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Psychogenic polydipsia is a special form of polydipsia, caused by mental disorders.Clinical presentationThe patient drinks large amounts of water, which raises the pressure of the extracellular medium. As a side effect, the antidiuretic hormone level is lowered. The urine produced by these patients will have a low electrolyte concentration and it will be produced in large quantities (polyuria). If the patient is institutionalised, close monitoring by staff is necessary to control fluid intake. In extreme episodes, the patient's kidneys will be unable to deal with the fluid overload, and weight gain will be noted.Atypical patient profilesWhile psychogenic polydipsia is usually not seen outside the population of those with serious mental disorders, it may occasionally be found among others in the absence of psychosis, although there is no extant research to document this other than anecdotal observations. Such persons typically prefer to possess bottled water that is ice cold, consume water and other fluids at excessive levels, and may be falsely diagnosed as suffering from diabetes insipidus, since the chronic ingestion of excessive water can produce symptoms and diagnostic results that mimic mild diabetes insipidus.