Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?

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Offline Karen W.

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I thought this would help all of us who are not knowledgeable in this department to become more knowledgeable and hip in the chemical department! LOL!
And since you all are the chemists and scientists I will let you begin! LOL
Each post should contain one chemical and where it comes from or where we find it.. You may elaborate on its usage if you like! Thanks!

"Life is not measured by the number of Breaths we take, but by the moments that take our breath away."

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Offline Chemistry4me

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #1 on: 27/12/2008 05:37:02 »
Starting at the beginnning
Hydrogen, (Greek, “water former”), reactive, colourless, odourless, and tasteless gaseous element. Hydrogen reacts with many non-metals. It combines with nitrogen in the presence of a catalyst to form ammonia, with sulphur to form hydrogen sulphide, with chlorine to form hydrogen chloride, and with oxygen to form water. Hydrogen also combines with some metals, such as sodium and lithium, to form hydrides. The lightest in weight of all gases, hydrogen has been used for the inflation of balloons and dirigibles. It ignites very easily, however, and several airships, including the Hindenburg, have been destroyed by hydrogen fires. Hydrogen is also used in high-temperature torches for cutting, melting, and welding metals. The most abundant element in the universe.

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Offline DoctorBeaver

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #2 on: 27/12/2008 10:16:08 »
Helium - from the Greek "Helios" meaning Sun. IT is the 2nd most abundant element in the universe and is formed when 2 Hydrogen atoms get friendly.
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Offline Chemistry4me

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #3 on: 27/12/2008 23:20:38 »
Helium, inert, colourless, odourless gaseous element. Helium has a density of 0.1664 g/litre at 20° C. Helium is the most difficult of all gases to liquefy and is impossible to solidify at normal atmospheric pressures. These properties make liquid helium extremely useful as a refrigerant and for experimental work in producing and measuring temperatures close to absolute zero. Liquid helium can be cooled almost to absolute zero at normal pressure by rapid removal of the vapour above the liquid. At a temperature slightly above absolute zero, it is transformed into helium II, also called superfluid helium, a liquid with unique physical properties. It has no freezing point, and its viscosity is apparently zero; it passes readily through minute cracks and pores and will even creep up the sides and over the lip of a container. At sea level, helium occurs in the atmosphere in the proportion of 5.4 parts per million. Natural gas, which contains an average of 0.4 per cent helium, is the major commercial source of helium.

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Offline DoctorBeaver

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #4 on: 27/12/2008 23:38:43 »
Bloody Kiwi showoff!  [:(!]
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Offline Chemistry4me

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #5 on: 28/12/2008 01:42:35 »
Haha [:D] I didn't memorise all of those just in case you thought I was smart or something [::)] [::)]

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Offline Chemistry4me

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #6 on: 28/12/2008 01:52:46 »
Lithium, silvery-white, chemically reactive metallic element that is the lightest in weight of all metals. In group 1 of the periodic table, lithium is one of the alkali metals. Discovery of the element is generally credited to Johann A. Arfvedson in 1817. Lithium is obtained by the electrolysis of a mixture of fused lithium and potassium chloride. It tarnishes instantaneously and corrodes rapidly upon exposure to air; when it is stored it must be immersed in a liquid such as naphtha. Lithium does not occur in nature in the free state but only in compounds, which are widely distributed. The metal is used as a deoxidizer and to remove unwanted gases during the manufacture of non-ferrous castings. Lithium vapour is used to prevent carbon dioxide and oxygen from forming scale in furnaces in heat-treating steel. Important compounds of lithium include the hydroxide, used for bonding carbon dioxide in the ventilator systems of spacecraft and submarines; and the hydride, used to inflate lifeboats, and its heavy hydrogen (deuterium) equivalent, used in making the hydrogen bomb. Lithium carbonate, a common mineral, is used in the treatment of manic-depressive psychosis. Oh yeah, forgot to say that lithium ranks 35th in order of abundance of the elements in the crust of the Earth.

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Offline miriam0920

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #7 on: 28/12/2008 22:46:52 »
Good post Karen! 

Potassium (K)  Metal - Oxidation State +1
Atomic Mass 39.098
Soft, silver-white Solid at STP.  Floats and burns with a bright blue flame when added to water.  K means Kalium for the Latin name.

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Offline Chemistry4me

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #8 on: 28/12/2008 23:02:24 »
Beryllium, symbol Be, grey, brittle, metallic element. Beryllium was named after its chief mineral, beryl, an aluminium beryllium silicate. It was discovered as an oxide, now known as beryllia. Because the soluble compounds are sweet-tasting, the new element was first called glucinium, a reference to the sugar glucose. Beryllium has a high strength per unit weight. It tarnishes only slightly in air, becoming covered with a thin layer of oxide. The ability of beryllium to scratch glass is usually ascribed to this oxide coating. Beryllium compounds are generally white (or colourless in solution) and show great similarity in chemical properties to the corresponding compounds of aluminium. This similarity makes it difficult to separate beryllium from the aluminium that is almost always present in beryllium ores. The addition of beryllium to some alloys often results in products that have high heat resistance, improved corrosion resistance, greater hardness, greater insulating properties, and better casting qualities. Many parts of supersonic aircraft are made of beryllium alloys because of their lightness, stiffness, and dimensional stability.

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Offline DoctorBeaver

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #9 on: 29/12/2008 00:20:29 »
Delphinium - erm... oops, sorry - that's a flower. But it does sound chemicalish  [:P]
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Offline Chemistry4me

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #10 on: 29/12/2008 02:36:39 »
Boron, hard, brittle semi-metallic element. Boron is in group 13 of the periodic table. It is a trace element needed for plant growth, but toxic in excess. Research suggests that it is also nutritionally important for bone health in humans and other vertebrates. Pure boron, as usually prepared, is a powder, though a crystalline form can be prepared by dissolving boron in molten aluminium and cooling slowly. Boron does not react with water or hydrochloric acid and is unaffected by air at ordinary temperatures. At red heat it combines directly with nitrogen to form boron nitride (BN), and with oxygen to form boron oxide (B2O3). With metals it forms borides, such as magnesium boride (Mg3B2). The original sources of boron compounds were the minerals borax and boric acid. Boron ranks about 38th in natural abundance among the elements in the Earth's crust. In its compounds, boron acts like a non-metal, but unlike most non-metals, pure boron is an electrical conductor, like the metals and like carbon (graphite). Crystalline boron is similar to diamond in appearance and optical properties, and is almost as hard as diamond. 

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Offline lightarrow

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« Reply #11 on: 29/12/2008 19:14:35 »
Good post Karen! 

Potassium (K)  Metal - Oxidation State +1
Atomic Mass 39.098
Soft, silver-white Solid at STP.  Floats and burns with a bright blue flame when added to water.  K means Kalium for the Latin name.
Since you are studying chemistry you have to know that the flame's colour it's not blue but lilac:
http://www.amazingrust.com/Experiments/how_to/Images/Flame%20Test/K+/K+1%20(KCl).jpg
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jJvS4uc4TbU&NR=1
« Last Edit: 29/12/2008 19:23:01 by lightarrow »

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Offline Chemistry4me

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #12 on: 30/12/2008 05:15:48 »
Now we get to dear old carbon, symbol C, element that is crucial to the existence of living organisms, and that has many important industrial applications. Carbon is in group 14 of the periodic table. Three forms of elemental carbon that occur in nature—diamond, graphite, and amorphous carbon—are solids with extremely high melting points and are insoluble in all solvents at ordinary temperatures. The physical properties of the three forms differ widely because of the differences in crystalline structure. In diamond, the hardest material known, each atom is linked to four other atoms in a three-dimensional framework, whereas graphite consists of weakly bonded plane layers of atoms that are arranged in hexagons. Amorphous carbon is characterized by a very low degree of crystallinity. Pure amorphous carbon can be obtained by heating purified sugar in the absence of air. A fourth form of naturally occurring carbon is a whole class of fullerenes, the most well-known of which is Buckminsterfullerene. The isotopes carbon-13 and carbon-14 are used extensively as isotopic tracers in biochemical research. Carbon-14 is also used in radiocarbon dating, which permits the estimation of the age of fossils and other organic materials. Carbon-14 is continuously produced in the atmosphere by cosmic rays and is incorporated into all living matter.

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Offline DoctorBeaver

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #13 on: 30/12/2008 12:40:20 »
Nitrogen - a tasteless, odourless, colourless gas with atomic number of 7. The Earth's atmosphere is 78% Nitrogen. It was discovered in 1772 by Rutherford.

Its melting point is -209.9 °C (63.250008 K, -345.81998 °F) and its boiling point is -195.8 °C (77.35 K, -320.44 °F) so sticking your elbow in liquid nitrogen to test the temperature is not a good idea.
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Offline Chemistry4me

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« Reply #14 on: 31/12/2008 02:23:32 »
Nitrogen, symbol N, Nitrogen is in group 15 of the periodic table. Nitrogen is a colourless, odourless, tasteless, non-toxic gas. It can be condensed into a colourless liquid, which can in turn be compressed into a colourless, crystalline solid. Nitrogen exists in two natural isotopic forms, and four radioactive isotopes have been artificially prepared. Nitrogen is obtained from the atmosphere by passing air over heated copper or iron. The oxygen is removed from the air, leaving nitrogen mixed with inert gases. Pure nitrogen is obtained by fractional distillation of liquid air; because liquid nitrogen has a lower boiling point than liquid oxygen, the nitrogen distills off first and can be collected. Nitrogen combines with other elements only at very high temperatures or pressures. The nitrogen so produced is very active, combining with alkali metals to form azides; with the vapour of zinc, mercury, cadmium, and arsenic to form nitrides; and with many hydrocarbons to form hydrocyanic acid and cyanides, also known as nitriles. Most of the nitrogen used in the chemical industry is obtained by the fractional distillation of liquid air. It is then used to synthesize ammonia. From ammonia produced in this manner, a wide variety of important chemical products are prepared, including fertilizers, nitric acid, urea, hydrazine, and amines.

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Offline Chemistry4me

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« Reply #15 on: 31/12/2008 02:25:27 »
Oxygen, colourless, odourless, tasteless, slightly magnetic gaseous element. On Earth, oxygen is more abundant than any other element. Gaseous oxygen can be condensed to a pale blue liquid that is strongly magnetic. Pale blue solid oxygen is produced by compressing the liquid.  Oxygen comprises 60% of the human body. Three structural forms of oxygen are known: ordinary oxygen, containing two atoms per molecule, formula O2; ozone, containing three atoms per molecule, formula O3; and a pale blue, non-magnetic form, O4, containing four atoms per molecule, which readily breaks down into ordinary oxygen. Three stable isotopes of oxygen are known; oxygen-16 is the most abundant. It comprises 99.76% of ordinary oxygen and was used in the determination of atomic weights until the 1960s. Large amounts of oxygen are used in high-temperature welding torches, in which a mixture of oxygen and another gas produces a flame of much higher temperature than is obtained by burning gases in air.

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Offline Chemistry4me

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« Reply #16 on: 31/12/2008 11:15:13 »
Fluorine, (Latin, fluo, “flow”), a chemically reactive and poisonous gaseous element. In group 17 of the periodic table. Fluorine is a pale, greenish-yellow gas, slightly heavier than air, poisonous, corrosive, and of penetrating and disagreeable odour. It is the most chemically active of the non-metallic elements. It combines directly with most elements and indirectly with nitrogen, chlorine, and oxygen. Nearly all compounds are decomposed by fluorine to form fluorides that are among the most stable of all chemical compounds. Fluorine occurs naturally in the combined form as fluorite, cryolite, and apatite. Fluorite, from which most fluorine compounds are generally derived, is widespread in Mexico, the central United States, France, and England. It is the 17th element in order of abundance in the crust of the Earth. Fluorine and many fluorides, such as hydrogen fluoride and sodium fluoride, are extremely poisonous. Drinking water containing excessive amounts of fluorides causes tooth enamel to become brittle and to chip off, leaving a stained or mottled effect. The proper proportion of fluorides in drinking water, however, has been found to greatly reduce tooth decay. Teflon, a fluorine plastic that is very resistant to most chemical action, is widely used to make components in the car industry, and is also used as a coating on the inner surface of frying pans.

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Offline Chemistry4me

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #17 on: 01/01/2009 02:43:19 »
Neon, (from Greek, “new”) is a colourless, odourless, gaseous element that makes up a tiny fraction of the Earth's atmosphere. In group 18 of the periodic table, neon is one of the noble gases. Neon was first separated from other inert gases in 1898 by the British chemists Sir William Ramsay and Morris Travers. It constitutes 18 ppm in the atmosphere. Neon occurs naturally in three stable isotopic forms: neon-20, which is the most abundant, neon-22, and neon-21. The first demonstration of the existence of a stable isotope in an element was performed with neon in 1912. Neon produces a crimson glow in a vacuum electric-discharge tube and is used extensively in the familiar neon lamp of advertising displays. The term neon light is often incorrectly applied to discharge tubes filled with gases other than neon that produce a coloured glow. When a current is passed through a tube of neon, it gives off a brilliant red light. Colours other than red may be obtained by adding other gases or by using coloured glass tubes. Liquid neon is used as a refrigerant in cryogenics. It has over 40 times more refrigerating capacity per unit volume than liquid helium. Neon is also used in the making of Geiger Counters plus arc weldings.

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Offline Chemistry4me

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« Reply #18 on: 01/01/2009 02:45:05 »
Sodium, highly reactive, silvery-white, a very soft metallic element. In group 1 of the periodic table. Elemental sodium is metal that is soft enough to be cut with a knife. It oxidizes immediately on exposure to air and reacts violently with water, forming sodium hydroxide and hydrogen. Sodium is found in nature only in the combined state. It occurs in the ocean and in salt lakes as sodium chloride, NaCl, and less often as sodium carbonate, Na2CO3, and sodium sulphate, Na2SO4. Sodium ranks seventh in order of abundance of the elements in the Earth's crust. The element is used in the manufacture of tetraethyl lead and as a cooling agent in nuclear reactors. The most important compound of sodium is sodium chloride, known commonly as salt. Other important compounds include sodium carbonate, known as washing soda, and sodium bicarbonate, known as baking soda. Sodium hydroxide, known commercially as soda lye or caustic soda, is used in the manufacture of soap, rayon, and paper, in oil refining, and in the textile and rubber industries. Sodium fluoride, NaF, is used as an antiseptic, as a poison for mice and roaches, and in ceramics. Sodium nitrate, known as Chile saltpetre, is used as a fertilizer. Sodium peroxide, Na2O2, is an important bleaching and oxidizing agent. Sodium thiosulphate, Na2S2O3• 5H2O, known as hypo, is used in photography as a fixing agent.

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Offline lightarrow

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« Reply #19 on: 01/01/2009 08:08:45 »
Sodium, highly reactive, silvery-white, a very soft metallic element....
What would you use to precipitate sodium from a water solution of Na+?
« Last Edit: 01/01/2009 08:13:26 by lightarrow »

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Offline Chemistry4me

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« Reply #20 on: 01/01/2009 09:36:25 »
You mean like a compound of sodium? Or the metal [::)] [:)]
« Last Edit: 01/01/2009 10:21:30 by Chemistry4me »

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Offline Chemistry4me

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« Reply #21 on: 01/01/2009 10:32:26 »
Assuming that it was a solution of sodium chloride, you would need to decrease the solubility so that it could precipitate out of solution. Sodium nitrate (or anything that contains Na+) and say, copper chloride (or anything that contains Cl-) both share a common ion with sodium chloride. In the first case it is the sodium ion and in the second case it is the chloride ion. If either of these salts is added to the equlibrium system:
NaCl(s) + aq ↔ Na+(aq) + Cl-(aq)
the solubility of sodium chloride decreases. In each case, the decrease is due to the common ion. The effect itself is known as (who would have thought [:o]) the common ion effect. While equilibrium considerations allow this effect to be anticipated, a knowledge of solubility products (which I do not have) allows its extent to be calculated. So some compounds of sodium may be able to be precipitated out (the less soluble ones) whereas others might not...
And hence, if you wanted to increase solubility, you would do the opposite. [:)]

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Offline Chemistry4me

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« Reply #22 on: 01/01/2009 10:41:50 »
Magnesium, silvery-white metallic element in group 2 of the periodic table. Magnesium is soft and ductile when heated. The metal is not attacked by oxygen, water, or alkalis at room temperature; it does react with acids. When heated to about 800° C, it reacts with oxygen and emits a bright, white light. It occurs in nature only in chemical combination with other elements, particularly as the minerals carnallite, dolomite, and magnesite; in many rock-forming silicates; and as salts, such as magnesium chloride, in ocean and saline-lake waters. Magnesium forms divalent compounds, chief among which are magnesium carbonate (MgCO3), which is formed by the reaction of a magnesium salt and sodium carbonate and is used as a refractory and insulating material; magnesium chloride (MgCl2•6H2O), which is formed by reacting magnesium carbonate or oxide with hydrochloric acid and is used as dressing and filler for cotton and woollen fabrics, in paper manufacture, and in cements and ceramics; magnesium citrate (Mg3(C6H 5O7)2•4H2O), which is formed by the reaction of magnesium carbonate with citric acid and is used in medicine and effervescent beverages; magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2), formed by the reacting of magnesium salt and sodium hydroxide and used in medicine as the laxative “milk of magnesia”, in sugar refining and magnesium sulphate (MgSO4•7H2O), is well known as Epsom salt.

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Offline lightarrow

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« Reply #23 on: 01/01/2009 16:14:34 »
Assuming that it was a solution of sodium chloride, you would need to decrease the solubility so that it could precipitate out of solution. Sodium nitrate (or anything that contains Na+) and say, copper chloride (or anything that contains Cl-) both share a common ion with sodium chloride. In the first case it is the sodium ion and in the second case it is the chloride ion. If either of these salts is added to the equlibrium system:
NaCl(s) + aq ↔ Na+(aq) + Cl-(aq)
the solubility of sodium chloride decreases.
In each case, the decrease is due to the common ion. The effect itself is known as (who would have thought [:o]) the common ion effect.
No, it's not this the effect. You have it when, e.g., you add a concentrated CuCl2 solution, (or HCl) to a NaCl solution (not to a NaNO3 or other salt solution). Then you really can see the formation of a precipitate of NaCl (if you pass the solubility product).

What I intended is not simply to decrease the solubility of a sodium salt, but to form a new one which solubility is almost zero, so that you can make a quantitative analysis of the sodium originally present in solution (or to identify it qualitatively by observing the formation of a precipitate).

For example, if you have a BaCl2 solution, you add e.g., a conc. solution of K2SO4 and you get (double exchange) BaSO4 and KCl. The last one stay in solution, while the first one precipitates because is very insoluble (the amount of Ba++ which remains in solution can be neglected). You filter out the solution, you wash and then dry the precipitate, you weight it and you have made a quantitative analysis of the Ba originally present in solution.
What would you use to precipitate sodium (insted of Barium) out of a solution?

I'm just trying to give you some homework to improve your skill in chemistry.
« Last Edit: 01/01/2009 16:33:48 by lightarrow »

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Offline lightarrow

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« Reply #24 on: 01/01/2009 16:43:34 »
...
 magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2), formed by the reacting of magnesium salt and sodium hydroxide and used in medicine as the laxative “milk of magnesia”, in sugar refining...
Mg(OH)2 is also used against stomach hyperacidity because it neutralizes it.

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Offline Chemistry4me

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« Reply #25 on: 02/01/2009 00:51:08 »
Are you asking me to find a compound of sodium that is insoluble? I could do with a bit of homework right now [:P] [:P]
« Last Edit: 02/01/2009 08:33:16 by Chemistry4me »

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Offline Chemistry4me

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« Reply #26 on: 02/01/2009 00:54:49 »
Well, according to Wikipedia: There are other insoluble sodium salts such as sodium bismuthate NaBiO3, sodium octamolybdate Na2Mo8O25•4H2O, sodium thioplatinate Na4Pt3S6, sodium uranate Na2UO4. Sodium meta-antimonate's 2NaSbO3•7H2O solubility is 0.3g/L as is the pyro form Na2H2Sb2O7•H2O of this salt. Sodium metaphosphate NaPO3 has a soluble and an insoluble form. So I guess any of those will do to precipitate Na out of solution... unless I have misunderstood your question [:)]


« Last Edit: 02/01/2009 03:22:59 by Chemistry4me »

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Offline Chemistry4me

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« Reply #27 on: 02/01/2009 03:20:25 »
Aluminium, the most abundant metallic element in the Earth's crust. The element is in group 13 of the periodic table. Aluminium is a strongly electropositive metal and extremely reactive. In contact with air, aluminium rapidly becomes covered with a tough, transparent layer of aluminium oxide that resists further corrosive action. For this reason, materials made of aluminium do not tarnish or rust. The metal reduces many other metallic compounds to their base metals. For example, when thermite (a mixture of powdered iron oxide and aluminium) is heated, the aluminium rapidly removes the oxygen from the iron; the heat of the reaction is sufficient to melt the iron. This phenomenon is used in the Thermit process for welding iron. The metal is becoming increasingly important architecturally, for both structural and ornamental purposes. Aluminium siding, storm windows, and foil make excellent insulators. The metal is also used as a material in low-temperature nuclear reactors because it absorbs relatively few neutrons. Aluminium becomes stronger and retains its toughness as it gets colder and is therefore used at cryogenic temperatures. Because of its light weight, ease of forming, and compatibility with foods and beverages, aluminium is widely used for containers, flexible packages, and easy-to-open bottles and cans.

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Offline Chemistry4me

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« Reply #28 on: 02/01/2009 05:19:01 »
Silicon, semimetallic element that is the second most common element on Earth, after oxygen. Silicon is prepared as a brown amorphous powder or as grey-black crystals. It is obtained by heating silica, or silicon dioxide (SiO2), with a reducing agent, such as carbon or magnesium, in an electric furnace. Silicon is not attacked by nitric, hydrochloric, or suphuric acids, but it dissolves in hydrofluoric acid. It dissolves in sodium hydroxide, forming sodium silicate and hydrogen gas. At ordinary temperatures silicon is impervious to air, but at high temperatures it reacts with oxygen, forming a layer of silica that does not react further. At high temperatures it also reacts with nitrogen and chlorine to form silicon nitride and silicon chloride. Silicon constitutes about 28 per cent of the Earth's crust. It does not occur in the free, elemental state, but is found in the form of silicon dioxide and in the form of complex silicates. Silicon-containing minerals constitute nearly 40 per cent of all common minerals, including more than 90 per cent of igneous-rock-forming minerals. The mineral quartz, varieties of quartz (such as cornelian, chrysoprase, onyx, flint, and jasper), and the minerals cristobalite and tridymite are the naturally occurring crystal forms of silica. Silicon dioxide is the principal constituent of sand. Silicon is a semiconductor, in which the resistivity to the flow of electricity at room temperature is in the range between that of metals and that of insulators.

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Offline lightarrow

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« Reply #29 on: 02/01/2009 16:54:18 »
Well, according to Wikipedia: There are other insoluble sodium salts such as sodium bismuthate NaBiO3, sodium octamolybdate Na2Mo8O25•4H2O, sodium thioplatinate Na4Pt3S6, sodium uranate Na2UO4. Sodium meta-antimonate's 2NaSbO3•7H2O solubility is 0.3g/L as is the pyro form Na2H2Sb2O7•H2O of this salt. Sodium metaphosphate NaPO3 has a soluble and an insoluble form. So I guess any of those will do to precipitate Na out of solution... unless I have misunderstood your question [:)]

It's too simple! To precipitate sodium from a solution into an insoluble salt of sodium, you have to find a chemical which instead is soluble! If, e.g., you want to precipitate sodium bismuthate NaBiO3, you should show me how this pure compund can form adding some chemical to the Na+ solution. Does it exist, for example, a soluble bismuthate which forms BiO3- ions in solution and that this ions react with Na+ ions forming pure sodium bismuthate?
« Last Edit: 02/01/2009 17:00:38 by lightarrow »

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Offline Chemistry4me

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« Reply #30 on: 03/01/2009 01:25:17 »
Oh... right, okay, let me see....

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Offline Chemistry4me

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« Reply #31 on: 03/01/2009 01:44:22 »
Hmm... this is harder than I thought.

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« Reply #32 on: 03/01/2009 01:56:55 »
What do you define as soluble or insoluble?

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« Reply #33 on: 03/01/2009 02:16:44 »
Okay, sodium uranate can be prepared by reacting U3O8 with sodium carbonate
That's about the only one I can find at the moment

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« Reply #34 on: 03/01/2009 02:19:57 »
Phosphorus, reactive non-metallic element that is important to living organisms and has many industrial uses. Phosphorus is in group 15 of the periodic table. Phosphorus exists in three main allotropic forms: ordinary (or white) phosphorus, red phosphorus, and black phosphorus. Of these, only white and red phosphorus are of commercial importance. When freshly prepared, ordinary phosphorus is white, but it turns light yellow when exposed to sunlight. It is a crystalline, translucent, waxy solid, which glows faintly in moist air and is extremely poisonous. It ignites spontaneously in air at 34° C and must be stored under water. It is insoluble in water, slightly soluble in organic solvents, and very soluble in carbon disulphide. It does not occur in the free state but is found mostly as a phosphate, as in phosphate rock and apatite. It is also found in the combined state in all fertile soil and in many natural waters. Red phosphorus is a microcrystalline, non-poisonous powder. It sublimates at 416° C and has a relative density of 2.34. Black phosphorus is made by heating white phosphorus at 200° C  at very high pressure. The most important commercial compounds of phosphorus are phosphoric acid and the salts of phosphoric acid, called phosphates. The bulk of phosphorus-containing compounds are used as fertilizers. Phosphorous compounds are also used in clarifying sugar solutions, weighing silk, and fireproofing, and in such alloys as phosphor bronze and phosphor copper. White phosphorus is used in the making of rat poison, and red phosphorus is used in matches.

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« Reply #35 on: 03/01/2009 02:22:22 »
Sulphur, tasteless, odourless, light yellow non-metallic element. All forms of sulphur are insoluble in water, but the crystalline forms are soluble in carbon disulphide. When ordinary sulphur melts, it forms a straw-coloured liquid that turns darker with additional heating and then finally boils. When molten sulphur is slowly cooled, its physical properties change in accordance with the temperature, pressure, and method of crust formation. Sulphur thus exists in a variety of forms called allotropic modifications, which consist of the liquids Sλ, and Sµ, and several solid varieties. Sulphur combines with hydrogen and the metallic elements in the presence of heat to form sulphides. The most common sulphide is hydrogen sulphide, H2S, a colourless, poisonous gas with the odour of rotten eggs. Sulphur combines also with chlorine in several proportions to produce sulphur monochloride, S2Cl2, and sulphur dichloride, SCl2. When burned in air, sulphur combines with oxygen to form sulphur dioxide, SO2, a heavy, colourless gas with a characteristic, suffocating odour. Sulphur dioxide is released into the atmosphere in the combustion of fossil fuels, such as gas, petroleum, and coal, and constitutes one of the most troublesome air pollutants.

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« Reply #36 on: 03/01/2009 05:30:11 »
It's too simple! To precipitate sodium from a solution into an insoluble salt of sodium, you have to find a chemical which instead is soluble! If, e.g., you want to precipitate sodium bismuthate NaBiO3, you should show me how this pure compund can form adding some chemical to the Na+ solution. Does it exist, for example, a soluble bismuthate which forms BiO3- ions in solution and that this ions react with Na+ ions forming pure sodium bismuthate?
Do you have an answer?

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« Reply #37 on: 03/01/2009 09:30:26 »
It's too simple! To precipitate sodium from a solution into an insoluble salt of sodium, you have to find a chemical which instead is soluble! If, e.g., you want to precipitate sodium bismuthate NaBiO3, you should show me how this pure compund can form adding some chemical to the Na+ solution. Does it exist, for example, a soluble bismuthate which forms BiO3- ions in solution and that this ions react with Na+ ions forming pure sodium bismuthate?
Do you have an answer?
A possible solution of the problem is to use potassium exahydroxyantimonate:

KSb(OH)6

a solution of that salt added to an unknown solution, in the presence of sodium forms a white precipitate of sodium exahydroxyantimonate:

Sb(OH)6- + Na+ → NaSb(OH)6

To prepare KSb(OH)6 you make react KOH with antimonic acid HSbO3:

KOH + HSbO3 + 2H2O → K+ + Sb(OH)6-

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« Reply #38 on: 03/01/2009 09:32:03 »
Ok, I did not know that...

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« Reply #39 on: 03/01/2009 09:37:48 »
Ok, I did not know that...
Maybe you will study that in a few months or in the second year.

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« Reply #40 on: 03/01/2009 09:40:31 »
Is that something that you have studied? I'm wondering why you think I am a student [:)] [:-\]
I don't blame you, its probably because of my poor knowledge of science... [:D] [:D]
« Last Edit: 03/01/2009 09:42:24 by Chemistry4me »

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« Reply #41 on: 03/01/2009 09:49:37 »
Is that something that you have studied? I'm wondering why you think I am a student [:)] [:-\]
I don't blame you, its probably because of my poor knowledge of science... [:D] [:D]
Ok, indeed I thought you were studying chem at university..
Those things are taught during the qualitative analysis courses.

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« Reply #42 on: 03/01/2009 09:53:29 »
I am humbled... [8)] [8)] [:I] [:I]

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« Reply #43 on: 03/01/2009 15:19:04 »
I am humbled... [8)] [8)] [:I] [:I]
Why? You would have a reason if you had already studied these things but you wouldn't know them the same... [:)]
« Last Edit: 03/01/2009 15:20:59 by lightarrow »

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« Reply #44 on: 04/01/2009 02:33:40 »
I am humbled... [8)] [8)] [:I] [:I]
Why? You would have a reason if you had already studied these things but you wouldn't know them the same... [:)]
Huh? I'm not sure what you mean.

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« Reply #45 on: 04/01/2009 02:36:35 »
Chlorine, greenish-yellow gaseous element, in group 17 of the periodic table. The gas has an irritating odour and in large concentrations is dangerous; it was the first substance used as a poison gas in World War I. Free chlorine does not occur in nature, but its compounds are common minerals, and it is the 20th most abundant element in the Earth's crust. Chlorine is an active element, reacting with water, organic compounds, and many metals. Four oxides have been prepared: Cl2O, ClO2, Cl 2O6, and Cl2O7. Chlorine will not burn in air, but it will support the combustion of many substances; an ordinary paraffin candle, for example, will burn in chlorine with a smoky flame. Chlorine and hydrogen can be kept together in the dark, but react explosively in the presence of light. Chlorine solutions in water are familiar in the home as bleaching agents, or in weaker solutions as a sterilizing agent, for example in swimming pools and public water systems. A few parts per million of chlorine can be added to drinking water to kill bacteria, and the chlorine then removed with sodium sulphite prior to distribution to homes. Industrial chlorine is produced by treating salt with nitrogen oxides or by oxidizing hydrogen chloride. Chlorine is shipped as a liquid in steel bottles.

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« Reply #46 on: 04/01/2009 02:38:27 »
Argon, inert gaseous element that is the third most prevalent gas in the Earth's atmosphere. In group 18 of the periodic table, argon is one of the noble gases. Argon was discovered in 1894 by the British scientists Sir William Ramsay and Baron John William Strutt Rayleigh. They were led to this discovery by a discrepancy between the density of supposedly pure nitrogen, prepared from air, and actually pure nitrogen, prepared from ammonium nitrate. Argon is composed of monatomic molecules and is colourless and odourless. It constitutes 0.93 per cent of the atmosphere. Argon is produced commercially by the fractional distillation of liquid air. It is used in large quantities to fill electric light bulbs. If air is left in incandescent bulbs, the filament burns; if the bulb is evacuated, as was formerly done, the tungsten filament tends to evaporate, blackening the inside of the bulb. To prevent this evaporation, the bulb can be filled with nitrogen, which is the least expensive gas for the purpose, or argon, which is better, as it is a poorer conductor of heat and so cools the filament less. Argon is also used in one type of neon lamp. Whereas pure neon gives a red light, argon gives a blue light. Argon tubes require a lower voltage than neon tubes, and for this reason small amounts of argon are sometimes mixed with neon. Argon is also used in electric-arc technology, in gas lasers, and in arc welding.

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« Reply #47 on: 04/01/2009 16:27:02 »
I am humbled... [8)] [8)] [:I] [:I]
Why? You would have a reason if you had already studied these things but you wouldn't know them the same... [:)]
Huh? I'm not sure what you mean.
Do you have a degree in Chemistry?

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« Reply #48 on: 04/01/2009 22:55:15 »
Ok, it seem that I have been taken out of context, what I should have said was "I am humbled that you think I am a university student [8)] [8)] [:I] [:I]"

Do you have a degree in Chemistry?
No  [:I]
« Last Edit: 04/01/2009 23:16:51 by Chemistry4me »

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« Reply #49 on: 04/01/2009 23:15:57 »
Potassium, (from Latin kalium, “alkali”), chemically reactive, extremely soft metallic element. In group 1 of the periodic table. Potassium exists in three natural isotopic forms, with mass numbers 39, 40, and 41. Potassium-40 is radioactive and has a half-life of 1.28 billion years. The most abundant isotope is potassium-39. Several radioactive isotopes have been artificially prepared. Potassium is found in nature in large quantities, ranking eighth in order of abundance of the elements in the crust of the Earth, in various minerals such as carnallite, feldspar, saltpetre, greensand, and sylvite. Potassium bromide (KBr), a white solid formed by the reaction of potassium hydroxide and bromine, is used in photography, engraving, and lithography, and in medicine as a sedative. Potassium chromate (K2CrO4), a yellow crystalline solid, and potassium dichromate, or potassium bichromate (K2Cr2O7), a red crystalline solid, are powerful oxidizing agents used in matches and fireworks, in textile dyeing, and in leather tanning. Potassium iodide (KI), a white crystalline compound that is very soluble in water, is used in photography for preparing gelatin emulsions and in medicine for the treatment of rheumatism and overactivity of the thyroid gland. Potassium nitrate (KNO3), a white solid prepared by fractional crystallization of sodium nitrate and potassium chloride solutions, is used in matches, explosives, and fireworks, and in pickling meat.