Most lakes have a natural outflow in the form of a river or stream, but some do not, and lose water solely by evaporation and/or underground seepage. They are termed endorheic lakes (see below). The term lake is also used to describe a feature such as Lake Eyre, which is a dry basin most of the time but may become filled under seasonal conditions of heavy rainfall. Many lakes are artificial and are constructed for hydro-electric power supply, recreational purposes, industrial use, agricultural use, or domestic water supply. Evidence of extra-terrestrial lakes exists; "definitive evidence of lakes filled with methane" was announced by NASA as returned by the Cassini Probe observing the moon Titan, which orbits the planet Saturn. [ Invalid Attachment ] A Lake !! Your 'lake' looks much more like a Pond to me... [;D] (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.jmbamboo.com%2Fimages%2Fpond.jpg&hash=84ea5dc6cc60a60d1bcf0a03aa69ed01) http://www.jmbamboo.com/images/pond.jpg Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Karen W. on 04/09/2007 22:14:28 Lake A lake (from Latin lacus) is a body of water or other liquid of considerable size contained on a body of land. A vast majority of lakes on Earth are fresh water, and most lie in the Northern Hemisphere at higher latitudes. In ecology the environment of a lake is referred to as lacustrine. Large lakes are occasionally referred to as "inland seas" and small seas are occasionally referred to as lakes. Smaller lakes tend to put the word "lake" after the name, as in Green Lake, while larger lakes often invert the word order, as in Lake Ontario, at least in North America. In some places, the word "lake" does not correctly appear in the name at all (eg Windermere in Cumbria). Most lakes have a natural outflow in the form of a river or stream, but some do not, and lose water solely by evaporation and/or underground seepage. They are termed endorheic lakes (see below). The term lake is also used to describe a feature such as Lake Eyre, which is a dry basin most of the time but may become filled under seasonal conditions of heavy rainfall. Many lakes are artificial and are constructed for hydro-electric power supply, recreational purposes, industrial use, agricultural use, or domestic water supply. Evidence of extra-terrestrial lakes exists; "definitive evidence of lakes filled with methane" was announced by NASA as returned by the Cassini Probe observing the moon Titan, which orbits the planet Saturn. [ Invalid Attachment ] A Lake !! Now this is a lake.. Crater Lake.. See the intensity of the deep blue water so blue you think it had to be the sky or a dream!! "mountains" Volcanic Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 10/09/2007 22:02:44 I am ' C ' for confused about what letter we're on ! gonna go with 'M' Mitosis is the process in which a cell duplicates its chromosomes to generate two identical cells. It is generally followed by cytokinesis which divides the cytoplasm and cell membrane. This results in two identical cells with an equal distribution of organelles and other cellular components. Mitosis and cytokinesis jointly define the mitotic (M) phase of the cell cycle, the division of the mother cell into two sister cells, each with the genetic equivalent of the parent cell. Mitosis occurs most often in eukaryotic cells. In multicellular organisms, the somatic cells undergo mitosis, while germ cells — cells destined to become sperm in males or ova in females — divide by a related process called meiosis. Prokaryotic cells, which lack a nucleus, divide by a process called binary fission. (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fupload.wikimedia.org%2Fwikipedia%2Fcommons%2Fthumb%2Fe%2Fe0%2FMajor_events_in_mitosis.svg%2F350px-Major_events_in_mitosis.svg.png&hash=82cf3e66ae151189f5196ca8b6b84cf9) Mitosis divides genetic information during cell division. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 17/09/2007 22:55:03 Niels Bohr Niels (Henrik David) Bohr [nels ˈb̥oɐ̯ˀ] (October 7, 1885 – November 18, 1962) was a Danish physicist who made fundamental contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum mechanics, for which he received the Nobel Prize in 1922. He was also part of the team of physicists working on the Manhattan Project. Bohr married Margrethe Nørlund in 1912, and one of their sons Aage Niels Bohr grew up to be an important physicist, who like his father received the Nobel prize. (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fupload.wikimedia.org%2Fwikipedia%2Fcommons%2F6%2F6d%2FNiels_Bohr.jpg&hash=810e1ca57a21e67c86d46844a8cbc989) Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Karen W. on 17/09/2007 23:13:09 OXYGEN ( LOL LOL!) Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 23/09/2007 07:48:16 Pitot tube (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.1800skyride.com%2Fglobal%2Fimages%2Fim_glider2.jpg&hash=18702afd532f03001a52e1734b9b93d9) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fbillpentz.com%2Fwoodworking%2Fcyclone%2Fmeasurement%2FPitotOperation.gif&hash=18ced7103446a24ca29fba97733333ae) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fimages.shipstore.com%2Fss%2Fimages%2Ftel%2Ftel56929p.jpg&hash=43114a6f808479964ae8b0871584c87b) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.grc.nasa.gov%2FWWW%2FK-12%2Fairplane%2FImages%2Fpitot.gif&hash=f6a1a5d9ac67abb28e472410a32d7d42) http://www.1800skyride.com/global/images/im_glider2.jpg http://billpentz.com/woodworking/cyclone/measurement/PitotOperation.gif http://images.shipstore.com/ss/images/tel/tel56929p.jpg http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K-12/airplane/Images/pitot.gif Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: jokky3 on 25/09/2007 12:48:02 quadruple order Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 25/09/2007 13:30:06 Richard Buckminster “Bucky” Fuller (July 12, 1895 – July 1, 1983)[1] was an American visionary, designer, architect, poet, author, and inventor. Throughout his life, Fuller was concerned with the question "Does humanity have a chance to survive lastingly and successfully on planet Earth, and if so, how?" Considering himself an average individual without special monetary means or academic degree[2], he chose to devote his life to this question, trying to find out what an individual like him could do to improve humanity's condition that large organizations, governments, or private enterprises inherently could not do. Pursuing this lifelong experiment, Fuller wrote more than thirty books, coining and popularizing terms such as "spaceship earth", ephemeralization, and synergetics. He also worked in the development of numerous inventions, chiefly in the fields of design and architecture, the best known of which is the geodesic dome. Carbon molecules known as fullerenes or buckyballs were named for their resemblance to a geodesic sphere. Late in his life, after working on his concepts for several decades, Fuller had achieved considerable public visibility. He traveled the world giving lectures, and received numerous honorary doctorates. Most of his inventions, however, never made it into production, and he was strongly criticized in most fields he tried to influence such as architecture, or simply dismissed as a hopeless utopian. Fuller's proponents, on the other hand, claim that his work has not yet received the attention that it deserves. According to philosopher N.J.Slabbert, Fuller has an obscure writing style which has impeded the circulation of his ideas.[3] [ Invalid Attachment ] Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 25/09/2007 21:28:34 Silent blocks and Seals (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.innovarubbers.com%2Finnova%2520home%2520prod.jpg&hash=e39cf90708b515bed28d0d95fb0f230b) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fhome.vicnet.net.au%2F%7Eneils%2Fafrica%2Fimages%2Fanimals%2Fseals3.jpg&hash=cd6186ba7f35f6d418eda6b388b73c99) http://www.innovarubbers.com/innova%20home%20prod.jpg http://home.vicnet.net.au/~neils/africa/images/animals/seals3.jpg Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 02/10/2007 02:16:57 T cells belong to a group of white blood cells known as lymphocytes and play a central role in cell-mediated immunity. They can be distinguished from other lymphocyte types, such as B cells and NK cells by the presence of a special receptor on their cell surface that is called the T cell receptor (TCR). The abbreviation "T", in T cell, stands for thymus since it is the principal organ for their development. [ Invalid Attachment ] A T-cell (orange) killing a cancer cell (mauve). Dr Andrejs Liepins/Science Photo Library Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Karen W. on 02/10/2007 02:36:46 Stem Cells Stem cell From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Stem cells are primal cells found in all multi-cellular organisms. They retain the ability to renew themselves through mitotic cell division and can differentiate into a diverse range of specialized cell types. Research in the human stem cell field grew out of findings by Canadian scientists Ernest A. McCulloch and James E. Till in the 1960s.[1][2] (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi17.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fb73%2Fkarenw44%2FMouse_embryonic_stem_cells.jpg&hash=a03b573b1e918fefd66ef06560aba7b9) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi17.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fb73%2Fkarenw44%2F687px-Human_embryonic_stem_cell_col.jpg&hash=c95fe2361a4a5a9e31e800695183796a) Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Alandriel on 06/10/2007 22:08:12 U - Udometer fancy name for a simple rain gauge (from lat. udus = wet, moist) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww1.istockphoto.com%2Ffile_thumbview_approve%2F107622%2F2%2Fistockphoto_107622_rain_gauge_plastic.jpg&hash=9aaf12bfa034fe9f361e49d117e14020) Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 07/10/2007 17:54:19 Vanadium (IPA: /vəˈneɪdiəm/) is a chemical element that has the symbol V and atomic number 23. A rare, soft and ductile element, vanadium naturally occurs in certain minerals and is used mainly to produce certain alloys. It is one of the 26 elements found in most living organisms. Notable characteristics Vanadium is a soft and ductile, silver-grey metal. It has good resistance to corrosion by alkalis, sulfuric and hydrochloric acid. It oxidizes readily at about 933 K (660 C). Vanadium has good structural strength and a low fission neutron cross section, making it useful in nuclear applications. Although a metal, it shares with chromium and manganese the property of having valency oxides with acid properties. [ Invalid Attachment ] Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Quantum_Vaccuum on 07/10/2007 19:19:09 Wave lengths AND Wolfram aka Tungsten it is the element with the highest melting point of any metal, it is used in filaments of ordinary light bulbs. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Karen W. on 07/10/2007 19:23:13 WHEEL From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wheel The force bearing on the axle has an eccentricity e with the point of contact to the rolling surface and exerts a moment about the contact point. The force bearing on the axle has an eccentricity e with the point of contact to the rolling surface and exerts a moment about the contact point. A wheel is a circular device capable of rotating on its axis, facilitating movement or transportation or performing labor in machines. A wheel together with an axle overcomes friction by facilitating motion by rolling. Common examples are found in transport applications. More generally the term is also used for other circular objects that rotate or turn, such as a Ship's wheel and flywheel. http://i17.photobucket.com/albums/b73/karenw44/180px-Wheel_basicssvg.png Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Karen W. on 07/10/2007 19:24:04 whoops ! LOL Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Quantum_Vaccuum on 07/10/2007 19:43:36 lol, were on X chromosone? Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 07/10/2007 19:57:24 After X Chromosone has to come: The Y chromosome is the sex-determining chromosome in humans and most other mammals. In mammals, it contains the gene SRY, which triggers testis development, thus determining sex. Most mammals have one pair of sex chromosomes in each cell. Males have one Y chromosome and one X chromosome, while females have two X chromosomes. In mammals, the Y chromosome contains the gene that triggers embryonic development as a male. This gene is SRY. Other genes (in addition to SRY) on the Y chromosomes of men and other mammals are needed for normal sperm production. There are exceptions, however. Among humans, some men have two X's and a Y ("XXY", see Klinefelter's syndrome), or one X and two Y's (see XYY syndrome), and some women have three Xs or a single X (and no Y, "X0", see Turner syndrome). There are other exceptions in which SRY is damaged (leading to an XY female), or copied to the X (leading to an XX male). For related phenomena see Androgen insensitivity syndrome and Intersex. Presence or absence of the Y-chromosome is a method of sex determination. [ Invalid Attachment ] [ Invalid Attachment ] Spermy wermy carrying Y Chromosone ! Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Karen W. on 07/10/2007 20:17:41 ZIPPER A device used to close a mans/womens clothing/ trousers//! It is also helpful in the deterrence of sending those happy little chromosomes happily on their merry way to conquer and divide the defenceless egg that awaits fertilization...LOL sorry couldn't help it! Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: DoctorBeaver on 07/10/2007 20:25:53 Zyzygy Used by the psychologist Karl Jung to describe the "yoking together" of archetypal symbolic pairings. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Quantum_Vaccuum on 08/10/2007 03:49:14 I WANT TO START IT AGAIN! ALPHA...BETA.GAMA... Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Karen W. on 08/10/2007 07:49:31 Biology Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Alandriel on 08/10/2007 14:40:59 Cafe - au - lait spots Cafe au lait spots are light brown pigmented areas on the skin; although a clinical sign found associated with some diseases, its is mostly a normal condition. [;D] Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 08/10/2007 19:25:30 Jean le Rond d’Alembert Jean le Rond d’Alembert (1717-1783), French mathematician, philosopher, and Encyclopedist. Born in Paris, he was the illegitimate son of the French writer Claudine Guérin de Tencin and was left as an infant on the steps of the Chapel of Saint Jean le Rond, from which he received his name. He was educated at the Collège Mazarin, where he excelled in mathematics, physics, and astronomy. At the age of 22 he wrote his first published work, Mémoire sur le calcul intégral (Report on Integral Calculus, 1739). His most important scientific work, Traité de dynamique (Treatise on Dynamics, 1743), which marks an epoch in the science of mechanics, is based on the theory known as d'Alembert's principle, discovered by him at the age of 26 and expressed in the proposition: The resultant of the forces impressed upon a system is equivalent to the effective force of the entire system. His Réflexions sur la cause générale des vents (Reflections on the General Cause of Winds, 1746) contains the first conception of the calculus of partial differential equations. In 1749 he proposed the first analytical solution of the precession of the equinoxes. In 1751 he became associated with the French Encyclopedist Denis Diderot in editing the great French Encyclopédie. Although he withdrew from the editorship in 1758 because of government interference with the publication, d'Alembert continued to contribute articles on science and philosophy. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Quantum_Vaccuum on 09/10/2007 01:22:34 Einsteinium Wikipedia: Quote Einsteinium (IPA: /ˌʌɪnˈstʌɪniəm/) is a synthetic element in the periodic table that has the symbol Es and atomic number 99. A metallic and highly radioactive transuranic element (7th in the series) in the actinides, einsteinium is produced by bombarding plutonium with neutrons and was discovered in the debris of the first hydrogen bomb test. It was named after Albert Einstein and has no known uses. Tracer studies using the isotope 253Es show that einsteinium has chemical properties typical of a heavy trivalent, actinide element. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 09/10/2007 18:22:17 Flutter testing (aircraft) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.sti.nasa.gov%2Ftto%2Fspinoff1997%2Fimages%2F61.jpg&hash=86e3f140c1a43dbfb6e3e11e3afffd5b) http://www.sti.nasa.gov/tto/spinoff1997/images/61.jpg more from NASA: http://www.sti.nasa.gov/tto/spinoff1997/t8.html (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.grc.nasa.gov%2FWWW%2F5810%2Frvc%2Ftcgrid%2Fpwf_x.jpg&hash=d88b1e93b1b045fecf0fafa25fd8b4a2) http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/5810/rvc/tcgrid/pwf_x.jpg Multiblock grid, NASA transonic flutter cascade http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/5810/rvc/tcgrid.htm What is Flutter? Flutter is the rapid and self-excited vibration of wings, tail surfaces and other aircraft parts that can damage or destroy an aircraft component. It is caused by the flow of air across the surface of the structure. Effectively, the aerodynamic forces couple with the structural bending and twisting to result in the destructive vibration. Flight flutter testing is the process of determining a flight envelope within which an aircraft is safe to operate. Traditional approaches for flight flutter testing do not accurately predict the onset of instability so this testing is a very time-consuming and expensive process. http://www.dfrc.nasa.gov/Newsroom/X-Press/stories/083101/res_atw.html Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: DoctorBeaver on 11/10/2007 09:31:27 Georgi-Glashow Theory Of Everything named after the 2 scientists who proposed it. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Alandriel on 11/10/2007 19:53:59 Hypostome (tick) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.placervillevet.com%2Fimages%2FHypostome.gif&hash=194405ebf19d20edf5dbedb0d4b13e89) A hypostome (also called the maxilla, radula, labium or Unterkiefer), is a calcified harpoon-like structure near the mouth area of certain parasitic arthropods including ticks, that allows them to anchor themselves firmly in place on a host mammal while sucking blood. This mechanism is normally so strong that removal of a lodged tick requires two actions: One to remove the tick, and one to remove the remaining head section of the tick. ... that's why the pests are so tricky to pry off...... [::)] Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 12/10/2007 17:07:45 Icarus (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fmonroelab.net%2Fblog%2Fwp-content%2Fuploads%2F2006%2F03%2FDaedalus-and-icarus.jpg&hash=d4fd688f3edecebb0b0020a7a1421dbf) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fzuserver2.star.ucl.ac.uk%2F%7Eapod%2Fapod%2Fimage%2F9808%2Ferast_pplus.jpg&hash=b727f6f8ece5bc1fc3dd03322fd158c0) http://monroelab.net/blog/wp-content/uploads/2006/03/Daedalus-and-icarus.jpg http://zuserver2.star.ucl.ac.uk/~apod/apod/image/9808/erast_pplus.jpg ...more from: http://zuserver2.star.ucl.ac.uk/~apod/apod/ap980812.html August 12, 1998 ERAST Pathfinder-Plus: Daedalus Defied Explanation: Daedalus warned Icarus that if he flew too high, the Sun would melt his wings. Apparently, nobody gave the ERAST Pathfinder-Plus aircraft a similar warning. Earlier this month, not only did Pathfinder-Plus fly higher than any previous propeller-driven aircraft - its wings converted sunlight into power. Pictured, Pathfinder-Plus is flying above Hawaii soon after soaring to a record height of 24,700 metres. What's more, Pathfinder-Plus is only a prototype -- future aircraft in the ERAST program may fly higher. Pathfinder's wings spread nearly 30 metres, and its total mass is only about 270 kilograms. NASA's Pathfinder-Plus is flown by remote control, and can stay aloft for weeks at a time. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: DoctorBeaver on 12/10/2007 17:31:25 Jousting (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi148.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fs26%2FDoctorBeaver%2Fjoust.jpg&hash=06f00f34d41c10c525a67f6d1ca189f0) Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 12/10/2007 19:20:24 Potassium, symbol K (from Latin kalium, “alkali”), chemically reactive, extremely soft metallic element. In group 1 (or Ia) of the periodic table (see Periodic Law), potassium is one of the alkali metals. The atomic number of potassium is 19. Potassium was discovered and named in 1807 by the British chemist Sir Humphry Davy. The element’s name comes from potash, a potassium compound originally obtained by soaking wood ash in a pot of water and allowing the water to evaporate. The metal is silvery white and can be cut with a knife. It has a hardness of 0.5. Potassium exists in three natural isotopic forms, with mass numbers 39, 40, and 41. Potassium-40 is radioactive and has a half-life of 1.26 billion years. The most abundant isotope is potassium-39. Several radioactive isotopes have been artificially prepared. Potassium melts at about 63°C (about 145°F), boils at about 760°C (about 1400°F), and has a specific gravity of 0.86; the atomic weight of potassium is 39.098. Potassium metal is prepared by the electrolysis of fused potassium hydroxide or of a mixture of potassium chloride and potassium fluoride. The metal oxidizes as soon as it is exposed to air and reacts violently with water, yielding potassium hydroxide and hydrogen gas. Because hydrogen gas produced in the reaction with water burns spontaneously, potassium is always stored under a liquid such as kerosene, with which it does not react. Potassium is found in nature in large quantities, ranking eighth in order of abundance of the elements in Earth’s crust, in various minerals such as carnallite, feldspar, saltpeter, greensand, and sylvite. Potassium is a constituent of all plant and animal tissue as well as a vital constituent of fertile soil. [ Invalid Attachment ] Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 12/10/2007 22:16:55 Landing (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fupload.wikimedia.org%2Fwikipedia%2Fcommons%2F2%2F2b%2F1er_vol_de_l%26%23039%3B_A380.jpg&hash=37e7c6076d6bc8f1f79994d0b431e384) http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2b/1er_vol_de_l'_A380.jpg Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Alandriel on 18/10/2007 13:25:59 M - Milky Way (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.naturespeak.com.au%2Fimages%2Fmainviewingimages%2FMilkyWayWS.jpg&hash=0b05d27a6978c531d19da96a2b710437) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fstore.wspisp.net%2Fstores%2Fcelticbrands%2Fcatalog%2FMR03TN.jpg&hash=58c62a703f7572705acc99c0422acb98) [;D] Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: DoctorBeaver on 18/10/2007 13:42:12 Nanobot In an attempt to rebuild Lister's arm, the crew devise a plan with Kryten's nanobots, small robots that carry out repair work inside him. The only problem is that his nanobots deserted him years ago - hunting them down, the crew learn that those same nanobots reduced Red Dwarf to nanoscopic proportions, and hid it inside Starbug. Finally, the crew manage to reform Lister and Red Dwarf... Or do they? Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 19/10/2007 21:55:49 Overrun (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.atsb.gov.au%2Fpublications%2Finvestigation_reports%2F2005%2FAAIR%2Fimages%2Faair200503586_001.jpg&hash=1a27f63dc591837c70641f768e2f300a) http://www.atsb.gov.au/publications/investigation_reports/2005/AAIR/images/aair200503586_001.jpg http://www.atsb.gov.au/publications/investigation_reports/2005/AAIR/aair200503586.aspx On 25 July 2005, at about 1835 Eastern Standard Time, a Piper Aircraft Corporation PA-31-350 (Chieftain) aircraft, registered VH-PRJ, overran runway 27 at Nhill aerodrome following a rejected night takeoff. The aircraft was being operated on an instrument flight rules charter flight to Charlton, Vic, with the pilot and three passengers on board. The pilot and passengers sustained injuries during the overrun and the aircraft was substantially damaged. The pilot stated that the take-off roll was from a rolling start with power being slowly applied until engine turbo-charger output stabilised. At about 90 kts indicated air speed, the pilot attempted to rotate the aircraft but encountered resistance to rearward movement of the control column. He decided to reject the takeoff because the aircraft speed at the time was below his nominated decision speed of 100 kts. The pilot reported that he then reduced the engine power to idle and applied maximum braking. A subsequent inspection of the aircraft revealed that there were no pre-existing defects in the elevator control system and elevator trim system or evidence of interference with the elevator surfaces. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 19/10/2007 22:54:25 Panic attack Panic attacks are sudden, discrete periods of intense anxiety, fear and discomfort that are associated with a variety of somatic and cognitive symptoms[1]. The onset of these episodes is typically abrupt, and may have no obvious trigger. Although these episodes may appear random, they are considered to be a subset of an evolutionary response commonly referred to as fight or flight that occur out of context, flooding the body with hormones (particularly adrenalin) that aid in defending itself from harm. [2] According to the American Psychological Association the symptoms of a panic attack commonly last approximately ten minutes. However, panic attacks can be as short as 1-5 minutes, while more severe panic attacks may form a cyclic series of episodes, lasting for an extended period, sometimes hours. Often those afflicted will experience significant anticipatory anxiety in between attacks and in situations where attacks have previously occurred. Panic attacks also affect people differently. Experienced sufferers may be able to completely 'ride out' a panic attack with little to no obvious symptoms. Others, notably first time sufferers, may even call for emergency services; many who experience a panic attack for the first time fear they are having a heart attack or a nervous breakdown.(Wilson 1996) I Just has a Panic attack...for some reason I posted an article with the letter 's' after Ikos 'O' !!..now why on earth did I do that ? Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Karen W. on 19/10/2007 22:58:23 Qwerty http://cscs.umich.edu/~crshalizi/notebooks/qwerty.html "Look at the first line of letters on your keyboard: QWERTYUIOP. There's no real reason why just those letters should be sitting there in just that order: except that one of the early sorts of type-writers had that order, and became more popular than its competitors, and so fixed the pattern more or less permanently.QWERTY has become a general name for such "lock-ins" in technology and economics, also known as "path-dependence" (a mangled bit of physics jargon). It is held to result from "switching costs". These take two forms." [size=07pt](Why did you have a panic attack? You need to relax)[/size] Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Karen W. on 20/10/2007 00:05:55 Resting EKG http://www.webmd.com/heart-disease/guide/electrocardiogram-specialized-ekgs This is how it works! During the procedure, a technician will attach 10 electrodes with adhesive pads to the skin of your chest, arms and legs. Men may have chest hair shaved to allow a better connection. You will lie flat while the computer creates a picture, on graph paper, of the electrical impulses traveling through your heart. This is called a "resting" EKG. This same test may also be used to monitor your heart during exercise. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 20/10/2007 09:26:16 Surfing ...a wave in the sky! (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.williamolive.com%2Fsoliton%2FPK%2520on%2520roll%2520cloud.jpg&hash=43370fc5944490a0af0bcd0a8cda1164) http://www.williamolive.com/soliton/PK%20on%20roll%20cloud.jpg http://del.icio.us/OberstSpanner/hangglider Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: DoctorBeaver on 20/10/2007 09:31:55 Tea! (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi148.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fs26%2FDoctorBeaver%2Ftea_pic.png&hash=ab08a7f3c89cf6685502cff084dd1e1c) Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 20/10/2007 10:21:49 Ultralight aircraft (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fsoundwaves.usgs.gov%2F2005%2F02%2FcraneflightLG.jpg&hash=92d281603c7716aa246117747bffc6ef) http://soundwaves.usgs.gov/2005/02/craneflightLG.jpg Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 20/10/2007 15:31:38 V-chip V-chip is a generic term used for television receivers allowing the blocking of programs based on their ratings category. It is intended for use by parents to manage their children's television viewing. Most 13-inch and larger televisions manufactured for the United States market since 1999 and all units as of January 2000 are required to have the V-chip technology. Many devices similar to the V-chip have been produced. The rated programs' signals are encoded according to the rating, on line 21 of the broadcast signal's vertical blanking interval using the XDS protocol, and this is detected by the television set's V-chip. If the program's rating is outside the level configured as acceptable on that particular television, the program is blocked. The V-chip technology was developed by Tim Collings of Simon Fraser University. The V-chip has a 4 digit numerical password in order to keep older children from changing its settings. However, it can be overridden by savvier youth who read the television's manual to find out how to reset the password to 0000 (built into the V-chip in case the parents themselves forget the password that they set). The name V-chip is widely believed to come from the word "violence," but an interview with Tim Collings reveals that it was intended to stand for "viewer control."[ Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 20/10/2007 16:55:11 Winglets (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.geier-segelflug.de%2Fimages%2Findex_01.gif&hash=4b4c8c471c7b2a1d3af70c12f96c7fbd)(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.geier-segelflug.de%2Fimages%2Faero_09_th.jpg&hash=3ba1addfc38dc24d4233828ba276a8ca)(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.boeing.com%2Fcompanyoffices%2Fgallery%2Fimages%2Fcommercial%2F737700_k62995.jpg&hash=6d748f4eac9cd34f3e623e75b06d3680) http://www.geier-segelflug.de/images/index_01.gif http://www.geier-segelflug.de/images/aero_09_th.jpg http://www.boeing.com/companyoffices/gallery/images/commercial/737700_k62995.jpg ...why winglets? http://www.mandhsoaring.com/winglets.html Wingtip devices are usually intended to improve the efficiency of fixed-wing aircraft.[1] There are several types of devices, and though they function in different manners, the intended aerodynamic effect is to modify the aircraft's wake in some beneficial manner. Wingtip devices can also improve aircraft handling characteristics. From a marketing standpoint, they are also valued for their aesthetic appeal, and aircraft have been equipped with them for cosmetic reasons as well. Such devices increase the effective aspect ratio of a wing, with less added wingspan. An extension of span would lower lift-induced drag, but would increase parasitic drag, and would require boosting the strength and weight of the wing. At some point there is no net benefit from further increased span. There may also be operational considerations that limit the allowable wingspan. Despite all the research, no references exists that conclude the winglet performs as well as or better than simply extending the wing.[citation needed] The wingtip devices increase the lift generated at the wingtip, and reduce the lift-induced drag caused by wingtip vortices, improving lift-to-drag ratio. This increases fuel efficiency in powered aircraft, and cross-country speed in gliders, in both cases increasing range. more from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wingtip_device Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 20/10/2007 16:59:56 X-plane (aircraft) [ Invalid Attachment ] [ Invalid Attachment ] The X-planes are a series of experimental United States aircraft (and some rockets) used for testing of new technologies and usually kept highly secret during development. The first of these, the Bell X-1, became well-known as the first plane to break the sound barrier, which it did in 1947. Later X-planes yielded important research results, but only the North American X-15 rocket plane of the early 1960s achieved comparable fame. X-planes 7 through 12 were actually missiles, and some other vehicles were unpiloted. Most X-planes are not expected to ever go into full-scale production, and usually only a few are produced. One exception is the Lockheed Martin X-35, which competed against the Boeing X-32 to become the Joint Strike Fighter. As of 2006, new X-plane projects are still underway. The designation X-52 was skipped to avoid potential confusion with the operational B-52 Stratofortress strategic bomber. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 20/10/2007 17:20:19 York, Avro (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.demobbed.org.uk%2Fimages%2Fts798.jpg&hash=6fc23e1604b93ea6f93c51f43839acbc) York C.1, Cosford http://www.demobbed.org.uk/images/ts798.jpg http://www.britishaircraft.co.uk/aircraftpage.php?ID=3 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avro_York Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Alandriel on 25/10/2007 16:30:30 ZULU • Zulu timeis that which is more commonly know as "GMT" (Greenwich Mean Time). Our natural concept of time is linked to the rotation of the earth and we define the length of the day as the 24 hours it takes (on average) the earth to spin once on its axis. As time pieces became more accurate and communication became global, there needed to be a point from which all other world times were based. Since Great Britain was the world's foremost maritime power when the concept of latitude and longitude came to be, the starting point for designating longitude was the "prime meridian" which is zero degrees and runs through the Royal Greenwich Observatory, in Greenwich, England. When the concept of time zones was introduced, the "starting" point for calculating the different time zones was agreed to be the Royal Greenwich Observatory. (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.great-britain.co.uk%2Fworld-heritage%2Fgreenwich%2Fgreenwich-observatory.jpg&hash=7d3f235b061ee9276053c46298fed782) Unfortunately the Earth does not rotate at exactly a constant rate. Due to various scientific reasons and increased accuracy (high-precision atomic time standard) in measuring the earth's rotation, a new timescale, called Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), has been adopted and replaces the term GMT • an important South African ethnic group; originally a minor clan in what is today Northern KwaZulu-Natal, founded ca. 1709 by Zulu kaNtombhela. In the Zulu language, Zulu means heaven, or sky (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.africancraftsmarket.com%2FZulu-shield.jpg&hash=57823e32dead80a14179f3fdb8a78517) • the language of the Zulu people is Zulu or isiZulu, a Bantu language (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.language-museum.com%2Fz%2Fzulu.gif&hash=6c9edcd57e0597da09a74aec56d8cfa0) Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 25/10/2007 16:41:04 Alandriel New bright happy welcome member of the TNS family !! [;)] [;)] Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 25/10/2007 16:43:29 Ångström An ångström or angstrom (symbol Å) (IPA pronunciation: [ˈæŋstrəm] or [ˈɔŋstrəm]; Swedish: [ˈɔ̀ŋstrœm]) is a non-SI unit of length that is internationally recognized, equal to 0.1 nanometre (nm). It can be written in scientific notations as 1×10−10 m (normalized notation) or 1 E-10 m (exponential notation) — both meaning 1/10,000,000,000 metres. It is sometimes used in expressing the sizes of atoms, lengths of chemical bonds and visible-light spectra, and dimensions of parts of integrated circuits. It is commonly applied in structural biology. It is named after Anders Jonas Ångström. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Alandriel on 25/10/2007 17:41:14 badinage The badinerie or badinage is a brief and lively dance. It takes its name from the French badiner (to jest). The term arose during the 18th century when the badinerie was first included as a movement in the Baroque suite. Johann Sebastian Bach's (1685-1750) badinerie from his Orchestral Suite No. 2 in B minor for flute and strings, BWV 1067, is perhaps the best-known example. Badinage can also refer to playful repartee, or banter. [;)] [;D] Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 25/10/2007 22:22:45 Alandriel, you should check the list, Zulu had been cited much before !!! [:D] Zulu ...Last 'word' in our International Radio Operator Alphabet! http://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/index.php?topic=5250.msg48296 (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.africancraftsmarket.com%2FZulu-shield.jpg&hash=57823e32dead80a14179f3fdb8a78517) http://www.africancraftsmarket.com/Zulu-shield.jpg Alpha Bravo Charlie Delta Echo Fox Golf Hotel India Juliet Kilo Lima Mike November Oscar Papa Quebec Romeo Sierra Tango Uniform Victor Whiskey X-Ray Yankee Zulu http://www.electronicaviation.com/articles/General/281 Zand zow, zear zrendos zI zink zis zud ze zhe zend zof zit!!! [;D] Catapult (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fblog.modernmechanix.com%2Fmags%2Fqf%2Fc%2FPopularScience%2F11-1939%2Fxlg_man_catapult.jpg&hash=0758e57a93535a4fd49fcef7693b3f6e) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fcontent.answers.com%2Fmain%2Fcontent%2Fwp%2Fen%2Fthumb%2F1%2F1a%2F300px-F18-on_catapult.jpg&hash=412ae1448399d382bf50205ab1a485d9) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fstatic.howstuffworks.com%2Fgif%2Faircraft-carrier-42.jpg&hash=da0719f88de59deebaa50e751a20290b) http://blog.modernmechanix.com/mags/qf/c/PopularScience/11-1939/xlg_man_catapult.jpg http://content.answers.com/main/content/wp/en/thumb/1/1a/300px-F18-on_catapult.jpg http://static.howstuffworks.com/gif/aircraft-carrier-42.jpg Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Alandriel on 03/11/2007 22:02:17 Iko - I'm too lazy to check the whole thread (34 pages!) besides, it's kinda difficult to find good Z material - You and I obviously have excellent tastes [;D] someone should make an index in the first post.. [;D] [;D] D - DOG DAYS The phrase Dog Days' or the dog days of summer", refers to the hottest, most sultry days of summer. They are a phenomenon of the northern hemisphere that usually falls between July and early September but the actual dates vary greatly from region to region, depending on latitude and climate. Dog Days can also define a time period or event that is very hot or stagnant. The term "Dog Days" was coined by the ancient Romans, who called these days caniculares dies (days of the dogs) after Sirius (the "Dog Star"), the brightest star in the heavens besides the Sun. Popularly believed to be an evil time "when the seas boiled, wine turned sour, dogs grew mad, and all creatures became languid, causing to man burning fevers, hysterics, and phrensies" - Brady’s Clavis Calendarium, 1813. The Dog Days originally were the days when Sirius, the Dog Star, rose just before or at the same time as sunrise, which is no longer true owing to precession of the equinoxes. The ancients sacrificed a brown dog at the beginning of the Dog Days to appease the rage of Sirius, believing that that star was the cause of the hot, sultry weather. {With this topic I'm compensating for a cold November night} [;D] Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 04/11/2007 16:54:33 Efficiency (wing) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fabyss.uoregon.edu%2F%7Ejs%2Fimages%2Fbernoulli.gif&hash=069e2be17b997e15244e12d014111fb5) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.bologna-airport.it%2FSystem%2F34414%2F121_1.gif&hash=9b1e9a979495912ddbcefae78f807fe8) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.aeroclubtorino.it%2Fimmagini%2Fflotta_5138_tn.jpg&hash=c611cda65074462762d3ddf1bc0f7ef1) http://abyss.uoregon.edu/~js/images/bernoulli.gif http://www.bologna-airport.it/System/34414/121_1.gif http://www.aeroclubtorino.it/immagini/flotta_5138_tn.jpg more from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wing Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Quantum_Vaccuum on 07/11/2007 01:46:19 Fr Francium Quote Francium (IPA: /ˈfrænsiəm/), formerly known as eka-caesium and actinium K,[1] is a chemical element that has the symbol Fr and atomic number 87. It has the lowest known electronegativity and is the second rarest naturally occurring element (after Astatine). Francium is a highly radioactive metal that decays into astatine, radium, and radon. As an alkali metal, it has one valence electron. Marguerite Perey discovered francium in 1939. Francium was the last element discovered in nature, rather than synthesized. [2] Outside the laboratory, francium is extremely rare, with trace amounts found in uranium and thorium ores, where the isotope francium-223 is continually formed and continually decays. Perhaps an ounce exists at any given time throughout the Earth's crust; the other isotopes are entirely synthetic. The largest amount ever collected of any isotope was a cluster of 10,000 atoms (of francium-210) created as an ultracold gas at Stony Brook in 1996.[3] Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 07/11/2007 21:58:21 Glider (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.usppa.org%2FEntertainment%2FStoriesMisc%2F2006-05-11-MartyHathaway%2FSunset.jpg&hash=5dc537b59a44c5f4db30681eb6819ad9) http://www.usppa.org/Entertainment/StoriesMisc/2006-05-11-MartyHathaway/Sunset.jpg Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Karen W. on 08/11/2007 02:10:12 HYDROMETER Hydrometer From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrometer (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi17.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fb73%2Fkarenw44%2FHydrometer6455.png&hash=53c9b1980fe6758292168bc23ee226a0) A hydrometer is an instrument used for determining the specific gravity of liquids. It is usually made of glass and consists of a cylindrical stem and a bulb weighted with mercury or shot to make it float upright. The liquid is poured into a tall jar, and the hydrometer is gently lowered into the liquid until it floats freely. The point where the surface of the liquid touches the stem of the hydrometer is noted. Hydrometers usually contain a paper scale inside the stem, so that the specific gravity (or density relative to water) can be read directly. Specific gravity is a ratio of one density to that of the density of water. Therefore, specific gravity has no units. See relative density. In light liquids like kerosene, gasoline, and alcohol, the hydrometer must sink deeper to displace its weight of liquid than in heavy liquids like brine, milk, and acids. In fact, it is usual to have two separate instruments, one for heavy liquids, on which the mark 1.000 for water is near the top, and one for light liquids, on which the mark 1.000 is near the bottom of the stem. Many industries have more than one set of hydrometers, 1.0-0.95, 0.95-0.9 etc, to provide more precise measurements of density. For measuring density of petroleum products, like fuel oils, the specimen is usually heated in a temperature jacket with a thermometer placed behind it since density is dependent on temperature. Light oils are placed in cooling jackets, typically at 15oC. Very light oils with many volatile components are measured in a variable volume container using a floating piston sampling device to minimize light end losses. The function of the hydrometer is based on Archimedes principle that a solid suspended in a liquid will be buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the liquid displaced. Thus, the lower the density of the substance, the lower the hydrometer will sink. Some historians credit Hypatia of Alexandria with the invention of the hydrometer although there is little evidence to support this. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Andrew K Fletcher on 08/11/2007 09:02:03 Inclined Bed Therapy (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi209.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fbb31%2FAndrew_K_Fletcher%2FWeb%2520Page%2520Pictures%2FIMG0.gif&hash=a2a7491d9a3b42b9d13161ca277cba7b) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi209.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fbb31%2FAndrew_K_Fletcher%2FWeb%2520Page%2520Pictures%2FImage16.gif&hash=de9ffda9d1d539e6f593def4ec4297ff) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi209.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fbb31%2FAndrew_K_Fletcher%2FWeb%2520Page%2520Pictures%2FDMAIL.gif&hash=8368904d419eacf9fc5e31039c381993) http://www.metacafe.com/watch/805968/inclined_bed_therapy/ Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 08/11/2007 18:14:20 Joystick (cockpit) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww-sul.stanford.edu%2Fsiliconbase%2Fwip%2Fcontrol1.gif&hash=ac769b308a90a1ae8f5912cbc789f98d) Figure 1. Joystick in a cockpit, 1942. http://www-sul.stanford.edu/siliconbase/wip/control.html (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.hansonline.eu%2Fwright100%2Fimage%2Fw100_airbus320.jpg&hash=04370262e23361ce8f783cb89d1573b9) Joystick in a cockpit, airbus320. http://www.hansonline.eu/wright100/power.htm Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Karen W. on 08/11/2007 19:37:39 Karen Warvi It's My Turn! Lover of the Naked science Forum... Lover of all creatures large and small Lover of life and beauty and creation Lover of all that is good kind soft and warm*chuckles* LOL Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 10/11/2007 18:28:29 Looping (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.richard-seaman.com%2FAircraft%2FAirShows%2FRiat2002%2FG222%2FDisplay%2FG222Looping.jpg&hash=4e195ef81509191b11502d269a6f059d) http://www.richard-seaman.com/Aircraft/AirShows/Riat2002/G222/Display/G222Looping.jpg Check out the loop performed by the C-27 Spartan, the G222's successor, at the 2006 Czech International Air Fair. http://www.richard-seaman.com/Aircraft/AirShows/Ciaf2006/Highlights/index.html#C27 Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 10/11/2007 19:26:04 Mandelbrot set The Mandelbrot set is a set of points in the complex plane that forms a fractal. Mathematically, the Mandelbrot set can be defined as the set of complex c-values for which the orbit of 0 under iteration of the complex quadratic polynomial x2 + c remains bounded.[1] The Mandelbrot set has become popular outside mathematics both for its aesthetic appeal and for being a complicated structure arising from a simple definition. Benoît Mandelbrot and others worked hard to communicate this area of mathematics to the public. [ Invalid Attachment ] [ Invalid Attachment ] Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 10/11/2007 21:11:05 Nimbus clouds (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.meteored.com%2Fram%2Fnumero9%2FIMAGENES%2Fcumulus%2520congestus.jpg&hash=9e55b2cdd4d97100591fd593a214933c) http://www.meteored.com/ram/numero9/IMAGENES/cumulus%20congestus.jpg Nimbus cloud From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia A nimbus cloud is a cloud that produces precipitation. Usually the precipitation reaches the ground as rain, hail or snow, however, that is not a requirement, falling precipitation may evaporate as virga. Etymology Nimbus is a Latin word meaning cloud or rain storm. The prefix nimbo- or the suffix -nimbus indicates a precipitating cloud; for example, a nimbostratus cloud is a precipitating stratus cloud, and a cumulonimbus cloud is a precipitating cumulus cloud. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nimbus_cloud Nibbio (Milvus milvus) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fupload.wikimedia.org%2Fwikipedia%2Fcommons%2Fthumb%2F4%2F4b%2FMilvus_milvus_R%28ThKraft%29.jpg%2F250px-Milvus_milvus_R%28ThKraft%29.jpg&hash=866fa5d270f06b698a3ac43104f270d0) http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4b/Milvus_milvus_R(ThKraft).jpg/250px-Milvus_milvus_R(ThKraft).jpg Nimbus-2 (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.gliding-in-melbourne.org%2Fimages%2Fphotos%2Fnimbus2.jpg&hash=cc43d7dd742e1e46bcfd1122e24939e8) http://www.gliding-in-melbourne.org/images/photos/nimbus2.jpg Nimbus-3 (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.gliding-in-melbourne.org%2Fimages%2Fphotos%2Fnimbus3d.jpg&hash=bb89a0b68774ef695f84530bc39aa5a3) http://www.gliding-in-melbourne.org/images/photos/nimbus3d.jpg Nimbus-4 (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.kvac.uu.se%2F%7Emauritz%2Fnimbus4.jpg&hash=95e7ac2f4d31d86073e7b064c11d8eec) http://www.kvac.uu.se/~mauritz/nimbus4.jpg Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 11/11/2007 19:24:19 Owen Willans Richardson Sir Owen Willans Richardson (April 26, 1879 - February 15, 1959) was a British physicist, a professor at Princeton University from 1906 to 1913, and a recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1928 "for his work on the thermionic phenomenon and especially for the discovery of the law named after him".  Biography Richardson was born in Dewsbury, Yorkshire, England, the only son of Joshua Henry and Charlotte Maria Richardson. He was educated at Batley Grammar School, and graduated from Trinity College, Cambridge in 1900 having gained First Class Honours in Natural Science. In 1914 Richardson became professor of physics at King's College London, where he was later made director of research. He retired in 1944. He was awarded the Hughes Medal by the Royal Society (of which he was a Fellow) in 1920 for his work in thermionics, which is the basis for the vacuum tube. He also researched the photoelectric effect, the gyromagnetic effect, the emission of electrons by chemical reactions, soft X-rays, and the spectrum of hydrogen. He was knighted in 1939. He died in 1959 aged 79. Richardson's nephew was physicist Richard Davisson whose father Clinton Davisson was also a Nobel Prize in Physics laureate. [ Invalid Attachment ] Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Karen W. on 11/11/2007 19:38:21 Pyrotechnics From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Pyrotechnics are used in the entertainment industry [ Invalid Attachment ] The band Rammstein's stage acts center largely around pyrotechnics Pyrotechnics can also be used for Fireworks events. Pyrotechnics is a field of study often thought synonymous with the manufacture of fireworks, but more accurately it has a wider scope that includes items for military and industrial uses. Items such as safety matches, oxygen candles, explosive bolts and fasteners and the automobile safety airbag all fall under the purview of pyrotechnics. Without pyrotechnics, modern aviation and spaceflight would be impracticable;[citation needed] this is because pyrotechnic devices combine high reliabilty with very compact and efficient energy storage: essentially in the form chemical energy which is converted via expanding hot gases often propagated by a shock wave as in bolt and cable cutters. The controlled action of a pyrotechnic device (initiated by any of several means, including an electrical signal, optical signal or mechanical impetus) makes possible a wide range of automated and/or remote mechanical actions; for example, deployment of safety equipment and services, precisely timed release sequences, etc. The majority of the technical pyrotechnic devices use propellants in their function, a minority use materials that are classified as primary or secondary explosives to obtain very fast and powerful mechanical (mostly cutting) actions; for example, Jet Axe. The use of explosions, flashes, smoke, flames or other propellant driven effects on-stage is known as Proximate Pyrotechnics. Proximate because it's near an audience. Special licencing must be obtained from local authorities to legally prepare and use proximate pyrotechnics. Many musical groups use pyrotechnics to enhance the quality of their live shows. Some of the earliest bands to use pyrotechnics were Queen, Pink Floyd, and KISS. The band Rammstein uses a large variety of pyrotechnics, from flaming costumes to face-mounted flamethrowers. Also Lordi is known for its vivid pyrotechnics. Many professional wrestlers have also used pyrotechnics as part of their entrances to the ring. One example would be Bill Goldberg, who would use pyrotechnics during his in ring entrance in both WCW and WWE . Pyrotechnics is, in general, divided into categories based on the main effect produced. The range of effects include: light flashes of various colour, intensity and duration; sounds of many types, like thumps, bangs, pops, hums and whistles, all loud or soft as needed; flames of different colours, sizes, shapes and durations; smoke of any colour or amount; ejected active pyrotechnics, like various short-lived sparks (mostly produced by small metal particles of titanium, magnalium, steel or zirconium; which, being ignited by the primary device, continue to burn while moving through the air) and microstars, including glitter, strobe, colour and comet tailed effects, even coloured matrix comets invented by Myke Stanbridge. The use of ejected passive effects is common, they include: confetti, streamers, tokens, toys, etc. A basic pyrotechnic device consists of a sufficiently strong and non-flammable container to hold its active contents, which comprise either flammable compositions, like nitrocellouse and/or blackpowder or a mixture of a fuel and oxidiser blended in situ. Various ingredients may be added to provide colour, smoke or sparks. Special additives are used to modify the character of the effect produced, either to enhance or subdue the effect; for example, the production of an effects-wave that changes as the effect progresses from several similar devices - to make the similar effect rise or fall towards or away from a cresendo, etc. In general, such pyrotechnic devices are initiated by a remotely controlled electrical signal that causes an electric match, or e-match, to produce ignition. The remote control may be manual, via a switch console, or computer controlled according to a pre-programmed sequence and/or a sequence that tracks the live performance via stage cues. If not handled and/or used properly pyrotechnics can be dangerous. In 2003, improper use of pyrotechnic devices caused a fire in a Rhode Island nightclub called The Station. The Station nightclub fire was started when the fireworks the band Great White was using accidentally ignited flammable soundproofing foam, which was not appropriate and/or not installed properly. The foam caused the fire to spread rapidly and the resulting fire led to 100 deaths, ostensibly because their quick escape was blocked by ineffective exit doors. Indoor and/or proximate pyrotechnics is a sub-specialty that requires additional training beyond that of other professional pyrotechnics areas and additionally requires the use of devices especially made for indoor and/or close proximity use. While the type of foam used and the lack of a required sprinkler system were important factors in the fire, the Great White tragedy could have been prevented had those involved paid even minimal attention to standard safety practices around the use of pyrotechnics. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 11/11/2007 22:46:24 Que sera sera (Naval Aircraft) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nasa.gov%2Fimages%2Fcontent%2F159488main_TMIE_Oct_southpole_220.jpg&hash=970f16a818bd6a21fb522f03a2be4bde) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nsf.gov%2Fnews%2Fmmg%2Fmedia%2Fimages%2Fon-deck_f1.jpg&hash=e6451b5b1675a441185e3b23b943f331) http://www.nasa.gov/images/content/159488main_TMIE_Oct_southpole_220.jpg http://www.nsf.gov/news/mmg/media/images/on-deck_f1.jpg ... October 31, 1956: The U.S. Navy R4D (Douglas DC-3) aircraft "Que Sera Sera" became the first airplane to land and take off at the South Pole. Rear Admiral George Dufek and six others ventured out of the plane in -58 degree weather to plant the American flag. Image: The aircraft Que Sera Sera lands at the South Pole. Navy photo taken by reporter Maurice Cutler. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/exploration/main/this_month_october_prt.htm (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.southpolestation.com%2Ftrivia%2Figy1%2Fdufek1.jpg&hash=40703a4de9d2d789178109fb27f8a703) http://www.southpolestation.com/trivia/igy1/dufek1.jpg more from: http://www.southpolestation.com/trivia/igy1/que.html Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Karen W. on 11/11/2007 22:52:05 Rain Gauges (barometers) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi17.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fb73%2Fkarenw44%2F3343883294.jpg&hash=4b882148ead8c44f170271d19cf5aff3) Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Simulated on 11/11/2007 22:54:40 S for sun. (ya'll know what it looks like. haha) Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 11/11/2007 22:56:25 Robert Rosen (27 June 1934, - 28 December 1998, Rochester, New York) was an American theoretical biologist and professor of Biophysics at Dalhousie University. Robert Rosen was born in 1934 in Brooklyn, New York. He studied physics and theoretical biology, and was a student of physicist and theoretical biologist Nicholas Rashevsky. He received his PhD in mathematical biology from the University of Chicago in 1959 and remained there until 1967. In 1967 Rosen then went to the State University of New York at Buffalo, holding a joint appointment at the Center for Theoretical Biology. He came to Dalhousie University in 1975 as a Killam Research Professor in the Department of Physiology & Biophysics, and stayed here until his retirement in 1994.[1] He was president of the Society for General Systems Research in 1980  Work Rosen's research was concerned with the most fundamental aspects of biology. Major themes in the work of Robert Rosen were: * developing a specific definition of complexity * ensuing theoretical framework, now called "Rosennean Complexity". His main focus was the question: "what is life?" ("why are organisms alive?") Rosen came to realize that the Newtonian model of physics - the world of mechanisms - was inadequate to describe biological systems; that is, one could not properly answer the question "what is life?" in a Newtonian formalism. Rather than biology being a mere subset of already-known physics, it turned out that biology had profound lessons for physics, and science in general.[2]. [ Invalid Attachment ] Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Karen W. on 11/11/2007 23:00:56 [size=07pt](Neily what comes after "S"...T.....HEE HEE HEE...)[/size] Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 11/11/2007 23:01:09 Grrrrrrrrrrr !!!! (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fbestsmileys.com%2Ffrustrated%2F5.gif&hash=e14b6289ff045a038d61ff120917722d)(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fbestsmileys.com%2Ffrustrated%2F5.gif&hash=e14b6289ff045a038d61ff120917722d)(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fbestsmileys.com%2Ffrustrated%2F5.gif&hash=e14b6289ff045a038d61ff120917722d) Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Simulated on 11/11/2007 23:01:47 Grrrrrrrrrrr !!!! (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fbestsmileys.com%2Ffrustrated%2F5.gif&hash=e14b6289ff045a038d61ff120917722d)(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fbestsmileys.com%2Ffrustrated%2F5.gif&hash=e14b6289ff045a038d61ff120917722d)(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fbestsmileys.com%2Ffrustrated%2F5.gif&hash=e14b6289ff045a038d61ff120917722d) hhaha Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 11/11/2007 23:02:43 Thunder (sound barrier) A friend of mine sent me an email containing images similar to the ones below. Is this for real or is someone having a really good time with photoshop? (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwilk4.com%2Fmisc%2Ff18.jpg&hash=894e5a29aa4cdd52fc98fe14332633b8) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fhaviland.org%2Fimages%2Foas084.jpg&hash=b5f8e62c7e9bac6906213b4679b67f22) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fatlasshrugs2000.typepad.com%2Fatlas_shrugs%2Fimages%2Fsound_barrier_2.jpg&hash=c1d1beb06b44c691f06ce0c97589b182) ...more supersonic pics here! http://www.airshowaction.com/picweek.html Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Karen W. on 11/11/2007 23:10:06 Universe From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The Universe is defined as the summation of all particles and energy that exist and the space-time in which all events occur. Based on observations of the portion of the Universe that is observable, physicists attempt to describe the whole of space-time, including all matter and energy and events which occur, as a single system corresponding to a mathematical model. The generally accepted scientific theory which describes the origin and evolution of the Universe is Big Bang cosmology, which describes the expansion of space from an extremely hot and dense state of unknown characteristics. The Universe underwent a rapid period of cosmic inflation that flattened out nearly all initial irregularities in the energy density; thereafter the universe expanded and became steadily cooler and less dense. Minor variations in the distribution of mass resulted in hierarchical segregation of the features that are found in the current universe; such as clusters and superclusters of galaxies. There are more than one hundred billion (1011) galaxies in the Universe,[1] each containing hundreds of billions of stars, with each star containing about 1057 atoms of hydrogen. Other ways of exploring and describing the origin and evolution of the universe include religious cosmology and philosophical cosmology. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 11/11/2007 23:13:56 Variometer (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fupload.wikimedia.org%2Fwikipedia%2Fcommons%2Fthumb%2Fd%2Fd5%2FGleitschirmvario.jpg%2F100px-Gleitschirmvario.jpg&hash=35cf321ac249843500875fb843af59b7) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.expandingknowledge.com%2FJerome%2FPG%2FSkill%2FAll%2FJ_Tips%2FImage%2FBAD_FullStall_Maintained_VL_1998_10_p25.jpg&hash=5b0010fccfa979b53e09b45da192ff5d) http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d5/Gleitschirmvario.jpg/100px-Gleitschirmvario.jpg http://www.expandingknowledge.com/Jerome/PG/Skill/All/J_Tips/Image/BAD_FullStall_Maintained_VL_1998_10_p25.jpg Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Karen W. on 11/11/2007 23:23:19 Wind velocity (apparent wind) From Wiped, the free encyclopedia Apparent wind is the wind experienced by a moving object. In sailing, the apparent wind is the actual flow of air acting upon a sail, or the wind as it appears to the sailor. It differs from the true or prevailing wind seen by a stationary observer in velocity and direction. In nautical terminology, these properties of the apparent wind are expressed in knots and degrees.  Definition of apparent wind The Apparent wind is the wind experienced by an observer in motion and is the relative velocity of the wind with respect to the observer, who is moving. Apparent wind is the vector sum of the True Wind Velocity and the air stream generated by an "object's Velocity over ground"[1] This is the Inverse (mathematics) of the objects actual velocity or more succinctly the apparent wind is defined as the Velocity of the wind minus the Velocity of the object.  Calculating velocity and angle A = \sqrt{((H+W*cos(a))^2 + (W*sin(a))^2)} Where: * H = head wind * W = true wind velocity * a = true pointing angle in degrees (0 = upwind, 180 = downwind) * A = apparent wind velocity The angle of apparent wind (b) can be deducted from the measured boat and wind speeds using the inverse cosine in degrees (AcosD) b = AcosD((H+(W*cos(a))/\sqrt{((H+W*cos(a))^2 + (W*sin(a))^2)})  Instruments The apparent wind on-board is often quoted as a speed measured by a masthead transducer containing an anemometer and wind vane that measures wind speed in knots and wind direction in degrees relative to the heading of the boat. Modern instrumentation can calculate the true wind velocity when the apparent wind and boat velocity are input.  Implications on sailing speeds In sailboat racing, and especially in speed sailing, apparent wind is a vitally important factor, when determining the points of sail a sail-boat can effectively travel in. A vessel travelling at increasing speed relative to the prevailing wind will encounter the wind driving the sail at a decreasing angle and increasing velocity. Eventually, the increased drag and diminished degree of efficiency of a sail at extremely low angles will cause a loss of accelerating force. This constitutes the main limitation to the speed of wind-driven vessels and vehicles. Windsurfers and certain types of boats are able to sail faster than the true wind. These include fast multihulls and some planing monohulls. Ice-sailors and land-sailors also usually fall into this category, because of their relatively low amount of drag or friction.  Other areas of relevance In fixed-wing aircraft, apparent wind is what is experienced on-board and it determines the necessary speeds for take-off and landing. Aircraft carriers generally steam directly upwind at maximum speed, in order to increase apparent wind and reduce the necessary take-off velocity. Land-based airport traffic generally take off and land facing upwind for the same reason. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 12/11/2007 18:43:19 Yankee Air Museum (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.richard-seaman.com%2FAircraft%2FAirShows%2FYankeeAirMuseum2005%2FHighlights%2FYankeeLadyAndNineONine.jpg&hash=a19382c326a863274d23aaa659082c2e) http://www.richard-seaman.com/Aircraft/AirShows/YankeeAirMuseum2005/Highlights/YankeeLadyAndNineONine.jpg more details from: http://www.richard-seaman.com/Aircraft/AirShows/index.html#Tom2006 Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 12/11/2007 19:20:27 Zefram Cochrane Dr. Zefram Cochrane was a Human scientist in the 21st century, an eccentric genius, and the inventor of warp drive on Earth. Cochrane was born in 2032. During the 2060s, he lived in Bozeman, Montana in North America, where he and his team of engineers began developing warp drive and finally built Earth's first warp ship, the Phoenix. After Cochrane's historic first warp flight on April 5, 2063, the Vulcans established first contact with Humanity, thereby ushering in a new era of prosperity for mankind. [ Invalid Attachment ] Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Karen W. on 12/11/2007 19:30:29 Algorithm From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Algorithm In mathematics, computing, linguistics, and related disciplines, an algorithm is a definite list of well-defined instructions for completing a task; that given an initial state, will proceed through a well-defined series of successive states, eventually terminating in an end-state. The concept of an algorithm originated as a means of recording procedures for solving mathematical problems such as finding the common divisor of two numbers or multiplying two numbers. A partial formalization of the concept began with attempts to solve the Entscheidungsproblem (the "decision problem") that David Hilbert posed in 1928. Subsequent formalizations were framed as attempts to define "effective calculability" (cf Kleene 1943:274) or "effective method" (cf Rosser 1939:225); those formalizations included the Gödel-Herbrand-Kleene recursive functions of 1930, 1934 and 1935, Alonzo Church's lambda calculus of 1936, Emil Post's "Formulation I" of 1936, and Alan Turing's Turing machines of 1936-7 and 1939. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Alandriel on 12/11/2007 20:06:17 What happened to the X ?? You know, the one between W - Y..... [;D] Boötes / Bootes or BOO for short [;D] / The Bear Driver ~ The Boatsman (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Ffizika.uni-mb.si%2Fobservatorij%2Fprojekti%2Fvirtualnasola%2Fsola%2Fplanetarij%2FOzvezdja_Messier_WWW%2Frisbe%2Fbootes.gif&hash=b7ce944c0539efd9553bb0199e5411b4) Some say that Boötes is the most ancient constellation in the sky. Indeed, it has been reconized by numerous cultures in slightly different forms. Even the Greeks were not clear on its history. The first reference to the name Boötes comes from "The Odyssey" by Homer almost three millenia ago. In one of his most popular incarnations, he is called the Hunter and, with his Hounds (Canes Venatici), he eternally circles the Bears, Ursa Major and Ursa Minor, around the North Pole. In fact, the brightest star in Boötes is Arcturus, which can be loosely translated as "Bear Guard." He is also called the Herdsman and his journey around the pole represents his task of keeping the celestial beasts together. Another legend says that Bootes was the son of Zeus and Callisto. Hera changed Callisto into a bear who was almost killed by Boötes when he was out hunting. Luckily, she was rescued by Zeus and he took her into the sky where she is now Ursa Major, the Great Bear. Yet another myth says that he was the son of Demeter, the goddess of agriculture. Supposedly he was given a place in the sky for inventing the plow. Named Stars ARCTURUS (Alpha Boo) Nekkar (Beta Boo) Seginus (Gamma Boo) IZAR (Epsilon Boo) Mufrid (Eta Boo) Asellus Primus (Theta Boo) Asellus Secondus (Iota Boo) Asellus Tertius (Kappa 2 Boo) Alkalurops (Mu 1 Boo) Merga (38 Boo) I mean....really........ mu Boo [::)] whoever...... [;D] [;D] Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Karen W. on 12/11/2007 20:11:46 UH OH IKO'S TURN! LOL! Colloidal silver From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colloidal_silver Colloidal silver is a colloid of silver particles in water. It has antimicrobial properties and was, in the past, used on external wounds and burns to prevent infection. Some alternative-health practitioners claim that it is a beneficial nutritional supplement. Others also claim that it is a powerful antibiotic[1] which is relatively safe for human consumption, though this is disputed because of the risk of argyria,[2] a permanent blue or gray skin condition which is otherwise benign. The intake of some silver products in large quantities over long periods of time has caused argyria in some people,[3][4][5][6][7] though at dosage levels generally considered normal, the risk for argyria is low. Contents Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 12/11/2007 22:22:45 Delta wing Vortex Breakdown on a Delta Wing (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.onera.fr%2Fphotos-en%2Fsimulations%2Fimages%2FDelta10.jpg&hash=7ef9877c1c76c93b8dce9b93fde3926a) http://www.onera.fr/photos-en/simulations/images/Delta10.jpg source: http://www.onera.fr/photos-en/simulations/delta-sillage.php Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 13/11/2007 00:10:46 Elion Gertrude B. Gertrude Belle Elion (January 23, 1918 – February 21, 1999) was an American biochemist and pharmacologist, and a 1988 recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Born in New York City to Jewish immigrant parents, she graduated from Hunter College in 1937 and New York University (M.Sc.) in 1941. Unable to obtain a graduate research position due to her gender, she worked as a lab assistant and a high school teacher, before becoming an assistant to George H. Hitchings at the Burroughs-Wellcome pharmaceutical company (now GlaxoSmithKline). She never obtained a formal Ph.D., but she was later awarded an honorary Ph.D from George Washington University. Working alone as well as with Hitchings, Elion developed a multitude of new drugs, using innovative research methods that would later lead to the development of the AIDS drug AZT. Rather than relying on trial-and-error, Elion and Hitchings used the differences in biochemistry between normal human cells and pathogens (disease-causing agents) to design drugs that could kill or inhibit the reproduction of particular pathogens without harming the host cells. Elion's inventions include: * 6-mercaptopurine (Purinethol), the first treatment for leukemia.[1] * Azathioprine (Imuran), the first immuno-suppressive agent, used for organ transplants. * Allopurinol (Zyloprim), for gout. * Pyrimethamine (Daraprim), for malaria. * Trimethoprim (Septra), for meningitis, septicemia, and bacterial infections of the urinary and respiratory tracts. * Acyclovir (Zovirax), for viral herpes. In 1988 Elion received the Nobel Prize in Medicine, together with Hitchings and Sir James Black. Other awards include the National Medal of Science (1991) and the Lemelson-MIT Lifetime Achievement Award (1997). In 1991 she became the first woman to be inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame. Gertrude Elion died in North Carolina in 1999, aged 81. She had moved to the Research Triangle in 1970, and for a time served as a research professor at Duke University. She was unmarried. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: JimBob on 13/11/2007 00:55:26 Gout Caused by the retention of uric acid in the body which then causes crystals of this substance in the joints, tendons, and causing inflammation of these tissues. Thought to be hereditary. Eating purines, found in organ tissue (sweet meats) and asparagus and processed food such a sausage, adds a lot of purines to the diet. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 14/11/2007 22:20:46 Fuselage (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fcache.eb.com%2Feb%2Fimage%3Fid%3D93544%26amp%3BrendTypeId%3D34&hash=82d66eb449225c4c81eda7330cfeda6e) http://cache.eb.com/eb/image?id=93544&rendTypeId=34 Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 14/11/2007 22:31:31 methinks Iko has a predisposition for avionics !! [;D] Hawking Stephen Stephen William Hawking, CH, CBE, FRS, FRSA (born 8 January 1942) is a British theoretical physicist. Hawking is the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge, and a Fellow of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. He is known for his contributions to the fields of cosmology and quantum gravity, especially in the context of black holes, and his popular works in which he discusses his own theories and cosmology in general. These include the runaway popular science bestseller A Brief History of Time, which stayed on the British Sunday Times bestseller list for a record-breaking 237 weeks.[1] His key scientific works to date have included providing, with Roger Penrose, theorems regarding singularities in the framework of general relativity, and the theoretical prediction that black holes should emit radiation, which is today known as Hawking radiation, or sometimes as Bekenstein-Hawking radiation.[2] His scientific career spans more than 40 years and his books and public appearances have made him an academic celebrity and world-renowned theoretical physicist. He is an Honorary Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts.[3] Hawking is disabled by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), commonly known in the United States as Lou Gehrig's Disease. The illness has progressed over the years and he is now almost completely paralysed. [ Invalid Attachment ] Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 15/11/2007 22:24:52 Instrument and Avionics (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.triumphgroup.com%2Fimages%2FUserImages%2Fabi_adi.jpg&hash=20ebab5b93f639d2323c134d9fdce499) http://www.triumphgroup.com/images/UserImages/abi_adi.jpg Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 21/11/2007 13:50:58 James Cronin James Watson Cronin (born September 29, 1931) is an American nuclear physicist. He was born in Chicago, Illinois and attended Southern Methodist University in Dallas, Texas. Cronin and co-researcher Val Logsdon Fitch were awarded the 1980 Nobel Prize in Physics for a 1964 experiment that proved that certain subatomic reactions do not adhere to fundamental symmetry principles. Specifically, they proved, by examining the decay of kaons, that a reaction run in reverse does not merely retrace the path of the original reaction, which showed that the interactions of subatomic particles are not indifferent to time. Thus the phenomenon of CP violation was discovered. At present, Jim Cronin is Professor Emeritus at the University of Chicago and a spokesperson for the Auger project. Prof. Cronin is a member of the Board of Sponsors of The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists[1] Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 21/11/2007 18:20:22 Kite ...Usually tethered heavier-than-air craft, sustained in the air by its airfoil surfaces being inclined to the wind to generate lift. http://www.aviastar.org/dictionary_eng.html (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fknuthaugen.no%2Fphotolog%2Fimages%2Ffamilie0026_small.jpeg&hash=6c49890a5468ba2c83378409285578bc) http://knuthaugen.no/photolog/images/familie0026_small.jpeg Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 23/11/2007 06:36:55 Luis Federico Leloir (September 6, 1906 – December 2, 1987) was an Argentine doctor and biochemist who received the 1970 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Along with Mario Molina, he is one of the first two Hispanic scientists to ever receive the award. Although born in France, Leloir received the majority of his education at the University of Buenos Aires and was director of the private research group Fundación Instituto Campomar until his death in 1987. Although his laboratories were often plagued by lack of financial support and second-rate equipment, his research into sugar nucleotides, carbohydrate metabolism, and renal hypertension has garnered international attention and fame and has led to significant progress in understanding, diagnosing and treating the congenital disease galactosemia. [ Invalid Attachment ] Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 23/11/2007 11:59:35 methinks Iko has a predisposition for avionics !! [;D] ...me sure he does! Neilibus likes Nobels or near-Nobel dudes... [;)] MAD (Magnetic Anomaly Detector) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.hsl43.navy.mil%2Fimages%2Fsh60b%2Fsh60b.jpg&hash=b382b02639607422ee7b92c7cd35432b) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.yamada.co.jp%2Fen%2Fdefense%2Fimg%2Fdifen_pic_04.jpg&hash=314851c97b0baa09f446ae69b495fb90) http://www.hsl43.navy.mil/images/sh60b/sh60b.jpg http://www.yamada.co.jp/en/defense/img/difen_pic_04.jpg Quote A magnetic anomaly detector (MAD) is an instrument used to detect minute variations in the Earth's magnetic field. The term refers specifically to magnetometers used either by military forces to detect submarines (a mass of ferromagnetic material creates a detectable disturbance in the magnetic field) or to a geomagnetic survey instrument used to search for minerals by the disturbance of the normal earth-field. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetic_anomaly_detector Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 30/11/2007 17:46:58 Nature [ Invalid Attachment ] Nature, in the broadest sense, is equivalent to the natural world, or the environment, physical universe, material world or material universe. "Nature" refers to the phenomena of the physical world, and also to life in general. The term generally does not include manufactured objects and human interaction unless qualified in ways such as, e.g., "human nature" or "the whole of nature". Nature is also generally distinguished from the supernatural. It ranges in scale from the subatomic to the galactic. The word "nature" is derived from the Latin word natura, or "the course of things, natural character." Natura was a Latin translation of the Greek word physis (φύσις), which originally related to the intrinsic characteristics that plants, animals, and other features of the world develop of their own accord. This is shown in the first written use of the word φύσις, in connection with a plant. The concept of nature as a whole, the physical universe, is one of several expansions of the original notion; it began with certain core applications of the word φύσις by pre-Socratic philosophers, and has steadily gained currency ever since. This usage was confirmed during the advent of modern scientific method in the last several centuries. Within the various uses of the word today, "nature" may refer to the general realm of various types of living plants and animals, and in some cases to the processes associated with inanimate objects – the way that particular types of things exist and change of their own accord, such as the weather and geology of the Earth, and the matter and energy of which all these things are composed. It is often taken to mean the "natural environment" or wilderness – wild animals, rocks, forest, beaches, and in general those things that have not been substantially altered by human intervention, or which persist despite human intervention. This more traditional concept of natural things which can still be found today implies a distinction between the natural and the artificial, with the latter being understood as that which has been brought into being by a human or human-like consciousness or mind. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 30/11/2007 19:02:35 Otto pilot (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.freepatriot.com%2Fimagewarehouse%2Fairplane-departing.jpg&hash=ce942cbad854edc4c803e8bcc8b6ebf7) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Freviews.cnet.com%2Fi%2Fbto%2F20070816%2Fairplane%21_270x179.JPG&hash=a034886ed2ebe3f36826acf4a08f087b) http://www.freepatriot.com/imagewarehouse/airplane-departing.jpg http://reviews.cnet.com/i/bto/20070816/airplane!_270x179.JPG Airplane! is an American comedy film, first released on 27 June 1980, produced, directed, and written by David Zucker, Jim Abrahams, and Jerry Zucker. Airplane! starred Robert Hays, Julie Hagerty, Leslie Nielsen, Robert Stack, Lloyd Bridges, Peter Graves, Kareem Abdul-Jabbar and Lorna Patterson. For release in Australia and the Philippines, Airplane! was re-titled as Flying High. Airplane! is a spoof of the disaster movie genre. It is unique among film parodies in that Airplane! (originally designed for a 20-minute sketch) is a virtual remake of the 1957 Canadian airplane disaster movie Zero Hour! The earlier film featured Dana Andrews in the role of Lt. Striker, for instance, and Airplane! includes numerous jokes and gags that derive directly from the 1957 film.[1] The plot device of the food poisoning incident, which figures prominently in the story line of Airplane!, also came from Zero Hour! http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Airplane! Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 30/11/2007 19:10:46 Pilot (or Aviator) [ Invalid Attachment ] An Pilot (or aviator) is a person who flies aircraft for pleasure or as a profession. The word is normally applied to pilots, but it can be applied more broadly, for example to include people such as wing-walkers who regularly take part in an aerobatic display sequence. The word aviatrix is sometimes used of women flyers, reflecting the word's Latin root. The term was more used in the early days of aviation and has connotations of bravery and adventure. Anyone can fly an aircraft, with or without a certificate. However, at all times the aircraft must be under the operational control of a properly certified and current pilot, who is responsible for the safe and legal completion of the flight. The first certificate was delivered by the Aero Club de France to Louis Blériot in 1908, followed by Glenn Curtiss, Leon Delagrange and Robert Esnault-Pelterie. The absolute authority given to the Pilot in Command is derived from that of a ship’s captain.[citation needed] In the United Kingdom there were (in 2000) 31,885 private pilots and 16,449 airline and commercial pilots (ATPL and CPL) registered with the UK Civil Aviation Authority (CAA). Among private pilots, only 6% are female (approximately 1800). In the commercial sector this percentage drops to only 2%. The United States Federal Aviation Administration estimates there are 609,737 active pilots with US Airmen certificates as of December 31, 2005. [1] Of these, about 6% (36,584) are female. The U.S. state of Alaska has the highest number of pilots per capita: out of an estimated 663,661 residents, 8,550 are pilots, or about one in every 78. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 01/12/2007 12:34:58 Queen's Aero Design Team (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fappsci.queensu.ca%2Fnews%2F2006-2007%2FaeroDesign%2Fplanes.jpg&hash=df04a0d80e4714c49f7a03ba660f07c2) http://appsci.queensu.ca/news/2006-2007/aeroDesign/planes.jpg Queen's Aero Design Team - Aerodynamics The Queen's Aero Design Team is student run and competes every year in a "Design Build Fly" competition in the United States. Each year the criteria for the competition changes preventing a single team from re-entering a winning design year after year. This year's rules can be found at http://www.ae.uiuc.edu/aiaadbf/ Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: JimBob on 01/12/2007 13:43:14 Roger Used in aeronautic communication to clearly mean "yes" - in other circumstances ...... Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 01/12/2007 14:48:15 Sea Hurricane Hi there, April stats about the forum traffic are quite amazing... Number of newbies a bit lower, but almost double posts! Any suggestion? [;)] ikothesis click here to spot the pilot: http://file028a.bebo.com/1/large/2007/04/14/21/2083589797a4108042551b65708621l.jpg Hawker Seany Hurricane Mk X, NX33TF (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.air-and-space.com%2F20040516%2520Chino%2FDsc_0526%2520Hurricane%2520Mk%2520X%2520NX33TF%2520right%2520side%2520take-off%2520m.jpg&hash=420e82bfcd18f7cffc5858b2bc4e1fcc) http://www.air-and-space.com/20040516%20Chino/Dsc_0526%20Hurricane%20Mk%20X% Quote (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.aviationphoto.co.uk%2FPictures%2FHawker%2520Sea%2520Hurricane%2520MK.IB%2520Z7015%2520G-BKTH%2520Shuttleworth%25202004.jpg&hash=d125879afe63d8ca13d77626207d7aa2) http://www.aviationphoto.co.uk/Pictures/Hawker%20Sea%20Hurricane%20MK.IB%20Z7015%20G-BKTH%20Shuttleworth%202004.jpg ... The Hawker Hurricane was a British single-seat fighter aircraft designed and predominantly built by Hawker Aircraft Ltd. Some production of the Hurricane was carried out in Canada by the Canada Car and Foundry Co Ltd. The 1930s design evolved through several versions and adaptations, resulting in a series of aircraft which acted as interceptor-fighters, fighter-bombers (also called "Hurribombers"), and ground support aircraft. Further versions known as the Sea Hurricane had modifications which enabled operation from ships.The Hurricane was significant in enabling the Royal Air Force (RAF) to win the Battle of Britain of 1940, accounting for the majority of the RAF's air victories. About 14,000 Hurricanes were built by the end of 1944 (including about 1,200 converted to Sea Hurricanes, and about 1,400 that were built in Canada), and served in all the major theatres of the Second World War. more from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hawker_Hurricane (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fupload.wikimedia.org%2Fwikipedia%2Fcommons%2Fd%2Fd3%2FHawker_Sea_Hurricanes.jpg&hash=ed67326e5bf943f50aa9adbf662a671c) http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d3/Hawker_Sea_Hurricanes.jpg Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Alandriel on 05/12/2007 20:36:39 Quote from: Iko April stats about the forum traffic are quite amazing... Number of newbies a bit lower, but almost double posts! I know it's a quote of a quote of an april date but still....[???] Stats? Where are the stats? Tropeognathus (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fhome.no.net%2Fpaleo%2Fpterosaur%2Ftropeognathus_3.jpg&hash=4776f83cf9bc562cf388b35bc85456bc) Name Of Dinosaur: Tropeognathus mesembrinus Pronounciation Of Name: Trope-awg-nay-thus meh-sem-bree-nus (bless you!) Meaning Of Name: Southern Keel Jaw Diet: Fish and squid Wingspan: 20 feet Height: 5 feet (at head when on all fours) Weight: 25 pounds (that’s my personal estimate) Time It Lived: Cretaceous Period, 122-112 million years ago Fossils Found In: Brazil Information: Considering that Tropeognathus is a Pterosaur (Tare-oh-sore), not a dinosaur, I probably shouldn't have put "Name Of Dinosaur" at the top of this fact file, but I need to keep a strict fact file code. Anyway, Tropeognathus is a very interesting pterosaur. About the size of a hang glider, it was a mid-sized Cretaceous Ornithocheirid (Ore-nih-thoh-kye-rid) Pterosaur, which soared over the Brazilian seas like a gigantic seagull. At the end of its two-foot long bill, Tropeognathus possessed a pair of keels, one on the upper jaw and one on the lower. These keels probably acted as stabilizers when Tropeognathus dipped its bill into the water to grab fish while in flight. The keels allowed the bill to cut smoothly through the water, preventing Tropeognathus from losing its balance, falling into the water, soaking itself, and, unable to become airborne again, leaving it an easy target for marine predators. Like its distant relative, the better-known Pteranodon (Tare-an-oh-dawn), Tropeognathus sported a crest at the back of its skull, but this crest was very small, probably not much more than a bony lump on the back of the head. One very interesting recently discovered fact about pterosaurs is that they possessed a highly sophisticated physiological flight apparatus. CAT scans of Pterosaur braincases reveal that their skulls contained huge brain lobes and tiny inner ear canals. This system, called the flocculus, was apparently capable of linking brain activity with body movement, allowing the Pterosaur to focus on searching for its prey on the ground or in the water below while still keeping full aerodynamic control. Complex muscle structures near the surface of the Pterosaur's wings acted like sensory organs, collecting data on wind speed, air temperature, wing tension and position, and other important aerodynamic factors, and sending it all to the Pterosaur's brain via the flocculus. Then the brain could send information back through the flocculus and to the wings, instructing changes on wing tension, adapting the wings to alter flight speed or direction in accordance to the surrounding conditions. This system would have made the Pterosaurs far more efficient flyers than any bird, bat, or man-made aircraft. So it looks like we can't use the Pterosaur extinction theory of competitive evolutionary pressure by birds any more. Source link (http://www.cpinternet.com/~sarah/Tropeognathus_Fact_File.html) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fimg383.imageshack.us%2Fimg383%2F2194%2Ftropeognathusll7.jpg&hash=b218cb7d38a1394d9c32bdfe551332bc) Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 05/12/2007 22:55:41 Quote from: Iko April stats about the forum traffic are quite amazing... Number of newbies a bit lower, but almost double posts! I know it's a quote of a quote of an april date but still....[???] Stats? Where are the stats? We should ask our moderators: when you click 'more stats' now you get the usual list of top posters and topic starters. In the old days there was a list at the bottom: number of new members, new topics and posts in the previous months. It just disappeared...few weeks ago. We'll survive. Ciao [:)] ikod Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: paul.fr on 05/12/2007 23:28:31 Click the little ' i ' icon at the bottom of the page where it says "forum stats" Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 06/12/2007 07:17:58 Click the little ' i ' icon at the bottom of the page where it says "forum stats" I did I did, but no stats per month anymore, paul.fr... I even looked behind my PC screen: nothing! [;D] Just lost somewhere, eaten up by the server, maybe. Cheers, ikod Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: paul.fr on 06/12/2007 08:28:29 It's still there, at the bottom Iko Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 07/12/2007 14:30:38 Sorry paul.fr, I opened stats center as usual: nothing at the bottom of that page... even checked under the table! [;D] ikod Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Alandriel on 08/12/2007 10:18:53 hehehe icon, icod what does strike me however is *this* : Male to Female Ratio: 1.4:1 I think this is one of the very few MBs with a community (if you get my meaning here) that's not totally female biased. A nice change! [;D] THE U N E X P L A I N E D • a 1990s documentary television series • a 1992 rock music album [:o)] or, let me rephrase for you scientific type: ANOMALIES Astronomy - Eccentric anomaly, the angle between the direction of periapsis and the current position of an object on its orbit - Flyby anomaly, an unexpected energy increase during Earth flybys of satellites - Mean anomaly, a measure of time in the study of orbital dynamics - Pioneer anomaly, the observed deviation of the trajectories of various unmanned spacecraft - South Atlantic Anomaly, the region where Earth's inner van Allen radiation belt makes its closest approach to the planet's surface - True anomaly, the angle between the direction of periapsis and the current position of an object on its orbit Geophysics - Bouguer anomaly, an anomaly in gravimetry - Free-air anomaly, the gravity anomaly that has been computed for latitude and corrected for elevation of the station - Gravity anomaly, the difference between the observed gravity and a value predicted from a model - Iridium anomaly, a very rare element in the Earth's crust - Kursk Magnetic Anomaly, a territory rich in iron ores located within Kursk Oblast, Belgorod Oblast, and Oryol Oblast Medicine - Congenital vertebral anomaly, a collection of malformations of the spine in animals and infants - Collie eye anomaly, a congenital, inherited, bilateral eye disease of dogs involving the retina, choroid, and sclera - Coronary artery anomaly, a congenital abnormality in the coronary anatomy of the heart - Ebstein's anomaly, a congenital heart defect in which the opening of the tricuspid valve is displaced towards the right ventricle of the heart - Uhl anomaly, a very seldom congenital heart disease with a partial or total loss of the myocard muscle in the righter ventricle Quantum physics - Anomaly (physics), the failure of a symmetry of a theory's classical action - Conformal anomaly, a quantum phenomenon that breaks the conformal symmetry of the classical theory - Chiral anomaly, the anomalous nonconservation of a chiral current - Gauge anomaly, an effect of quantum mechanics that invalidates the gauge symmetry of a quantum field theory - Global anomaly, an anomaly in quantum physics - Gravitational anomaly, an effect of quantum mechanics that invalidates the general covariance of a theory of general relativity - Mixed anomaly, an effect of quantum mechanics - Parity anomaly, an anomaly associated with parity Religion - Ararat anomaly, an object on Mount Ararat claimed to be Noah's Ark Other - Anomaly (comics), a DC Comics villain - Konishi anomaly, the violation of the conservation of the Noether current associated with certain transformations - Market anomaly, a price distortion on a financial market - Anomaly in software, everything that differs from expectation. This expectation can result from a document or from a persons notion or experiences. - Anomaly (music), a Danish rock'n'metal band - "Anomaly" (Enterprise episode), a third season episode of Star Trek: Enterprise - Spatial anomaly, a very broad term for any sort of extraordinary disruption in the space-time continuum in the fictional universe of Star Trek - Time anomaly, a fictional phenomena from the TV series Primeval - Anomalies, a musical album by Cephalic Carnage. - Anomalies, small areas in the game S.T.A.L.K.E.R.: Shadow of Chernobyl which have different effects on the game environment. - Anna-Molly, a song by Incubus whose title sounds like "anomaly" when sung. It refers to "a woman who may or may not exist in real life". - which then brings us of course to the Alandriel anomaly, an enigma, see reference just above [from Wiki (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anomaly) of course if you want to read some more of the things that keep life interesting [;D] Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 14/12/2007 16:56:26 VERUCCA A plantar wart (also verruca plantaris or verruca) is a wart caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV). It is a small lesion that appears on the sole of the foot (hence the name, from Latin planta pedis, the sole of the foot) and typically resembles a cauliflower. A plantar wart may have small black specks within it that ooze blood when the surface is cut or shaved; these are abnormal capillaries. Though the name plantar wart describes specifically HPV infection on the sole of the foot, infection by the virus is possible anywhere on the body and common especially on the palm of the hand, where the appearance of the wart is often exactly as described above for plantar warts. [ Invalid Attachment ] Ewe may wish to read more about veruccas right here (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Verucca) Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Sarah Elizabeth on 17/12/2007 15:03:37 Tsunami.... !!! the asian tsunami did not change the earths tilt at all, however it may have altered the earths wobble ! because the sumatran Tsunami was nearer one shore than the other,and one plate had a mch bigger force than the other,( which moved less, ) the effects will be lop sided ! Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 17/12/2007 22:45:22 Tsunami.... !!! the asian tsunami did not change the earths tilt at all, however it may have altered the earths wobble ! because the sumatran Tsunami was nearer one shore than the other,and one plate had a mch bigger force than the other,( which moved less, ) the effects will be lop sided ! Hi Sara Elizabeth !!... I luff you're post....it really is superb and thank ewe so much for posting it and WELCOME to the site too Ms Sara Elizabeth. Just one thing....and it's my fault for not clarifying it...but entries here in this thread are posted in alphabetical order !......with the previous post beginning with a 'V'.....the next post should begin with a 'W'..... Hey !..ti's not a prob.....but I thought I'd mention it to ya. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 17/12/2007 22:56:55 Wind is the flow of air. More generally, it is the flow of the gases which compose an atmosphere; since wind is not only an Earth based phenomenon. Winds are commonly classified by their spatial scale, their speed, the types of forces that cause them, the geographic regions in which they occur, or their effect. There are global winds, such as the wind belts which exist between the atmospheric circulation cells. There are upper-level winds which typically include narrow belts of concentrated flow called jet streams. There are synoptic-scale winds that result from pressure differences in surface air masses in the middle latitudes, and there are winds that come about as a consequence of geographic features, such as the sea breezes on coastlines or canyon breezes near mountains. Mesoscale winds are those which act on a local scale, such as gust fronts. At the smallest scale are the microscale winds, which blow on a scale of only tens to hundreds of meters and are essentially unpredictable, such as dust devils and microbursts. Forces which drive wind or affect it are the pressure gradient force, the Coriolis force, buoyancy forces, and friction forces. When a difference in pressure exists between two adjacent air masses, the air tends to flow from the region of high pressure to the region of low pressure. On a rotating planet, flows will be acted upon by the Coriolis force, in regions sufficiently far from the equator and sufficiently high above the surface. The three major driving factors of large scale global winds are the differential heating between the equator and the poles (difference in absorption of solar energy between these climate zones), and the rotation of the planet. [ Invalid Attachment ] Wind doing what it does best....being windy !!!...just like my bot bot after eating curried beans !! Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 19/12/2007 18:55:20 X-RAY inspection (wings and fuselage) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.digiray.com%2Ffig_f1.gif&hash=bc16b577c20b7dee125d9f23e6d5fae3) http://www.digiray.com/fig_f1.gif Digiray® real-time Reverse Geometry X-ray® (RGX®) systems open up new opportunities in aerospace non-destructive evaluation (NDE): unparalleled contrast resolution (up to ten times better than conventional systems) increased throughput (no film to develop) completely digital (first-generation image quality) small detectors (one centimeter square) detects corrosion, impact damage, cracks, foreign objects, and flaws in manufacturing that conventional x-ray systems cannot resolve. Typical aerospace applications include NDE of: corrosion impact damage water entrapment in both aluminum and composite structures ... more reading: http://www.digiray.com/aircraft/aircraft.htm (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.dtbtest.com%2Fimages%2Fmetallurgical1.jpg&hash=28491424dc41aa38c772e1f7ca001c6d) http://www.dtbtest.com/images/metallurgical1.jpg Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 20/12/2007 22:02:08 Yukawa Hideki [ Invalid Attachment ] Hideki Yukawa FRSE (湯川 秀樹, January 23, 1907 – September 8, 1981) was a Japanese theoretical physicist and the first Japanese person to win the Nobel prize. Yukawa was born in Tokyo, on January 23, 1907. In 1929, after receiving his degree from Kyoto Imperial University he stayed on as a lecturer for four years. After graduation, he was interested in theoretical physics, particularly in the theory of elementary particles. In 1932, he married Sumi (スミ) and had two sons, Harumi and Takaaki. In 1933 he became an assistant professor at Osaka University, at age 26. In 1935 he published his theory of mesons, which explained the interaction between protons and neutrons, and was a major influence on research into elementary particles. In 1940 he became a professor in Kyoto University. In 1940 he won the Imperial Prize of the Japan Academy, in 1943 the Decoration of Cultural Merit from the Japanese government. In 1949 he became a professor at Columbia University, the same year he won the Nobel prize in physics, after the discovery by Cecil Powell of Yukawa's predicted pion in 1947. Yukawa also predicted K-capture, in which a low energy hydrogen electron could be absorbed by the nucleus. Yukawa became the first chairman at Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics 1953. He received a Doctor, honoris causa from the University of Paris, and honorary memberships of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, the Indian Academy of Sciences, the International Academy of Philosophy and Sciences, and the Pontificia Academia Scientiarum were granted to him for acknowledgement in science. He had been an editor at Progress of Theoretical Physics since 1946. He had published many scientific papers and lecture notes, including Introduction to Quantum Mechanics (1946) and Introduction to the Theory of Elementary Particles (1948), both in Japanese. In 1955, he joined 10 other leading scientists and intellectuals in signing the Russell-Einstein Manifesto, calling for nuclear disarmament. SOURCE:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hideki_Yukawa Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Karen W. on 21/12/2007 12:09:00 Zebrass = The offspring of a male Zebra and a female ass. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 24/12/2007 18:57:06 Alexander Agassiz Medal The Alexander Agassiz Medal is awarded by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences for an original contribution in the science of oceanography. It was established by Sir John Murray in honor of his friend Alexander Agassiz. [ Invalid Attachment ] Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 27/12/2007 18:04:20 Biplane (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.kshs.org%2Fcool%2Fgraphics%2Fbiplane.jpg&hash=cadbe94f7871ee01b3f8284adabebbaf) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.scottairshow.com%2Fimages2%2Fhamill.jpg&hash=034c52e66617727bd98b77d9d130406e) http://www.kshs.org/cool/graphics/biplane.jpg http://www.scottairshow.com/images2/hamill.jpg Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Simulated on 05/01/2008 21:00:20 C for Coffee (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fgrahamfurlong.typepad.com%2Fwork_hard_be_nice%2Fimages%2Fcoffee_morning.jpg&hash=4737c55b0ae7d6134a411d192e2700f8) Coffee is a widely consumed stimulant beverage prepared from roasted seeds, commonly called beans, of the coffee plant. Coffee was first consumed in the 9th century, when it was discovered in the highlands of Ethiopia.[1] From there, it spread to Egypt and Yemen, and by the 15th century had reached Persia, Turkey, and northern Africa. From the Muslim world, coffee spread to Italy, then to the rest of Europe and the Americas.[2] Today, coffee is one of the most popular beverages worldwide.[3] Coffee berries, which contain the coffee bean, are produced by several species of small evergreen bush of the genus Coffea. The two most commonly grown species are Coffea canephora (also known as Coffea robusta) and Coffea arabica. These are cultivated in Latin America, southeast Asia, and Africa. Once ripe, coffee berries are picked, processed, and dried. The seeds are then roasted, undergoing several physical and chemical changes. They are roasted to various degrees, depending on the desired flavor. They are then ground and brewed to create coffee. Coffee can be prepared and presented by a variety of methods. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Karen W. on 05/01/2008 21:37:53 Dermotology http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dermatology From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Dermatology (from Greek δερμα, "skin") is a branch of medicine dealing with the skin and its appendages (hair, sweat glands, etc). Scope of the field Dermatologists are physicians (Medical Doctors) specializing in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and tumors of the skin and its appendages. There are medical and surgical sides to the specialty. Dermatologic surgeons practice skin cancer surgery (including Mohs' micrographic surgery), laser surgery, photodynamic therapy (PDT) and cosmetic procedures using botulinum toxin ('Botox'), soft tissue fillers, sclerotherapy and liposuction. Dermatopathologists interpret tissue under the microscope (histopathology). Pediatric dermatologists specialize in the diagnoses and treatment of skin disease in children. Immunodermatologists specialize in the diagnosis and management of skin diseases driven by an altered immune system including blistering (bullous) diseases like pemphigus. In addition, there is a wide range of congenital syndromes managed by dermatologists.  Subspecialties The skin is the largest organ of the body and the most visible. Although many skin diseases are isolated, some are manifestations of internal disease. Hence, a dermatologist is schooled in aspects of surgery, rheumatology (many rheumatic diseases can feature skin symptoms and signs), immunology, neurology (the "neurocuteaneous syndromes", such as neurofibromatosis and tuberous sclerosis), infectious diseases and endocrinology. The study of genetics is also becoming increasingly important.  Venereology and phlebology Venereology, the subspecialty that diagnoses and treats sexually transmitted diseases, and phlebology, the specialty that deals with problems of the superficial venous system, are both part of a dermatologist's expertise.  Cosmetic dermatology Cosmetic dermatology has long been an important part of the field, and dermatologists have been the primary innovators in this area. In the 1900's dermatologists employed dermabrasion to improve acne scarring and fat microtransfer was used to fill in cutaneous defects. Dermatologists specializing in cosmetic dermatology typically use non-invasive procedures to reverse the signs of aging. Botox has been used since it was FDA approved for the treatment of wrinkles. It is used to minimize wrinkles such as frown lines and crow's feet. Fillers are used to "fill in" lines on the face and to minimize the appearance wrinkles. Brand names of fillers include Restylane, Perlane, Juvederm, Radiesse and Cosmoplast among many others. Dermatologists are also the pioneers of energy based treatments for the skin and these include lasers, intense pulsed light, radiofrequency, infrared light and photodynamic treatments. While "cosmetic dermatology" can be practiced by any MD, a board-certified dermatologist or someone who has completed a dermatology residency are the most qualified doctors to perform these types of procedures. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: rosalind dna on 05/01/2008 21:49:40 Epidermis the first layer of skin. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 08/01/2008 21:59:37 Fatigue cracking (aircraft) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.tc.gc.ca%2FCivilAviation%2Fpublications%2Ftp185%2F3-06%2FImages%2FTSB4.jpg&hash=eb5e672cb03f387a33cbf6b04037a6fc) http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/publications/tp185/3-06/Images/TSB4.jpg (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.reviewjournal.com%2Flvrj_home%2F2004%2FApr-24-Sat-2004%2Fphotos%2F1crash.jpg&hash=b940f2a02b45ab820cf7e8ce034d294c) ... The Washington, D.C.-based safety board ruled that fatigue cracks caused the wings to snap off a C-130A on June 17, 2002, just south of the Nevada state line in Walker, Calif., shortly after its takeoff from the Douglas County Airport in Minden. ... http://www.reviewjournal.com/lvrj_home/2004/Apr-24-Sat-2004/news/23730288.html Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Simulated on 09/01/2008 00:05:52 G is for Green Grass (That Sheepy likes to cheww on) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fstore.got3d.com%2Fimages%2F30-grass-textures.jpg&hash=5c7b750175ec48721d331afc86e6fac1) Grass is a common word that generally describes a monocotyledonous green plant in the family Gramineae (Poaceae). True grasses include most plants grown as grains, for pasture, and for lawns (turf). They include some more specialised crops such as lemongrass, as well as many ornamental plants, and some weeds. They also include plants often not recognized to be grasses, such as bamboos or some species of weeds called crab grass. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: opus on 09/01/2008 23:40:41 H is for haggis- sheepy's stomach! Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 09/01/2008 23:50:09 H is for haggis- sheepy's stomach! [;)] [;)]hmmm..must be why I'm hungry so much !! [;)] Invisible ink.............. is a substance used for writing, which is either invisible on application, or soon thereafter, and which later on can be made visible by some means. The use of invisible ink is a form of steganography, and has been used in espionage. Other uses may include anticounterfeiting, property marking, hand stamping for readmission, children's games, and marking for the purpose of identification in manufacturing. [ Invalid Attachment ] A drawing of Me done in Invisble Ink ! Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: opus on 10/01/2008 00:20:44 J is for jam- preserve made by mixing fruit , sugar and stuff! Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 10/01/2008 15:25:27 Kirlian photography refers to a form of photogram made with high voltage. It is named after Semyon Kirlian, who in 1939 accidentally discovered that if an object on a photographic plate is connected to a source of high voltage, small corona discharges (created by the strong electric field at the edges of the object) create an image on photographic plate.[1] Kirlian's work, from 1939 onward, involved an independent rediscovery of a phenomenon and technique variously called "electrography," "electrophotography," and "corona discharge photography." The underlying physics (which makes xerographic copying possible) was explored as early as 1777 by Georg Christoph Lichtenberg (see Lichtenberg figures). Later workers in the field included Nikola Tesla; various other individuals explored the effect in the later 19th and early 20th centuries. Yet Kirlian took the development of the effect further than any of his predecessors. In controversial metaphysical contexts, Kirlian photography, Kirlian energy, and so on, are sometimes referred to as just "Kirlian." Kirlian made controversial claims that his method showed proof of supernatural auras, said to resemble a rough outline of the object like a colorful halo. An experiment advanced as evidence of energy fields generated by living entities involves taking Kirlian contact photographs of a picked leaf at set periods, its gradual withering being said to correspond with a decline in the strength of the aura. Scientifically, it is considered more likely that as the leaf loses moisture it becomes less electrically conductive, causing a gradual weakening of the electrical field at the drier edges of the leaf. [ Invalid Attachment ] Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: InfraDead on 10/01/2008 18:51:40 Laboratory: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laboratory Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 10/01/2008 19:06:44 Magnetic compass (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.rockymountainmooney.com%2FPortals%2F0%2FMooneyStandardFeatures%2FCompass.JPG&hash=2be8afdb1fd2f4f99e4bf396190c7577) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.dailygalaxy.com%2Fphotos%2Funcategorized%2F2007%2F09%2F25%2Falyn_walsh_2.jpg&hash=09c9911c8dc1eefc6a39cc510396a3c3) http://www.rockymountainmooney.com/Portals/0/MooneyStandardFeatures/Compass.JPG http://www.dailygalaxy.com/photos/uncategorized/2007/09/25/alyn_walsh_2.jpg - The most common liquid-type compass, capable of calibration to compensate for magnetic influences within the aircraft. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: neilep on 10/01/2008 19:28:54 Nicolaas Bloembergen (born Dordrecht, March 11, 1920) is an Dutch-born American physicist. He received his Ph.D. from University of Leiden and Harvard in 1948; while pursuing his PhD at Harvard, Bloembergen also worked part-time as a graduate research assistant for Edward Mills Purcell at the MIT Radiation Laboratory[1]. He became a professor at Harvard University. Bloembergen enrolled in 1938 at the University of Utrecht to study physics. Bloembergen left the war ravaged Netherlands in 1945 to pursue graduate studies at Harvard University. Six weeks before his arrival, Harvard Professor Edward M. Purcell (along with his graduate students Torrey and Pound) discovered nuclear magnetic resonance. Bloembergen was hired to develop a first NMR machine. While at Harvard he enjoyed classes from Schwinger, Van Vleck and Kemble. His thesis Nuclear Magnetic Relaxation was submitted both in Leiden, where he passed qualifying criteria, and Harvard. After a brief postdoctoral appointment with C. J. Gorter in the Netherlands, he joined Harvard he was named a junior fellow of Society of Fellows in 1949 and Associate Professor in 1951. In 1958, he became a naturalized citizen of the United States. He was awarded the Lorentz Medal in 1978. Nicolaas Bloembergen shared the 1981 Nobel Prize in Physics with Arthur Schawlow and Kai Siegbahn for their work in laser spectroscopy. Bloembergen and Schawlow investigated properties of matter undetectable without lasers. He had earlier modified the maser of Charles Townes. Bloembergen serves on the University of Arizona faculty. Bloembergen belongs to prolific J. J. Thomson academic lineage tree, following in footsteps of other Nobel Laureates beginning with Lord Rayleigh (Physics Nobel Prize in 1904) and J. J. Thomson (Nobel 1906), and continued with Ernest Rutherford (Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1908), Owen Richardson (Physics Nobel, 1918) and finally Bloembergen's advisor, Edward Purcell (Physics Nobel 1952). Prof. Bloembergen is a member of the Board of Sponsors of The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists[2]. His other influences included John Van Vleck (Physics Nobel 1977) and Percy Bridgman (Physics Nobel 1946). [ Invalid Attachment ] Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Simulated on 11/01/2008 02:18:02 O is for Osprey. A bird of prey right? lol I thikn soo Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: InfraDead on 11/01/2008 20:32:35 Particles: extremely small constituents of matter, such as an atom or nucleus. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 11/01/2008 20:52:15 Quadruplane (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.pigstompers.net%2FTriplane-Madness%2FEuler-quad.jpg&hash=9b2a4ee40eb6d4d272b70d1eac25e672) http://www.pigstompers.net/Triplane-Madness/Euler-quad.jpg Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Simulated on 11/01/2008 22:35:57 R is for Robins Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: InfraDead on 12/01/2008 09:46:31 Subatomic Particles: A subatomic particle is an elementary or composite particle smaller than an atom. Particle physics and nuclear physics are concerned with the study of these particles, their interactions, and non-atomic matter. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 12/01/2008 13:00:42 Touch and go (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.cvn74.navy.mil%2FphotoGallery%2FHighres%2FAPR07%2F14APR07%2F070412-N-8157C-348.jpg&hash=ea76e7b271c70747e79363f4dc1c9a29) http://www.cvn74.navy.mil/photoGallery/Highres/APR07/14APR07/070412-N-8157C-348.jpg TOUCH-AND-GO - Landing practice wherein an aircraft does not make a full stop after a landing, but proceeds immediately to another take-off. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Simulated on 12/01/2008 13:06:54 Ah nice one Iko. U is for Unbrella You all know what its used for! Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: InfraDead on 12/01/2008 15:21:49 Vortex: A vortex is a spinning, often turbulent, flow of fluid. Any spiral motion with closed streamlines is vortex flow. The motion of the fluid swirling rapidly around a center is called a vortex. The speed and rate of rotation of the fluid are greatest at the center, and decrease progressively with distance from the center. Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 12/01/2008 15:28:52 Wind shear (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.geocities.com%2Fkhlim777_my%2FPresentation1.jpg&hash=6cd1cfc29dbabc2eb7a44e1e45493972) http://www.geocities.com/khlim777_my/Presentation1.jpg Quote ... Wind shear is a sudden and drastic change in wind direction or speed over a short distance along the flight path, usually associated with a microburst that often occurs in the vicinity of thunderstorms or typhoons. more from: http://www.geocities.com/khlim777_my/aswindshearz.htm ...severe wind shear? (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.swapmeetdave.com%2FHumor%2FInsurance%2FPlaneA.jpg&hash=7c31e0e61607a97ccb2a861e0e8cab1f) ...check this out: http://www.swapmeetdave.com/Humor/Insurance/Plane.htm [;D] [;D] [;D] Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Simulated on 12/01/2008 16:02:00 Wow lol X is for Xylophone Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: Karen W. on 12/01/2008 16:43:27 YAWN.... Whoops I made myself YAWN) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yawn Yawn From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia A yawn (synonyms chasma, pandiculation[1], oscitation from the Latin verb oscitare, to open the mouth wide [2] ) is a reflex of deep inhalation and exhalation associated with tiredness, stress, over-work, lack of stimulation, or boredom. Pandiculation is the term for the act of stretching and yawning.[1] Yawning is a powerful non-verbal message with several possible meanings, depending on the circumstances. The claim that yawning is caused by lack of oxygen has not been substantiated scientifically. [3] However, the exact causes of yawning are still undetermined. The word "yawn" has evolved from the Middle English word yanen, an alteration of yonen or yenen, which in turn comes from the Old English geonian.[4] Contents [hide] * 1 Hypothesized causes of yawning * 2 Yawning as a medical sign * 3 Contagiousness * 4 Other uses for yawning * 5 Superstitions * 6 Consequences of Yawning * 7 Notes and references * 8 External links  Hypothesized causes of yawning 1. A means of cooling the brain.[5] 2. An action used as an unconscious communication of psychological decompression after a state of high alert. 3. A means of expressing powerful emotions like anger, apathy, apprehension, remorse or boredom.[citation needed] 4. An excess of carbon dioxide and lack of oxygen in the blood. [1] 5. A way of displaying (or indicative of) apathy. 6. Tiredness 7. A means of equalizing inner ear pressure, which can be triggered by another's yawning A yawning cat A yawning cat A recent hypothesis raised in 2007 by Andrew C. Gallup and Gordon Gallup of the University of Albany states that yawning may be a means to keep the brain cool. Mammalian brains operate best when they are cool. In an experiment, he showed several groups of people videos of other people yawning. When the subjects held heat packs up to their foreheads while viewing the videos, they yawned often. But when they held cold packs up to their foreheads or breathed through their noses (another means of brain cooling), they did not yawn at all. [5] [6] A similar recent hypothesis is that yawning is used for regulation of body temperature. Another hypothesis is that yawns are caused by the same chemicals (neurotransmitters) in the brain that affect emotions, mood, appetite and other phenomena. These chemicals include serotonin, dopamine, glutamic acid and nitric oxide. As more (or less) of these compounds are activated in the brain, the frequency of yawning increases. Conversely, a greater presence in the brain of opiate neurotransmitters such as endorphins reduces the frequency of yawning. Patients taking the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors Paxil (paroxetine HCl) or Celexa (citalopram) have been observed yawning abnormally often. Anecdotal reports by users of psilocybin mushrooms often describe a marked stimulation of yawning while intoxicated, often associated with excess lacrimation and nasal mucosal stimulation, especially while "peaking" (i.e. undergoing the most intense portion of the psilocybin experience). While opioids have been demonstrated to reduce this yawning and lacrimation provoked by psilocybin, it is not clear that the same pathways that induce yawning as a symptom of opioid abstinence in habituated users are the mode of action in psilocybin-induced yawning. While even opioid-dependent users of psilocybin on stable opioid therapy often report yawning and excess lacrimation while undergoing this entheogenic mushroom experience, there are no known reports in the literature that suggest psilocybin acts as any sort of general opioid antagonist. Psilocybin-induced yawning in opioid-habituated users does not appear to produce other typical opioid withdrawal symptoms such as cramping, physical pain, anxiety, gooseflesh etc. Recent research carried out by Catriona Morrison, a lecturer in psychology at the University of Leeds, involving monitoring the yawning behaviour of students kept waiting in a reception area, indicates a connection (supported by neuro-imaging research) between empathic ability and yawning. "We believe that contagious yawning indicates empathy. It indicates an appreciation of other people's behavioural and physiological state," said Morrison.[7] Another theory is that yawning is similar to stretching. Stretching, like yawning, increases blood pressure and heart rate while also flexing many muscles and joints. It is also theorized that yawning helps redistribute surfactant, an oil-like substance which coats the lungs and aids breathing. Some have observed that if one tries to stifle or prevent a yawn by clenching one's jaws shut, the yawn is unsatisfying. As such, the stretching of jaw and face muscles seems to be necessary for a satisfactory yawn. Yet another theory is that yawning occurs to stabilize pressure on either side of the ear drums. The deep intake of air can sometimes cause a popping sound that only the yawner can hear; this is the pressure on the inner ear stabilizing. This commonly occurs in environments where pressure is changing relatively rapidly, such as inside an airplane and when travelling up and down hills, which cause the eardrums to be bent instead of flat. Some people yawn when storms approach, which is a sure sign that changes in pressure affect them. Some movements in psychotherapy, such as Re-evaluation Counseling or co-counselling treatments, believe that yawning, along with laughter and crying, are means of "discharging" painful emotion, and therefore can be encouraged in order to promote physical and emotional healing.  Yawning as a medical sign Excessive yawning has been associated with several medical conditions and may be considered as a medical sign for some diseases. These conditions include:[8] * Multiple sclerosis * Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) * Migraine headache (rare) * Radiation poisoning, including radiation therapy Yawning may occur less frequently in persons with schizophrenia. Certain medications may also induce yawning. These include:[9] * Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors * Levodopa * Dopamine agonists * Monoamine oxidase inhibitors of the MAO-B isoform (such as selegiline) * Ayahuasca, the psychoactive Amazonian tea that contains MAO-inhibiting harmala alkaloids * Opioids, such as morphine, methadone, buprenorphine, dextromethorphan * Benzodiazepines * Lidocaine * Flecainide * Psilocybin * Nemfomercen  Contagiousness The yawn reflex is often described as contagious: if one person yawns, this will cause another person to "sympathetically" yawn.[3][10] Observing another person's yawning face (especially his/her eyes), or even reading about or thinking about yawning, can cause a person to yawn. You could possibly be yawning from reading this section or looking at these pictures.[3][11] However, only about 55% of people in a given audience will respond to such a stimulus; fewer if only the mouth is shown in a visual stimulus.[12]The proximate cause for contagious yawning may lie with mirror neurons, i.e. neurons in the frontal cortex of certain vertebrates, which upon being exposed to a stimulus from conspecific (same species) and occasionally interspecific organisms, activates the same regions in the brain.[13] Mirror neurons have been proposed as a driving force for imitation which lies at the root of much human learning, e.g. language acquisition. Yawning may be an offshoot of the same imitative impulse. A 2007 study found that children with autism spectrum disorders, unlike typical children, did not yawn after seeing videos of other people yawning; this supports the claim that contagious yawning is based on the capacity for empathy.[14] To look at the issue in terms of evolutionary advantage, if there is one at all, yawning might be a herd instinct.[15] Other theories suggest that the yawn serves to synchronize mood behavior among gregarious animals, similar to the howling of the wolf pack. It signals tiredness to other members of the group in order to synchronize sleeping patterns and periods of activity. This phenomenon has been observed among various primates. The threat gesture is a way of maintaining order in the primates' social structure. Specific studies were conducted on chimpanzees[16] and stumptail macaques[17]. A group of these animals was shown a video of other conspecifics yawning, and both chimpanzees and stumptail macaques yawned also. This helps to partly confirm a yawn's "contagiousness". Gordon Gallup, who hypothesizes that yawning may be a means of keeping the brain cool, also hypothesizes that "contagious" yawning may be a survival instinct inherited from our evolutionary past. "During human evolutionary history when we were subject to predation and attacks by other groups, if everybody yawns in response to seeing someone yawn, the whole group becomes much more vigilant, and much better at being able to detect danger."[5]  Other uses for yawning In non-human animals, yawning can serve as a warning signal. For example, Charles Darwin, in his book The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, mentioned that baboons use yawn to threaten their enemies, possibly by displaying large, canine teeth. Similarly, Siamese Fighting Fish yawn only when they see a conspecific (same species) or their own mirror-image, and their yawn often accompanies aggressive attack. [18] Guinea Pigs also yawn in a display of dominance or anger, displaying their impressive incisor teeth, this is often accompanied by teeth chattering, purring and scent marking. Adelie Penguins employ yawning as part of their courtship ritual. Penguin couples face off and the males engage in what is described as an "ecstatic display," their beaks open wide and their faces pointed skyward. This trait has also been seen among Emperor Penguins. Researchers have been attempting to discover why these two different species share this trait, despite not sharing a habitat.[citation needed].  Superstitions Certain superstitions surround the act of yawning. The most common of these is the belief that it is necessary to cover one's mouth when one is yawning in order to prevent one's soul from escaping the body. The Ancient Greeks believed that yawning was not a sign of boredom, but that a person's soul was trying to escape from its body, so that it may rest with the gods in the skies. This belief was also shared by the Maya.[citation needed] Other superstitions include: * A yawn is a sign that danger is near. * Counting a person's teeth robs them of one year of life for every tooth counted. This is why some people cover their mouths when they laugh, smile, or yawn. * If two persons are seen to yawn one after the other, it is said that the one who yawned last bears no malice towards the one who yawned first. * The one who yawns first shows no malice towards those he or she yawns around. * If you don't cover your mouth while yawning, then the devil will come and steal your soul (Estonia). * In Ancient Mayan civilization, yawning was thought to indicate subconscious sexual desires. * In some Latin American, East Asian and Central African countries yawning is said to be caused by someone else talking about you. * A yawn may be a sign that one is afflicted by the evil eye (Greece). * When one person yawns, it is said that anybody watching will instantly yawn as well These superstitions may not only have arisen to prevent people from committing the faux pas of yawning loudly in another's presence — one of Mason Cooley's aphorisms is "A yawn is more disconcerting than a contradiction" — but may also have arisen from concerns over public health. Polydore Vergil (c. 1470–1555), in his De Rerum Inventoribus, writes that it was customary to make the sign of the cross over one's mouth, since "alike deadly plague was sometime in yawning, wherefore men used to fence themselves with the sign of the cross...which custom we retain at this day."[19]  Consequences of Yawning In November 2007 a Surrey man nearly lost his life through yawning: his jaw dislocated and he began to choke on his own saliva, only prompt action by his wife in summoning an ambulance saved his life.[20] Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS Post by: iko on 12/01/2008 19:09:33 Zeta Airplane (Miller Aircraft, 1937) (https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.geocities.com%2Fdgraves549%2Fmiller-1.jpg&hash=b10f2ff12f50d82569e5095175791657) http://www.geocities.com/dgraves549/miller-1.jpg Quote ... Mark Granville and "Pete" Miller found twenty people to invest100 dollars each and formed the Miller Aircraft Corporation. In 1936 they built a side-by-side sport plane (X1331) with a 125 HP Menasco engine. It was named "Zeta" because Miller's fraternity at NYU was Zeta Psi. The plane's first flight was made on DEC 11, 1937. No market was found, so Mark and his wife used it for short pleasure trips until W.W.II restrictions on private aircraft forced the plane into retirement with only 200 hours logged. The dismantled plane was found in a barn, refurbished and donated to the Springfield Science Museum in 1978. Thanks to Romaine Lambert
...

http://www.geocities.com/capecanaveral/lab/4515/Miller.htm
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Simulated on 12/01/2008 22:04:42
Hey Iko what's up with ya and aeroplanes?
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 12/01/2008 22:07:45
Hey Iko what's up with ya and aeroplanes?

Hi Simulated!
We have been playing this for such a long time,
so I decided to restrict it to just 1 subject:
it's more challanging!
Take care.

ikod   [^]

Simulated Flight
(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.smartbraingames.com%2Fimages%2Fresearch%2520main.jpg&hash=dc47d29891e9aa439a1e595afe0ed6fa)

http://www.smartbraingames.com/images/research%20main.jpg
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Simulated on 13/01/2008 14:39:59
Haha that's a good one! (Why do you think my name is Simulated? lol)

A is for Aeroplane!

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi155.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fs319%2FKraneDiggity%2FTNS%2F2007-5-20_19-22-54-78.jpg&hash=139ceb8eda78de0ef4b27725fb4217b9)

A fixed-wing aircraft is a heavier-than-air craft where movement of the wings in relation to the aircraft is not used to generate lift. The term is used to distinguish from rotary-wing aircraft or ornithopters, where the movement of the wing surfaces relative to the aircraft generates lift. Fixed-wing aircraft are called airplanes in North America (the U.S. and Canada), and aeroplanes in Commonwealth countries and Ireland (excluding Canada). These terms are derived from Greek αέρας (aéras-) ("air") and -plane.[1]. The current British word is the older of the two terms, dating back to the mid-late 19th century.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 13/01/2008 16:57:22
Bail out

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fblogs.aviation.ca%2Fmedia%2FBAILOUT.jpg&hash=9833b20516a0e99d2a01998e5eb41137)
http://blogs.aviation.ca/media/BAILOUT.jpg

Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Simulated on 17/01/2008 00:05:34
C is for Communications

Communication is a process that allows organisms to exchange information by several methods. Communication requires that all parties understand a common language that is exchanged with each other. Exchange requires feedback. The word communication is also used in the context where little or no feedback is expected such as broadcasting, or where the feedback may be delayed as the sender or receiver use different methods, technologies, timing and means for feedback.

There are auditory means, such as speaking,singing and sometimes tone of voice, and nonverbal, physical means, such as body language, sign language, paralanguage, touch, eye contact, or the use of writing.

Communication happens at many levels (even for one single action), in many different ways, and for most beings, as well as certain machines. Several, if not all, fields of study dedicate a portion of attention to communication, so when speaking about communication it is very important to be sure about what aspects of communication one is speaking about. Definitions of communication range widely, some recognizing that animals can communicate with each other as well as human beings, and some are more narrow, only including human beings within the parameters of human symbolic interaction.

Nonetheless, communication is usually described along a few major dimensions:

Content (what type of things are communicated)
Source/Emisor/Sender/Encoder (by whom)
Form (in which form)
Channel (through which medium)
Purpose/Pragmatic aspect

Between parties, communication includes acts that confer knowledge and experiences, give advice and commands, and ask questions. These acts may take many forms, in one of the various manners of communication. The form depends on the abilities of the group communicating. Together, communication content and form make messages that are sent towards a destination. The target can be oneself, another person or being , another entity (such as a corporation or group of beings).

Depending on the focus (who, what, in which form, to whom, to which effect), there exist various classifications. Some of those systematical questions are elaborated in Communication theory.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: JimBob on 17/01/2008 03:24:03
Drag

When things stick out from the air frame and/or foils they cause the laminar flow of air over an airplane to eddy and create resistance to forward movement. This is a DRAG. It slows the airplane down.
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 17/01/2008 22:26:22
Ejection seat

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.airforce-technology.com%2Fprojects%2Fhawk%2Fimages%2Fhawk5.jpg&hash=9890daa12c958053304480257549af29)
http://www.airforce-technology.com/projects/hawk/images/hawk5.jpg

more from:    http://www.airforce-technology.com/projects/hawk/hawk7.html
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Simulated on 18/01/2008 21:34:19
F is for Flight Simulator.

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi155.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fs319%2FKraneDiggity%2FTNS%2F2007-5-20_19-22-54-78.jpg&hash=139ceb8eda78de0ef4b27725fb4217b9)
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: iko on 18/01/2008 22:15:43
Gotta that pic only?  [;D]

Gyroscope  (Gyro)

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.gyroscopes.org%2Fimages%255Cgeneral%255Csmallcom.jpg&hash=3f0b26ec0e9cda0dc9552caf85593651)
http://www.gyroscopes.org/images%5Cgeneral%5Csmallcom.jpg

Quote
...
Gyrocompasses are basically navigation aids. Gyroscopes don't like to change direction, so if they are mounted into a device that allows them to move freely (low friction gimbal). Then when the device is moved in different directions the gyroscope will still point in the same direction. This can then be measured and the results can be used in similar ways to a normal compass. But unlike a standard magnetic compass is not magnetic environmental changes and readings are move accurate. Gyrocompasses are commonly used in ships and aircraft.

http://www.gyroscopes.org/uses.asp
Title: Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
Post by: Simulated on 19/01/2008 02:29:43
H is for Helicopter

(https://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ianztrainz.com.au%2Fhelicopter1450.jpg&hash=1f37383f602417d43b77fbe4e91dd234)

A helicopter is an aircraft which is lifted and propelled by one or more horizontal rotors, each rotor consisting of two or more rotor blades. Helicopters are classified as rotorcraft or rotary-wing aircraft to distinguish them from fixed-wing aircraft because the helicopter derives its source of lift from the rotor blades