Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?

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Offline Chemistry4me

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #50 on: 04/01/2009 23:19:54 »
Calcium, reactive, silvery-white metallic element. In group 2 of the periodic table. Calcium has six stable and several radioactive isotopes. A malleable and ductile metal, calcium rapidly tarnishes to yellow on exposure to air. Calcium is fifth in abundance among the elements in the Earth's crust, but it is not found uncombined in nature. It occurs in many highly useful compounds, such as calcium carbonate (CaCO3), of which calcite, marble, limestone, and chalk are composed; calcium sulphate (CaSO4) in alabaster or gypsum; calcium fluoride (CaF2) in fluorite; calcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2) in rock phosphate; and in many silicates. In cold, dry air, calcium is not readily attacked by oxygen, but when heated it unites vigorously with the halogens, oxygen, sulphur, phosphorus, hydrogen, and nitrogen. Calcium reacts violently with water, forming the hydroxide Ca(OH)2 and releasing hydrogen. The metal is obtained mainly by electrolysis of fused calcium chloride, a costly process. Until recently the pure metal had little use in industry. It is being used to an increasing extent as a deoxidizer for copper, nickel, and stainless steel. Because calcium hardens lead when alloyed with it, lead-calcium alloys are excellent for bearings, superior to ordinary lead antimony for grids in storage batteries, and more durable as sheathing for lead-covered cable. Calcium is present in teeth and bones (as a calcium hydroxyphosphate), and in many body fluids essential to muscle contraction, the transmission of nerve impulses, and the clotting of blood.

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Offline miriam0920

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #51 on: 05/01/2009 01:31:16 »
Since you are studying chemistry you have to know that the flame's colour it's not blue but lilac:

Lilac?  Do you want to debate with me too?


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Offline Chemistry4me

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #52 on: 05/01/2009 03:17:52 »
Since you are studying chemistry you have to know that the flame's colour it's not blue but lilac:
Lilac?  Do you want to debate with me too?
Are you addressing me?

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Offline lightarrow

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #53 on: 05/01/2009 15:14:23 »
Since you are studying chemistry you have to know that the flame's colour it's not blue but lilac:

Lilac?  Do you want to debate with me too?
No, no, it was just to give you some more informations. (Maybe I said it badly because of my not perfect knowledge of english language). They could ask you this at an exam.

I know of a teacher of analythical chemistry at university in Florence, who one day (many years ago) asked a student which colour is Ni++ in water solution. The student replied "green". The teacher: just "green"? The student replied yes, and he didn't pass the exam. The correct answer for the teacher was "apple green"!  [:)]
(It's not a joke).

http://www.uncp.edu/home/mcclurem/ptable/ni.htm
« Last Edit: 06/01/2009 18:07:22 by lightarrow »

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Offline Chemistry4me

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #54 on: 05/01/2009 23:18:38 »
Scandium, soft silver-white metallic element with an atomic number of 21. Scandium is one of the transition elements in the periodic table. Scandium was discovered in 1879 by the Swedish chemist Lars Fredrik Nilson, eight years after the Russian chemist Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleyev had predicted, on the basis of the periodic law, that the element exists in nature and that its properties resemble those of the element boron. Scandium is sometimes regarded as one of the rare earth elements. Scandium occurs in rare minerals such as wolframite. It is 31st in order of abundance of the elements in the Earth's crust. It forms trivalent, colourless salts.

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Offline Chemistry4me

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #55 on: 05/01/2009 23:20:22 »
Titanium, silver-white metallic element used principally to make light, strong alloys. Titanium is soluble in certain acids, and aqueous solutions of the metal can be prepared, but it is not directly dissolved by water. The metal is extremely brittle when cold, but is readily malleable and ductile at a low red heat. Titanium burns in oxygen to form titanium dioxide, and it burns in nitrogen to form titanium nitride, TiN. Titanium forms the salts titanium tetrachloride, TiCl4; titanium trichloride, TiCl3; and titanium dichloride, TiCl2. It ranks ninth in abundance among the elements in the crust of the Earth but is never found in the pure state. Because of its strength and light weight, titanium is used in metallic alloys and as a substitute for aluminium. Alloyed with aluminium and vanadium, titanium is used in aircraft for fire walls, outer skin, landing-gear components, hydraulic tubing, and engine supports. The compressor blades, discs, and housings of jet engines are also made of titanium. A supersonic transport, flying at speeds between 2,410 and 3,220 km/h, uses from 14 to 45 tonnes of titanium. Titanium is also widely used in missiles and space capsules. The relative inertness of titanium makes it available as a replacement for bone and cartilage in surgery and as a pipe and tank lining in the processing of foods. It is used in heat exchangers in desalination plants because of its ability to withstand salt-water corrosion.

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Offline Chemistry4me

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« Reply #56 on: 06/01/2009 01:24:04 »
Just type 'potassium flame colour' into Google images and you can decide whether it is blue or lilac.

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Offline Chemistry4me

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« Reply #57 on: 06/01/2009 21:25:22 »
Vanadium, silver-white metallic element . Vanadium takes a high polish and is one of the hardest of all metals. Vanadium is soluble in nitric and sulphuric acids and insoluble in hydrochloric acid, dilute sodium hydroxide, and dilute alcohol. Vanadium forms several acidic oxides, the most important of which are the dark green trioxide, V2O3, and the orange pentoxide, V2O5. Other important compounds include vanadium monosulphide, VS; vanadium trisulphide, V2S3; vanadium dichloride, VCI2; vanadium trichloride, VCI3; vanadium dihydroxide, V(OH)2; and metavanadic acid, HVO3.Vanadium ranks about 19th in abundance of the elements in the Earth's crust. It is never found in the pure state, but occurs in combination with various minerals throughout the world. Because of its hardness and great tensile strength, the metal is used in many alloys such as ferrovanadium, nickel vanadium, and chrome vanadium. Chrome-vanadium steels are used in the production of springs and in transmission gears and other engine parts. Titanium-vanadium alloys are used for missile cases, jet-engine housings, and nuclear-reactor components. As a catalyst, vanadium has largely replaced platinum in the manufacture of sulphuric acid and is employed widely as a photographic developer, as a reducing agent, and as a drying agent in various paints.

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Offline Chemistry4me

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #58 on: 06/01/2009 21:39:34 »
Chromium, grey metallic element that can take on a high polish. Chromium ranks about 21st in natural abundance among the elements in crustal rocks. Chromium can replace part of the aluminium or iron in many minerals, imparting to them their unique colours. Many precious gemstones owe their colour to the presence of chromium compounds. In chromites and chromic salts, chromium has a valence of +3. Most of these compounds are green, but some are red or blue. Chromic oxide (Cr2O3) is a green solid. Potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) is a red-orange, water-soluble solid that, when mixed with gelatin, gives a light-sensitive surface that is very useful in photographic processes. More than half the production of chromium goes into metallic products, and about another third is used in refractories. It is an ingredient in several important catalysts. The chief use of chromium is to form alloys with iron, nickel, or cobalt. The addition of chromium imparts hardness, strength, and corrosion resistance to the alloy. In the stainless steels, chromium makes up 10% or more of the final composition. Because of its hardness, an alloy of chromium, cobalt, and tungsten is used for high-speed metal-cutting tools. When deposited electrolytically, chromium provides a hard, corrosion-resistant, lustrous finish. For this reason it is widely used as body trim on cars and other vehicles.

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Offline Chemistry4me

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #59 on: 06/01/2009 23:17:08 »
Manganese, a silvery-white, brittle metallic element used principally in making alloys. Manganese metal corrodes in moist air and dissolves in acid. The metal does not occur in the free state, except in meteors, but is widely distributed over the world in the form of ores. It ranks about 12th in abundance among elements in the Earth's crust. Manganese is used principally in the form of alloys with iron, obtained by treating pyrolusite in a blast furnace with iron ore and carbon. The most important of these alloys, which are used in steelmaking, are ferromanganese, containing about 78% manganese, and spiegeleisen, containing from 12 to 33% manganese. Small amounts of manganese are added to steel as a deoxidizer; large amounts are used to produce a very tough alloy, resistant to wear. Safes, for example, are made of manganese steel containing about 12% cent manganese. Non-ferrous manganese alloys include manganese bronze (composed of manganese, copper, tin, and zinc), which resists corrosion from sea water and is used for propeller blades on boats and torpedoes, and manganin (containing manganese, copper, and nickel), used in the form of wire for accurate electrical measurements because its electrical conductivity does not vary appreciably with temperature.

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Offline Bored chemist

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #60 on: 07/01/2009 19:57:36 »
I think Iron's next in the sequence. A fairly well known metal since about the 3rd millennium BC.
The second commonest metal in the earth's  crust (after Al). Seldom used in the pure state but very widely used as the major component of the collection of alloys called steel. The name, so I believe, is derived from the Anglo Saxon "iren", but I don't know where they got the name from. The symbol Fe is from the Latin word for iron; Ferrum.
One of the few elements that is magnetic.
There are a number of biological roles for iron, but the best known is hemoglobin the red, oxygen carrying, pigment of blood (at least in most vertebrates, some other animals use a copper based pigment)
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Offline Make it Lady

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #61 on: 07/01/2009 20:19:48 »
Name: Mercury
Symbol: Hg
Atomic Number: 80
Atomic Mass: 200.59 amu
Melting Point: -38.87 °C (234.28 K, -37.966 °F)
Boiling Point: 356.58 °C (629.73 K, 673.844 °F)
Number of Protons/Electrons: 80
Number of Neutrons: 121
Classification: Transition Metal
Crystal Structure: Rhombohedral
Density @ 293 K: 13.456 g/cm3
Color: Silver



Atomic Structure
   
Number of Energy Levels: 6

First Energy Level: 2
Second Energy Level: 8
Third Energy Level: 18
Fourth Energy Level: 32
Fifth Energy Level: 18
Sixth Energy Level: 2 


Isotopes
Isotope Half Life
Hg-194 520.0 years
Hg-196 Stable
Hg-197 2.7 days
Hg-197m 23.8 hours
Hg-198 Stable
Hg-199 Stable
Hg-200 Stable
Hg-201 Stable
Hg-202 Stable
Hg-203 46.6 days
Hg-204 Stable
Hg-206 8.2 minutes


Facts

Date of Discovery: Known to the ancients
Discoverer: Unknown
Name Origin: After the planet Mercury
Symbol Origin: From the Latin word hydrargyrum (liquid silver)
Uses: thermometers, barometers, fluorescent lamps, batteries
Obtained From: cinnabar ore
This is the only metal that is liquid at room temperature. If people are exposed to it for long periods it effects their balance. School children used to be allowed to play with the "beads" on a tray until some started falling over. I just love it, my favourite element. If you want to know how to remember its symbol it is Hg as mercury comes from H.G. Wells.
Give a man a fire and he is warm for a day, set a man on fire and he is warm for the rest of his life.

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Offline Chemistry4me

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #62 on: 08/01/2009 02:12:14 »
Cobalt, silvery-white, magnetic, metallic element used chiefly for making alloys. Cobalt was discovered in 1735 by the Swedish chemist George Brandt. It has a relatively low strength and little ductility at normal temperatures, but is ductile at high temperatures. Of several known cobalt isotopes, the radioactive cobalt-60 is the most important. It has a half-life of 5.7 years and produces intense gamma radiation. Cobalt-60 is used extensively in industry and in radioisotope therapy. Cobalt is about the 30th most abundant element in crustal rocks. Cobalt occurs as the arsenide CoAs2, known as smaltite or speiss cobalt; as cobalt sulpharsenide (CoAsS), known as cobalt glance or cobaltite; and as a hydrated arsenate of cobalt (Co(AsO4)2 • 8H2O), known as cobalt bloom or erythrite. The chief commercial sources of cobalt are the cobaltite ores of Ontario in Canada, and the central African nations of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia, which, along with Canada, are the world's leading producers of the metal. Thermally resistant alloys, called super alloys, containing cobalt are used in industry and aircraft gas turbine engines. An alloy with steel known as cobalt steel is used for making permanent magnets. With tungsten carbide, cobalt forms Carboloy, a hard material used for cutting and machining steel; alloyed with chromium, cobalt produces Stellite, used for the same.

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Offline Chemistry4me

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« Reply #63 on: 08/01/2009 02:14:53 »
Nickel, silvery-white, magnetic metallic element used chiefly in making alloys. Nickel is a hard, malleable, ductile metal, capable of taking a high polish. It exists in five stable isotopic forms. Metallic nickel is not very active chemically. It is soluble in dilute nitric acid and becomes passive in concentrated nitric acid; it does not react with alkalis. Nickel occurs as a metal in meteors. Nickel is used as a protective and ornamental coating for metals, particularly iron and steel, that are susceptible to corrosion. The nickel plate is deposited by electrolysis in a nickel solution. Finely divided nickel absorbs 17 times its own volume of hydrogen and is used as a catalyst in many processes, including the hydrogenation of oils. Nickel is used chiefly in the form of alloys. It imparts great strength and corrosion resistance to steel. Nickel steel, containing about 2 to 4% nickel, is used in car parts such as axles, crankshafts, gears, valves, and rods; in machine parts; and in armour plate. Some of the most important nickel-containing alloys are German silver, Invar, Monel metal, Nichrome, and Permalloy. The nickel coins used for currency are an alloy of 25% nickel and 75% copper. Nickel is also a main component of nickel-cadmium batteries. Most of the world supply of nickel is mined in Canada.

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Offline Chemistry4me

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #64 on: 08/01/2009 02:36:39 »
Copper, brownish-red metallic element that is one of the most widely used of metals. Because of its many desirable properties, such as its conductivity of electricity and heat, its resistance to corrosion, its malleability and ductility, and its beauty, copper has long been used in a wide variety of applications. The principal uses are electrical, because of copper's extremely high conductivity, which is second only to that of silver. Because copper is very ductile, it can be drawn into wires of any diameter from about 0.025 mm upwards. It can be used in outdoor power lines and cables, as well as in house wiring, lamp cords, and electrical machinery such as generators, motors, controllers, signaling devices, electromagnets, and communications equipment. Copper has been used for coins throughout recorded history and has also been fashioned into cooking utensils, vats, and ornamental objects. Copper can easily be electroplated, alone or as a base for other metals. Copper was at one time used extensively for sheathing the bottom of wooden ships to prevent fouling. Pure copper is soft but can be hardened somewhat by being worked. Alloys of copper, which are far harder and stronger than the pure metal, have higher resistance and so cannot be used for electrical purposes. They do, however, have corrosion resistance almost as good as that of pure copper and are very easily worked in machine shops. The two most important alloys are brass, a zinc alloy, and bronze, a tin alloy. Both are used in enormous quantities. Copper is also alloyed with gold, silver, and nickel. Copper forms two series of chemical compounds: cuprous, in which the copper has a valence of 1, and cupric, in which the copper has a valence of 2. Cuprous compounds are easily oxidized to cupric, in many cases by mere exposure to air; cupric compounds are stable. Certain copper solutions have the power of dissolving cellulose, and large quantities of copper are for this reason used in the manufacture of rayon.

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Offline Chemistry4me

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« Reply #65 on: 08/01/2009 23:12:31 »
Zinc, bluish-white metallic element that has many industrial applications. Pure zinc is a crystalline metal, insoluble in hot and cold water and soluble in alcohol, acids, and alkalies. It is extremely brittle at ordinary temperatures, but becomes malleable between 120°C and 150°C  and may be rolled into sheets between heated rollers. The first step in the metallurgy process is to transform the ores into oxides by subjecting them to high temperatures. The oxides are then reduced by carbon in an electric furnace, the zinc boiling and distilling in the retort in which the reduction takes place. The zinc obtained by distillation contains small amounts of iron, arsenic, cadmium, and lead and is known in metallurgy as spelter. Electrolytic zinc is pure and has superior qualities, such as high resistance to corrosion. The metal is used principally as a protective coating, or galvanizer, for iron and steel; as an ingredient of various alloys, especially brass; as plates for dry electric cells; and for die castings. Zinc oxide, known as zinc white or Chinese white, is used as a paint pigment. It is also used as a filler in rubber tyres and is employed in medicine as an antiseptic ointment. Zinc chloride is used as a wood preservative and as a soldering fluid. Zinc sulphide is useful in applications involving electroluminescence, photoconductivity, and semiconductivity and has other electronic uses.

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« Reply #66 on: 08/01/2009 23:14:39 »
Gallium, metallic element that remains in the liquid state over a wider range of temperatures than any other element. Gallium is in group 13 of the periodic table; its was discovered spectroscopically by the French chemist Paul Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran in 1875; a year later he isolated the element in its metallic state. Gallium is blue-grey in colour as a solid and silvery as a liquid. It is one of the few metals that is liquid at or near room temperature. Like water it can be supercooled and it expands upon freezing. The element is about 34th in order of abundance in the crust of the Earth. Gallium melts at 30° C, boils at about 2400° C, and has a relative density of 5.9; Gallium occurs in small quantities in some varieties of zinc blende, bauxite, pyrite, magnetite, and kaolin. Gallium resembles aluminium in forming trivalent salts and oxides; it also forms a few monovalent and divalent compounds. The low melting point and high boiling point of the metal are used to advantage in high-temperature thermometers. Certain gallium compounds are excellent semiconductors and have been extensively used in rectifiers, transistors, photoconductors, and laser and maser diodes.

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Offline Chemistry4me

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« Reply #67 on: 08/01/2009 23:16:53 »
Germanium, hard, brittle, greyish-white, crystalline semimetallic element. It is in group 14  of the periodic table. Germanium is in the same chemical family as carbon, silicon, tin, and lead, and resembles these elements in forming organic derivatives such as tetraethyl germanium and tetraphenyl germanium. Germanium forms hydrides—germanomethane, or germane (GeH4); germanoethane (Ge2H6); and germanopropane (Ge3H8)—analogous to those formed by carbon in the alkane series . The most important compounds of germanium are the oxide GeO2 (germanic acid) and the halides. Germanium is separated from other metals by distillation of the tetrachloride. Germanium ranks around 54th in order of abundance of the elements in the Earth's crust. Germanium occurs in small quantities in the ores of silver, copper, and zinc, and in the mineral germanite, which contains 8% germanium. Germanium and its compounds are used in a variety of ways. Suitably prepared germanium crystals have the property of rectifying, or passing electrical currents in one direction only, and so were used extensively during and after World War II as detectors for ultra-high-frequency radio and radar signals. Germanium crystals also have other specialized electronic uses. Germanium was the first metal used in the transistor. Germanium oxide is used in the manufacture of optical glass and as a drug in the treatment of pernicious anaemia.

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Offline lightarrow

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« Reply #68 on: 09/01/2009 15:30:37 »
Gallium, metallic element that remains in the liquid state over a wider range of temperatures than any other element.
...
I have ~ 30 g of it! Very amazing!
(Sometimes I make this joke: When liquid, I give it the shape of a little heart, then I freeze it at room T to make it solid; then, without saying what material it is, I ask a woman to take that shiny, hard, metal heart in her hand and I tell her that if she loves me, her heart will melt for me. After some minutes she opens her hand and...surprise!   [8D])
« Last Edit: 11/01/2009 11:15:37 by lightarrow »

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Offline yor_on

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #69 on: 09/01/2009 21:57:21 »
Strange but nice:)
Like a personal library.

If I ever want to check up some chemical element.
But how about compounds?
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Offline Chemistry4me

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« Reply #70 on: 09/01/2009 22:44:48 »
But how about compounds?
This topic might never end if we go into compounds! Anything you have in mind?

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Offline Chemistry4me

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« Reply #71 on: 09/01/2009 22:46:36 »
I have ~ 30 g of it! Very amazing!
(Sometimes I make this joke: When liquid, I give it the shape of a little heart, then I freeze it at room T to make it solid; then, without saying what material it is, I ask a woman to take that shiny, hard, metal heart in his hand and I tell her that if she loves me, his heart will melt for me. After some minutes she opens his hand and...surprise!   [8D])
Very nice lightarrow  [;)] Very clever  [;)] Any other strange elements you got at home? [:)]

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Offline Chemistry4me

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« Reply #72 on: 09/01/2009 22:49:08 »
Selenium (Greek, selēnē, “Moon”), Selenium is in group 16 of the periodic table. Chemically, selenium closely resembles sulphur and is related to tellurium. Like sulphur, it exists in several allotropic (distinctly different) forms: a brick-red powder; a brownish-black, glassy, amorphous mass called vitreous selenium; red monoclinic crystals of relative density 4.5; and grey, lustrous crystals called grey selenium. Grey selenium conducts electricity; it is a better conductor of electricity in light than in darkness, the conductivity varying directly with the intensity of light. It is therefore used in many photoelectric devices . In the form of red selenium or as sodium selenide the element is used to impart a scarlet red colour to clear glass, glazes, and enamels. It is also used to a great extent as a decolorizer of glass because it neutralizes the greenish tint produced by iron (ferrous) compounds. Small amounts of selenium are added to vulcanized rubber to increase its resistance to abrasion. Sodium selenate is an insecticide used to combat insects that attack cultivated plants, particularly chrysanthemums and carnations; the insecticide is scattered around the roots and is carried by the sap throughout the plant. Selenium sulphide is used in the treatment of dandruff, acne, eczema, seborrhoeic dermatitis, and other skin diseases. Selenium is also an essential micronutrient for animals and humans and it is found naturally in some soils. However, in larger amounts this element is toxic to animals, humans, and nearly all plants.

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Offline Chemistry4me

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« Reply #73 on: 09/01/2009 22:50:53 »
Bromine, poisonous element that at room temperature is a dark, reddish-brown liquid. In group 17 of the periodic table. Bromine is so similar in its chemical properties to chlorine, with which it is almost invariably associated, that it was not recognized as a separate element until 1826. At room temperature, bromine is an extremely volatile liquid, giving off a poisonous, suffocating, reddish vapour composed of diatomic molecules. If the liquid comes in contact with the skin, it causes sores that heal very slowly. Bromine is slightly soluble in water, 100 parts water dissolving about 4 parts bromine when cold or 3 parts when hot; at temperatures below 7° C  it forms, with water, a solid, reddish hydrate, Br2•10H2O. In the presence of alkalis, bromine reacts chemically with water to yield a mixture of hydrobromic acid (HBr), and hypobromous acid (HOBr). Bromine is very soluble in a wide variety of organic solvents, such as alcohol, ether, trichloromethane (chloroform), and carbon disulphide. It reacts chemically with many compounds and metallic elements and is slightly less active than chlorine. Bromine does not occur in nature as a free element, but is found in bromide compounds. It was formerly a by-product of the production of common salt or of potassium from brines rich in bromides. Bromine has been used in the preparation of certain dyes and of dibromoethane, a constituent of antiknock fluid for leaded petrol. Bromides are also used in photographic compounds and in natural gas and oil production.

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Offline lightarrow

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« Reply #74 on: 10/01/2009 08:47:16 »
I have ~ 30 g of it! Very amazing!
(Sometimes I make this joke: When liquid, I give it the shape of a little heart, then I freeze it at room T to make it solid; then, without saying what material it is, I ask a woman to take that shiny, hard, metal heart in his hand and I tell her that if she loves me, his heart will melt for me. After some minutes she opens his hand and...surprise!   [8D])
Very nice lightarrow  [;)] Very clever  [;)] Any other strange elements you got at home? [:)]
Don't know if they could be considered strange, however I have bismuthe, mercury, tungsten, antimonium, iodine and many other compounds.

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Offline Chemistry4me

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« Reply #75 on: 10/01/2009 09:03:48 »
May I ask where you purchased these elements? From a company perhaps?

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Offline lightarrow

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« Reply #76 on: 10/01/2009 13:23:09 »
May I ask where you purchased these elements? From a company perhaps?
From a shop who sells chemicals and instruments for firms ( especially firms who work precious metals). If they don't have a chemical, it's possible to order it; however they don't sell forbidden chemicals. Some of the compounds I have, I prepared myself (copper acetate, lead nitrate, iodine, ammonium nitrate, ammonium chloride, ecc.)
« Last Edit: 10/01/2009 13:25:38 by lightarrow »

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Offline yor_on

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« Reply #77 on: 10/01/2009 14:12:57 »
Got to admit that I was teasing a little here.
As you say the list may never end if so.

But if we are discussing compounds?
Well, how about those new combinations they use in super conductive experiments.
http://www.nanotechnologydevelopment.com/energy/researchers-create-high-temperature-super-conducting-nanowires.html

Did you know that diamonds are superconductive too?
http://www.uni-heidelberg.de/presse/news08/pm594e.html
Eh, those traces of boron do make it into a compound I hope?

Btw:
Read that "Gallium is a byproduct of the smelting of other metals, notably aluminum and zinc, and it is rarer than gold. "
You had thirty gram of it?
A layman 'Billionaire' :)
« Last Edit: 10/01/2009 14:30:07 by yor_on »
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« Reply #78 on: 10/01/2009 15:55:03 »
Read that "Gallium is a byproduct of the smelting of other metals, notably aluminum and zinc, and it is rarer than gold. "
You had thirty gram of it?
A layman 'Billionaire' :)
I paid it ~ 60€ if I remember correctly.

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« Reply #79 on: 10/01/2009 16:11:38 »
A very good value it seems to me.
So many melted hearts from such a small investment :)
I will try the same.

Cross my heart and .. :)
Those videos are very nice Lightarrow.
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« Reply #80 on: 11/01/2009 02:13:32 »
Did you know that diamonds are superconductive too?
http://www.uni-heidelberg.de/presse/news08/pm594e.html
Eh, those traces of boron do make it into a compound I hope?
Very interesting, thanks yor_on

Those videos are very nice Lightarrow.
Are they meant to be on this topic? [???] I don't see no videos [???]
« Last Edit: 11/01/2009 02:18:06 by Chemistry4me »

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« Reply #81 on: 11/01/2009 02:15:30 »
Gallium, metallic element that remains in the liquid state over a wider range of temperatures than any other element.
...
I have ~ 30 g of it! Very amazing!
(Sometimes I make this joke: When liquid, I give it the shape of a little heart, then I freeze it at room T to make it solid; then, without saying what material it is, I ask a woman to take that shiny, hard, metal heart in his hand and I tell her that if she loves me, his heart will melt for me. After some minutes she opens his hand and...surprise!   [8D])
Ummm... sorry to bring this up  [:I] but did you mean women or man (his/her)?

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« Reply #82 on: 11/01/2009 02:19:48 »
Krypton (Greek, kryptos, “hidden”), colourless, odourless gaseous element that makes up a tiny fraction of the Earth's atmosphere. In group 18 of the periodic table. Krypton was first isolated in 1898 by the British chemists Sir William Ramsay and Morris William Travers by fractional distillation of a mixture of the noble gases. Krypton is present in the atmosphere to the extent of 1 part in 20 million by volume or 1 part in 7 million by weight. Several compounds of krypton were discovered in 1962 and 1963. Krypton is used alone or with argon and neon in incandescent bulbs. It emits a characteristic bright, orange-red colour in an electric-discharge tube; such tubes filled with krypton are used in lighting airfields because the red light is visible for long distances and penetrates fog and haze to a greater extent than ordinary light. In 1960 the International Bureau of Weights and Measures adopted as the length of the standard metre 1,650,763.73 wavelengths of light emitted by the isotope krypton-86.

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« Reply #83 on: 11/01/2009 02:21:12 »
Rubidium (Latin, rubidus, “red”), chemically reactive metallic element. In group 1 of the periodic table. Metallic rubidium is silvery-white and very soft. Rubidium is the third most active of the alkali metals, following francium, the most active, and caesium, the second most active. It tarnishes immediately upon exposure to air and ignites spontaneously to form rubidium oxide. It reacts violently with water. In general chemical behaviour, rubidium resembles sodium and potassium. It is a widely distributed element, ranking 16th in order of abundance of the elements in the crust of the Earth. It is not found in large deposits but occurs in small amounts in certain mineral waters and in many minerals usually associated with other alkali metals. It is also found in small quantities in tea, coffee, tobacco, and other plants, and trace quantities of the element may be required by living organisms. Rubidium is used in making certain catalysts and in photoelectric cells. The rate of radioactive decay of the isotope rubidium-87 can be used in geologic age determination.

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« Reply #84 on: 11/01/2009 11:14:48 »
Gallium, metallic element that remains in the liquid state over a wider range of temperatures than any other element.
...
I have ~ 30 g of it! Very amazing!
(Sometimes I make this joke: When liquid, I give it the shape of a little heart, then I freeze it at room T to make it solid; then, without saying what material it is, I ask a woman to take that shiny, hard, metal heart in his hand and I tell her that if she loves me, his heart will melt for me. After some minutes she opens his hand and...surprise!   [8D])
Ummm... sorry to bring this up  [:I] but did you mean women or man (his/her)?
Ah, yes, it was a bit of confusion...
I've corrected it.

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« Reply #85 on: 11/01/2009 12:27:47 »
Chemistry4me:)

Yeah I know.
didn't have anything to do with this:(

Lightarrows videos were in another thread.
Just needed to say that they are quite good.
Also that I actually could understand how Walter Lewin created that math.
Which I found to be quite a 'kick':)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3omwHv3Cmog&feature=related
Wonder why there are so few teachers with that freedom of thought.

anyway, won't do it again, I hope:





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« Reply #86 on: 11/01/2009 22:42:48 »
Strontium, chemically reactive, malleable, ductile metallic element. In group 2 of the periodic table. Strontium has a silvery colour when freshly cut. It oxidizes readily upon exposure to air, and reacts with water to produce strontium hydroxide and hydrogen gas. Like the other alkaline earth metals, it is prepared by transforming the carbonate or sulphate into the chloride, which, upon electrolysis, yields the metal. Strontium is never found in the elemental state, occurring chiefly as strontianite, SrCO3, and celestite, SrSO4. Strontium ranks about 15th among the elements in natural abundance in the Earth's crust and is widely distributed in small quantities. The greatest amounts are mined in Mexico, England, and Scotland. Because it emits a brilliant red colour when burned in air, strontium is used in the manufacture of fireworks and flares. Strontia (strontium oxide), SrO, is used in recovering sugar from sugar-beet molasses. A radioactive isotope of the element, strontium-85, is used in the detection of bone cancer. Strontium-90 is a dangerous radioactive isotope found in the radioactive fallout that results from the detonation of some nuclear weapons.

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« Reply #87 on: 11/01/2009 22:44:06 »
Yttrium, silver-white metallic element with an atomic number of 39. Yttrium was isolated by the Swedish chemist Carl Gustav Mosander in 1843. Yttrium metal can be prepared by the reduction of yttrium triflouride (YF3) with calcium. It oxidizes readily in air to the oxide Y2O3 and dissolves in hot water to form the hydroxide Y(OH)3. Yttrium ranks about 29th in abundance of the elements in the Earth's crust. Yttrium is found as an oxide in most of the rare earth minerals. It is used extensively in phosphors employed in colour television tubes. Yttrium melts at about 1520° C, boils at about 3340° C, and has a relative density of 4.47. Yttrium is sometimes included among the rare earth elements.

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« Reply #88 on: 11/01/2009 22:46:20 »
Zirconium, metallic element with an atomic number of 40. In its pure state zirconium exists in two forms: the crystalline form, a soft, white, ductile metal; and the amorphous form, a bluish-black powder. Both forms are insoluble in water, slightly soluble in alcohol, and completely soluble in hydrofluoric acid. The metal burns in air at 500° C . Zirconium ranks 18th in abundance among the elements in the crust of the Earth. Zirconium is used in the manufacture of steel, porcelain, certain non-ferrous alloys, and refractories. It is also used in vacuum tubes to remove traces of gases because it combines readily with oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen at high temperatures. Zirconium is used in heat exchangers, pump housings, valves, and other equipment subject to corrosion by acids. Special alloys of the metal called zircaloy-2 and zircaloy-4, which contain 1.5 per cent tin, are used in nuclear reactors as a cladding material for uranium-fuel elements and as a structural material. Zirconium is especially suitable in water-moderated reactors because of its low neutron-absorption cross section, excellent corrosion resistance at moderately elevated temperatures, strength, ductility, and ease of fabrication. Australia is the largest producer of zirconium in the world, accounting for more than 70 per cent of world production.

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« Reply #89 on: 12/01/2009 17:36:03 »
Niobium
Niobium was discovered by Charles Hatchett (GB) in 1801. The origin of the name comes from the Greek word Niobe meaning daughter of Tantalus in Greek mythology (tantalum is closely related to niobium in the periodic table).
Niobium is a rare, soft, malleable, ductile, gray-white metal. It has a body-centered cubic crystalline structure and in its physical and chemical properties it resembles tantalum. It must be placed in a protective atmosphere when processed at even moderate temperatures because it tends to react with oxygen, carbon, the halogens, nitrogen, and sulfur. The metal is inert to acids, even to aqua regia at room temperatures, but is attacked by hot, concentrated acids, and expecially by alkalis and oxidizing agents.

Applications
Niobium is used for the production of high-temperature-resistant alloys and special stainless steels. Small amounts of niobium impart greater strenght to other metals, especially those that are exposed to low temperatures. Niobium carbide is used in cutting tools. It is used in stainless steel alloys for nuclear reactors, jets, missiles, cutting tools, pipelines, super magnets and welding rods.

Niobium-tin and niobium-titanium alloys are used as wires for superconducting magnets capable of producing exceedingly strong magnetic fields. Niobium is also used IN its pure form to make superconducting accelerating structures for particle accelerators. Niobium alloys are used in surgical implants because they do not react with human tissue.

Atomic number: 41
Group numbers: 5
Period: 5
Electronic configuration: [Kr] 4d4 5s1
Formal oxidation number: +3 +5
Electronegativities: 1.6
Atomic radius / pm: 142.9
Relative atomic mass: 92.90638 ± 0.00002
Crystal structure:body-centered cubic
 
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
Density / gdm-3: 8570 (293 K)
 7830 (m.p.)
Molar volume / cm3mol-1:10.84 (293 K)
 11.87 (m.p.)
Electrical resistivity / μΩcm: 12.5 (20 °C)

THERMAL PROPERTIES
Thermal conductivity / W m-1K-1:53.7
Melting point / °C: 2477
Boiling point / °C: 4744
Heat of fusion / kJ mol-1: 27.2
Heat of vaporization / kJ mol-1: 680.19
Heat of atomization / kJ mol-1: 722.819

IONIZATION ENERGIES
1st ionization energy / kJ mol-1: 652.13
2nd ionization energy / kJ mol-1: 1381.68
3rd ionization energy / kJ mol-1: 2416.01

ABUNDANCE OF ELEMENTS
in the atmosphere / ppm: -
in the Earth's crust / ppm: 11
in the oceans / ppm: 0.00001

ISOTOPES
Isotope     Relative atomic mass     Mass percent (%)
93Nb         92.906378(2)                100

REDUCTION POTENTIALS
Balanced half-reaction                                               Eo / V
NbV + 2e- <=> NbIII                                                 -0.373    (6 mol dm-3 H2SO4)
Nb3+ + 3e- <=> Nb(s)                                              -1.1
Nb2O5(s) + 10H+ + 10e- <=> 2Nb(s) + 5H2O               -0.65
NbO3+ + 2H+ + 2e- <=> Nb3+ + H2O                          -0.343
NbO(SO4)2- + 2H+ + 2e- <=> Nb3+ + H2O + 2SO42-      - 0.1
NbO(SO4)2- + 2H+ + 5e- <=> Nb(s) + H2O + 2SO42-      -0.63
« Last Edit: 12/01/2009 18:06:22 by lightarrow »

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« Reply #90 on: 12/01/2009 22:30:54 »
You want to take up the responsibility now of doing the rest of the elements Mr. lightarrow?

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« Reply #91 on: 12/01/2009 22:34:53 »
Molybdenum, metallic element with chemical properties similar to those of chromium. Molybdenum is one of the transition elements of the periodic table. Molybdenum is dissolved by dilute nitric acid and aqua regia, and is attacked by fused alkalis; it is not attacked by air at ordinary temperatures, but burns at temperatures above 600° C to form molybdenum oxide. Molybdenum does not occur free in nature, but in the form of its ores, the most important of which are molybdenite and wulfenite. It ranks 56th in order of abundance of the elements in the crust of the Earth and is an important trace element in soils, where it contributes to the growth of plants. The metal is used chiefly in alloying steel. The alloy withstands high temperatures and pressures and is very strong, making it useful for structural work, aircraft parts, and forged car parts. Molybdenum wire is used in electron tubes, and the metal also serves as electrodes in glass furnaces. Molybdenum sulphide is used as a lubricant in environments requiring high temperatures. About two-thirds of the world supply of the metal is obtained as a byproduct of copper mining, with the United States the single largest producer, followed by Canada.

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« Reply #92 on: 12/01/2009 22:36:46 »
Technetium, radioactive metallic element, the first element to be created artificially. Technetium is one of the transition elements of the periodic table. In 1937 Emilio Segrè and Carlo Perrier created technetium by bombarding molybdenum targets with deuterons (particles consisting of a proton and a neutron). Because technetium is not part of the decay series of any naturally radioactive element, scientists had thought that technetium does not occur in nature. In 1988, however, minute quantities of it were detected in ore from a deep molybdenum mine in Colorado. Isotopes ranging in mass number from 90 to 111 are known; the most common isotope has a mass number of 99. Technetium forms oxides, sulphides, and technetiates, such as ammonium technetiate (NH4TcO4). Compounds and alloys containing technetium oxide can prevent the corrosion of iron by water. Technetium-99 is used for imaging in medicine. Technetium melts at about 2200° C, boils at about 4570° C , and has a relative density of 11.5.

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« Reply #93 on: 12/01/2009 23:02:58 »
You want to take up the responsibility now of doing the rest of the elements Mr. lightarrow?
Ah, no, I posted that because it was the shorter I found...   [:)]

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« Reply #94 on: 12/01/2009 23:04:26 »
Alright [:)], I thought you might have relieved me from my duties  [;)

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« Reply #95 on: 12/01/2009 23:18:13 »
Alright [:)], I thought you might have relieved me from my duties  [;)
Don't worry! By the way, which is your source of information? I think it's not wiki because you wrote something I haven't found there.

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« Reply #96 on: 12/01/2009 23:20:17 »
Encyclopedia. I have actually done all of the research a few years back and I have already typed everything up on my computer. So now, I just have to get the relevant information and post it here [:)]

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« Reply #97 on: 14/01/2009 00:14:38 »
Ruthenium, chemically unreactive, greyish-white metallic element. Ruthenium is one of the transition elements of the periodic table. Ruthenium was discovered in 1844 by the Russian chemist Karl Karlovich Klaus. The name of the element is derived from the region of Ruthenia, now a part of Ukraine. The metal occurs in the metallic state in platinum ores. Ruthenium ranks 80th in natural abundance among elements in crustal rocks. The addition of ruthenium to platinum and palladium alloys makes the alloys very hard. Such alloys have a high resistance to wear and are used in the manufacture of jewellery, in porcelain-metal restorations in dentistry, as tips for fountain-pen nibs, and for non-magnetic instrument pivots. The alloy ruthenium-molybdenum is a superconductor at temperatures below -263° C. The pure metal is superior to platinum in resistance to attack by acids, including aqua regia.

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« Reply #98 on: 14/01/2009 00:16:58 »
Rhodium (Greek rhodon, “rose”), brilliant silvery-white metallic element used principally in alloys. Rhodium is one of the transition elements of the periodic table. Rhodium was discovered in 1803 by the British chemist William Hyde Wollaston. Rhodium metal is very durable. It is insoluble in ordinary acids and is very difficult to fuse. It has a hardness of 4. The compounds of rhodium span oxidation states of one to six. Aqueous solutions of many of its salts are rose coloured, from which its name is derived. The metal occurs as an alloy in platinum ores, in osmiridium, and in gold-rhodium ores called rhodite. Of the elements in the crust of the Earth, it ranks 81st in order of abundance. Rhodium is used mostly as an alloy with platinum; the resulting alloy has the desirable properties of platinum and is also hard and durable. Rhodium-platinum alloys are used in thermocouples, for measuring high temperatures. Pure rhodium is used as a mirror surface in searchlights and as a plating finish for jewellery and silverware. Rhodium black is a finely divided metal that contains some oxide and hydride. It is used both as a catalyst and as a black pigment for porcelain ware.

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« Reply #99 on: 14/01/2009 22:24:57 »
Palladium, relatively rare, silvery-white, soft metallic element. The element is one of the transition elements of the periodic table. Palladium was discovered in 1804 by the British chemist William Hyde Wollaston. Palladium has a hardness of 4.8. Like platinum, it is ductile, malleable, and resistant to corrosion; it fuses more easily than platinum and can be welded easily. Finely divided palladium is an excellent adsorbent for some gases; it adsorbs 1,000 to 3,000 times its volume of hydrogen or ethyne (acetylene) gas when heated to 100° C. Palladium is dissolved readily by aqua regia. It forms divalent and tetravalent compounds and resembles platinum chemically. Palladium ranks about 71st in natural abundance among the elements in crustal rock. The metal occurs in the pure state in platinum ores and in the combined state in Canadian nickel ore. The chief use of the metal is in the field of communications, where it is used to face electrical contacts in automatic switchgear. It is also used in dentistry; for non-magnetic springs in clocks and watches, for coating special mirrors; and in jewellery, alloyed with gold, in what is called white gold.