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The sun is throwing out both electrons (negative) and protons, Helium nuclei etc (all positively charged) in the form of the solar wind, sometimes this is stronger and others weaker. These moving charged particles tend to follow magnetic field lines so when they hit the earth's magnetic field they follow it down to the north or south pole and hit the atmosphere creating Aurorae (northern lights)
These moving charged particles are an electric current, and electric currents create magnetic fields, so they will alter the shape of the earth's magnetic field, especially further away from the surface.
Sun spots are involved because they are associated with solar flares and coronal mass ejections which throw particularly concentrated high powered bits of solar wind at us, which can damage satellites create, great arororae, and the associated magnetic fields can even knock out power grids.