A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE !!

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Offline neilep

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PLEASE post your Avionic related topics to this specific thread here http://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/index.php?topic=5776.925

Anything else to do with Science , post here.....

I'll start of with the letter 'A'


Alexander Graham Bell (3 March 1847 - 2 August 1922) was an eminent scientist, inventor and innovator. Most often associated with the invention of the telephone, Bell was also called "the father of the deaf".[1] His father, grandfather and brother had all been associated with work on elocution and speech, and both his mother and wife were deaf, profoundly influencing Bell's life's work. His research on hearing and speech further led him to experiment with hearing devices that eventually culminated in Bell being awarded the first U.S. patent for the invention of the telephone in 1876.

Many other inventions marked Bell's later life including groundbreaking work in hydrofoils and aeronautics. In 1888, Alexander Graham Bell was one of the founding members of the National Geographic Society. In reflection, Bell considered his most famous invention an intrusion on his real work as a scientist and refused to have a telephone in his study. Upon Bell's death, all telephones throughout the United States "stilled their ringing for a silent minute in tribute to the man whose yearning to communicate made them possible."


[attachment=2088]


Bell speaking into a prototype model of the Telephone



« Last Edit: 18/01/2012 15:28:07 by BenV »
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Brownian Tree


A Brownian tree, whose name is derived from Robert Brown via Brownian motion, is a form of computer art that was briefly popular in the 1990s, when home computers started to have sufficient power to simulate Brownian motion. Brownian trees are mathematical models of dendritic structures associated with the physical process known as diffusion-limited aggregation.

A Brownian tree is built with these steps: first, a "seed" is placed somewhere on the screen. Then, a particle is placed in a random position of the screen, and moved randomly until it bumps against the seed. The particle is left there, and another particle is placed in a random position and moved, and so on.


The resulting tree can have many different shapes, depending on principally three factors:

    * the seed position
    * the initial particle position (anywhere on the screen, from a circle surrounding the seed, from the top of the screen, etc.)
    * the moving algorithm (usually random, but for example a particle can be deleted if it goes too far from the seed, etc.)

Particle color can change between iterations, giving interesting effects.

At the time of their popularity (helped by a Scientific American article in the Amateur Scientist section), a common computer took hours, and even days, to generate a small tree. Today's (2003) computers can generate trees with tens of thousands of particles in a few minutes.

These trees can also be grown easily in an electrodeposition cell, and are the direct result of diffusion-limited aggregation.

[attachment=2090]


[attachment=2092]


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Cybernetics

The term cybernetics stems from the Greek Κυβερνήτης (kybernetes, steersman, governor, pilot, or rudder — the same root as government). Cybernetics is a broad field of study, but the essential goal of cybernetics is to understand and define the functions and processes of systems. Studies of this field are all ultimately means of examining different forms of systems and applying what is known to make artificial systems, such as business management, more efficient and effective.

Cybernetic was defined by Norbert Wiener, in his book of that title, as the study of control and communication in the animal and the machine. Stafford Beer called it the science of effective organization and Gordon Pask extended it to include information flows "in all media" from stars to brains. It includes the study of feedback, black boxes and derived concepts such as communication and control in living organisms, machines and organizations including self-organization. Its focus is how anything (digital, mechanical or biological) processes information, reacts to information, and changes or can be changed to better accomplish the first two tasks [1]. A more philosophical definition, suggested in 1956 by Louis Couffignal, one of the pioneers of cybernetics, characterizes cybernetics as "the art of ensuring the efficacy of action" [2]. The most recent definition has been proposed by Louis Kauffman, President of the American Society for Cybernetics, "Cybernetics is the study of systems and processes that interact with themselves and produce themselves from themselves" [3].

Concepts studied by cyberneticists include, but are not limited to: learning, cognition, adaption, social control, emergence, communication, efficiency, efficacy and interconnectivity. These concepts are studied by other subjects such as engineering and biology, but in cybernetics these are removed from the context of the individual organism or device.
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Offline opus

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D is for dodo- as in dead as a....

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Engram

Engrams are a hypothetical means by which memory traces are stored as biophysical or biochemical change in the brain (and other neural tissue) in response to external stimuli.

They are also sometimes thought of as a neuronal network or fragment of memory, sometimes using a hologram analogy to describe its action in light of results showing that memory appears to be non-localized in the brain. The existence of engrams is posited by some scientific theories to explain the persistence of memory and how memories are stored in the brain. The existence of neurologically defined engrams is not significantly disputed, though its exact mechanism and location has been a persistent focus of research for many decades.

Incidentally..I'm always interested in hearing abut YOUR earliest memory http://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/index.php?topic=2345.0
« Last Edit: 19/01/2008 22:24:51 by neilep »
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F for Fabinacci (?) sequence. Aren't lots of things in nature supposed to follow this ?.... things like pinecone patterns etc....?

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Gerhard Ertl (born October 10, 1936(1936-10-10) in Stuttgart) is a German physicist and a Professor emeritus at the Department of Physical Chemistry, Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft in Berlin, Germany. He won the 2007 Nobel Prize in Chemistry

Gerhard Ertl is known for determining the detailed molecular mechanisms of the catalytic synthesis of ammonia over iron (Haber Bosch process) and the catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide over palladium (catalytic converter). During his research he discovered the important phenomenon of oscillatory reactions on platinum surfaces and, using photoelectron microscopy, was able to image for the first time, the oscillating changes in surface structure and coverage that occur during reaction.

He always used new observation techniques like low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) at the beginning of his career, later ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) and scanning tunneling microscope (STM) yielding ground breaking results.

He won the Wolf Prize in Chemistry in 1998 along with Gabor A. Somorjai of the University of California, Berkeley for "their outstanding contributions to the field of the surface science in general and for their elucidation of fundamental mechanisms of heterogeneous catalytic reactions at single crystal surface in particular."

Gerhard Ertl was awarded the 2007 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his studies of chemical processes on solid surfaces. The award, worth SEK 10 million (or 1.7 million U.S dollars) , was announced on Ertl's 71st birthday. "I am speechless," Ertl told The Associated Press from his office in Berlin. "I was not counting on this."

[attachment=2162]





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Offline Carolyn

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Herman Hollerith
(1860-1929),

Herman Hollerith is widely regarded as the father of modern automatic computation. He chose the punched card as the basis for storing and processing information and he built the first punched-card tabulating and sorting machines as well as the first key punch, and he founded the company that was to become IBM. Hollerith's designs dominated the computing landscape for almost 100 years.

After receiving his Engineer of Mines (EM) degree at age 19, Hollerith worked on the 1880 US census, a laborious and error-prone operation that cried out for mechanization. After some initial trials with paper tape, he settled on punched cards (pioneered in the Jacquard loom) to record information, and designed special equipment -- a tabulator and sorter -- to tally the results. His designs won the competition for the 1890 US census, chosen for their ability to count combined facts. These machines reduced a ten-year job to three months (different sources give different numbers, ranging from six weeks to three years), saved the 1890 taxpayers five million dollars, and earned him an 1890 Columbia PhD¹. This was the first wholly successful information processing system to replace pen and paper. Hollerith's machines were also used for censuses in Russia, Austria, Canada, France, Norway, Puerto Rico, Cuba, and the Philippines, and again in the US census of 1900. In 1911 Hollerith's company merged with two others to form the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (CTR), which changed its name to International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) in 1924.

Between the 1880 and 1890 censuses, Hollerith spent a year (1882) on the Mechanical Engineering faculty at MIT, and then in the mid-1880s worked on railroad braking systems, obtaining several patents for both electromagnetic pneumatic brakes and vacuum operated brakes, as well as for corrugated metal tubing.

Hollerith's ideas for automation of the census are expressed succinctly in Patent No. 395,782 of Jan. 8, 1889: "The herein described method of compiling statistics which consists in recording separate statistical items pertaining to the individual by holes or combinations of holed punched in sheets of electrically non-conducting material, and bearing a specific relation to each other and to a standard, and then counting or tallying such statistical items separately or in combination by means of mechanical counters operated by electro-magnets the circuits through which are controlled by the perforated sheets, substantially as and for the purpose set forth."

Hollerith's contributions to modern computing are... "incalculable" :-)   He did not stop at his original 1890 tabulating machine and sorter, but produced many other innovative new models. He also invented the first automatic card-feed mechanism, the first key punch, and took what was perhaps the first step towards programming by introducing a wiring panel in his 1906 Type I Tabulator, allowing it to do different jobs without having to be rebuilt! (The 1890 Tabulator was hardwired to operate only on 1890 Census cards.) These inventions were the foundation of the modern information processing industry.

Carolyn

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Offline rosalind dna

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Hippocampus



The hippocampus is a part of the forebrain, located in the medial temporal lobe. It forms a part of the limbic system and plays a part in long term memory and spatial navigation. Humans and other mammals have two hippocampi, one in each side of the brain.
The name derives from its curved shape in coronal sections of the brain, which resembles a seahorse (Greek: hippos = horse, kampi = curve).

In Alzheimer's disease, the hippocampus is one of the first regions of the brain to suffer damage; memory problems and disorientation appear among the first symptoms. Damage to the hippocampus can also result from oxygen starvation (anoxia) and encephalitis.



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hippocampus
Rosalind Franklin was my first cousin and one my life's main regrets is that I never met this brilliant and beautiful lady.
She discovered the Single DNA Helix in 1953, then it was taken by Wilkins without her knowledge or agreeement.

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Offline Simulated

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I is for Ice Cream



Tastey :)

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Offline rosalind dna

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Rosalind Franklin was my first cousin and one my life's main regrets is that I never met this brilliant and beautiful lady.
She discovered the Single DNA Helix in 1953, then it was taken by Wilkins without her knowledge or agreeement.

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Offline rosalind dna

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Jaundice

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jaundice

not nice for anyone who gets this, I prefer yellow flowers
Rosalind Franklin was my first cousin and one my life's main regrets is that I never met this brilliant and beautiful lady.
She discovered the Single DNA Helix in 1953, then it was taken by Wilkins without her knowledge or agreeement.

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Rosalind what aer you doing!!! lol. Every letter i post you post with the same one? lol

K is for Kraner, Ryan

Subject: Human :) lol

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Lunar Full Eclipses

LUNAR ECLIPSES

A lunar eclipse occurs when the Earth passes between the Moon and the Sun.


A great event for beginners to observe
   
  Total and Partial Eclipses


A lunar eclipse

A lunar eclipse may be partial or total. A partial lunar eclipse occurs when the Moon skirts into the Earth's penumbral shadow. When the Moon is fully immersed in the umbra a total lunar eclipse occurs.

 
 
During a lunar eclipse, the Earth passes between the Sun and the Moon, blocking the Sun’s light. We see the Earth’s shadow creep across the surface of the Moon.

Lunar eclipses are not as spectacular as Solar eclipses, when day turns to night. However, they last for much longer, and can be seen from any part of the Earth’s surface where the Moon is above the horizon.

They require no equipment to view, and are perfect events for beginners to observe.

Learn more about solar eclipses

Why don't we see a lunar eclipse every month?
Full Moons occur when the Sun and Moon are on opposite sides of the Earth - so Lunar eclipses can only happen when the Moon is full. It would seem natural for a lunar eclipse to happen at each full Moon. But this isn't the case.

The Moon's orbit is tilted by about 5 degrees to the path of the Earth's orbit around the Sun. During most months the Moon will pass above or below the Earth's shadow and no eclipse will occur.

From the BBC's science site.


http://www.hermit.org/Eclipse/2007-03-03/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/3_March_2007_lunar_eclipse


http://flickr.com/photos/vee8/409332581/in/pool-71585219@N00

This picture is from the full Lunar Eclipse in 3 March 07. I watched all 4 hours of it.


I read every single page of this fascinating thread/topic. Having written down some ideas to work with hopefully


Simulated I am just testing myself and this is different also taken from the other thread, lol lol
Rosalind Franklin was my first cousin and one my life's main regrets is that I never met this brilliant and beautiful lady.
She discovered the Single DNA Helix in 1953, then it was taken by Wilkins without her knowledge or agreeement.

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Offline Simulated

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Ohh alright! lol

M is for Monkey!



Just Messing George!



A monkey is any member of either the New World monkeys or Old World monkeys, two of the three groupings of simian primates, the third group being the apes. There are 264 known extant species of monkey.

The New World monkeys are classified within the parvorder Platyrrhini, whereas the Old World monkeys (superfamily Cercopithecoidea) form part of the parvorder Catarrhini, which also includes the apes. Thus, scientifically speaking, monkeys are paraphyletic (not a single coherent group), and Old World monkeys are actually more closely related to the apes than they are to the New World monkeys.

Because of their similarity to monkeys, apes such as chimpanzees and gibbons are often called "monkeys" in informal usage, though they are not monkeys. Conversely, due to its size (up to 1 m) the Mandrill is often thought to be an ape, but it is actually an Old World monkey. Also, a few monkey species have the word "ape" in their common name.


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Offline rosalind dna

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Nobel Prizes and nominations archives to be opened from 1958 this year.



http://nobelprize.org/alfred_nobel/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nobel_Prize

By the way I like your Bush one lol
Rosalind Franklin was my first cousin and one my life's main regrets is that I never met this brilliant and beautiful lady.
She discovered the Single DNA Helix in 1953, then it was taken by Wilkins without her knowledge or agreeement.

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O is for Opal



The mineraloid opal is amorphous SiO2·nH2O, hydrated silicon dioxide. The water content is usually between three and ten percent, but can be as high as 20%. Opal ranges from clear through white, gray, red, yellow, green, shore, blue, magenta, brown, and black. Of these hues, red and black are the most rare and dear, whereas white and green are the most common; these are a function of growth size into the red and infrared wavelengths—see precious opal. Common opal is truly amorphous, but precious opal does have a structural element. The word opal comes from the Latin opalus, by Greek òpalliòs, and is from the same root as Sanskrit upálá for "stone", originally a millstone with upárá for slab.[2] (see Upal). Opals are also Australia's national gemstone.

Opal is a mineraloid gel which is deposited at relatively low temperature and may occur in the fissures of almost any kind of rock, being most commonly found with limonite, sandstone, rhyolite, and basalt.

Opal is one of the mineraloids that can form or replace fossils. The resulting fossils, though not of any extra scientific interest, appeal to collectors.


And yess I like it too haha

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Offline rosalind dna

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Rosalind Franklin was my first cousin and one my life's main regrets is that I never met this brilliant and beautiful lady.
She discovered the Single DNA Helix in 1953, then it was taken by Wilkins without her knowledge or agreeement.

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Q is for Quartz!



Quartz (from German Quarz (help·info)[1]) is the second most common mineral in the Earth's continental crust, feldspar being the first. It is made up of a lattice of silica (SiO2) tetrahedra. Quartz has a hardness of 7 on the Mohs scale and a density of 2.65 g/cm³.


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Offline rosalind dna

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Rosalind Franklin, who's my first cousin, so if I go on a bit much (sorry) it's because I
am proud of her and her work.

Dr Franklin, discovered the Single DNA Helix Structure in 1953 and after a lot of
Crystallography Diffraction X-Ray work to which she was dedicated her life too.
Although Wilkins took her now infamous Slide 51 out of her lab drawer and passed it onto Crick
and Watson, who in '62 received the Nobel Prize.

She died in 1958 and this year, 2008 is the 50th year of her death and since Crick, Watson also Maurice Wilkins received the Nobel Prize for Science, Rosalind was
nominated but never received the Prize as the organisation do not give them out
posthomously (sp) after death but the Nobel organisation will open their nomination
archives this year. http://nobelprize.org/educational_games/medicine/dna_double_helix/readmore.html




The CLICK ME FOR Rosalind Franklin Papers

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rosalind_Franklin
http://osulibrary.orst.edu/specialcollections/coll/pauling/dna/pictures/franklin-typeBphoto.html
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/photo51/


« Last Edit: 20/01/2008 16:58:27 by neilep »
Rosalind Franklin was my first cousin and one my life's main regrets is that I never met this brilliant and beautiful lady.
She discovered the Single DNA Helix in 1953, then it was taken by Wilkins without her knowledge or agreeement.

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Strait

A strait is a narrow, navigable channel of water that connects two larger navigable bodies of water. It most commonly refers to a channel of water that lies between two land masses, but it may also refer to a navigable channel through a body of water that is not navigable, for example because it is too shallow, or because it contains an unnavigable reef or archipelago. The terms strait, channel, passage, sound, and firth can be synonymous and interchangeable, although each is sometimes differentiated with varying senses. Many straits are economically important. Straits can lie on important shipping routes, and wars have been fought for control of these straits. Numerous artificial channels, called canals, have been constructed to connect two bodies of water over land.

Although rivers and canals often form a bridge between two large lakes or a lake and a sea, and these seem to suit the formal definition of straits, they are not usually referred to as straits. Straits are typically much larger, wider structures that do not have water running in a single direction, and normally connect two seas.

Straits are the duals of isthmi. That is, while straits lie between two land masses and connect two larger bodies of water, isthmi lie between two bodies of water and connect two larger land masses.

A strait is similar to an inlet although inlets typically pass through island land masses usually from a large body of water such as an ocean to a much smaller body such as a bay while straits pass through much larger land masses and connect much larger bodies of water such as seas and oceans.


[attachment=2173]


The Strait of Dover or Dover Strait is the strait at the narrowest part of the English Channel. The shortest distance across the strait is from the South Foreland, some 6 km (4 mi) north-east of Dover in the county of Kent, England, to Cap Gris Nez, a cape near Calais in the département of Pas-de-Calais, France. Between these two points – the most popular route for cross-channel swimmers – the distance is just 33 km (20 mi).

The strait lies at the east end of the English Channel, where it joins the North Sea. Its width is the shortest distance between France and England. On a clear day, it is possible to see the opposite coastline and shoreline buildings with the naked eye.


[attachment=2175]


[attachment=2177]






Source Wikipedia









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Offline rosalind dna

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Rosalind Franklin was my first cousin and one my life's main regrets is that I never met this brilliant and beautiful lady.
She discovered the Single DNA Helix in 1953, then it was taken by Wilkins without her knowledge or agreeement.

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Offline Simulated

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U is for Unicorn



A unicorn (from Latin unus 'one' and cornu 'horn') is a legendary creature. Though the modern popular image of the unicorn is sometimes that of a horse differing only in the horn on its forehead, the traditional unicorn has a billy-goat beard, a lion's tail, and cloven hooves - these distinguish it from a horse.[1] Marianna Mayer has observed (The Unicorn and the Lake), "The unicorn is the only fabulous beast that does not seem to have been conceived out of human fears. In even the earliest references he is fierce yet good, selfless yet solitary, but always mysteriously beautiful. He could be captured only by unfair means, and his single horn was said to neutralize poison."


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V is for V-8 Engines



A V8 engine is a V engine with eight cylinders mounted on the crankcase in two banks of four cylinders, in most cases set at a right angle to each other but occasionally at some other angle.[1]

In its simplest form, it is basically two straight-4 engines sharing a common crankshaft. This simple configuration, however, has the same secondary dynamic imbalance problems as two straight-4s, resulting in annoying vibrations in large-displacement engines. Most modern automobile V8s use a somewhat more complex crossplane crankshaft with heavy counterweights to eliminate the vibrations. This results in an engine which is more powerful than and nearly as smooth as a straight-6 of equivalent cylinder size, while being considerably less expensive than a V12 engine



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Offline rosalind dna

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W is Weather Forecasting

To predict the weather's storms, winds, rain, sunny spells with satellites computers
and of course people's expertise although the weather forecasters are all civil servants,
trained as scientist too.

http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/weather/uk/uk_forecast_weather.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weather_forecasting
http://ww2010.atmos.uiuc.edu/(Gh)/guides/mtr/fcst/home.rxml
Rosalind Franklin was my first cousin and one my life's main regrets is that I never met this brilliant and beautiful lady.
She discovered the Single DNA Helix in 1953, then it was taken by Wilkins without her knowledge or agreeement.

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Rosalind Franklin was my first cousin and one my life's main regrets is that I never met this brilliant and beautiful lady.
She discovered the Single DNA Helix in 1953, then it was taken by Wilkins without her knowledge or agreeement.

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Y is for Yak



The yak (Bos grunniens, but also Poephagus grunniens, though this new name is not universally accepted) is a long-haired bovine found throughout the Himalayan region of south Central Asia, the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and as far north as Mongolia. In addition to a large domestic population, there is a small, vulnerable wild yak population. In Tibetan, the word yak refers only to the male of the species; a female is a dri or nak. In most languages which borrowed the word, including English, yak is usually used for both sexes.

Yaks are herd animals. Wild yaks stand about two meters tall at the shoulder and domesticated yaks about one meter. Both types have long shaggy hair to insulate them from the cold. Wild yaks can be brown or black. Domesticated ones can also be white. Both males and females have horns.


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Z is for Zune



Zune is the name of a brand of digital music products and services sold by Microsoft. It includes digital audio players, client software, and the Zune Marketplace online music store.[4]

The devices come in three styles, all of which play music, pictures, and videos; display images; and receive FM radio. They can share files wirelessly with other Zunes and via USB with Xbox 360s, and can sync wirelessly with Windows PCs.

The Zune Software, which runs on Windows XP, Vista, and the Xbox 360, allows users to manage files on the player, rip audio CDs, and buy songs at the online store.

The first Zune player was released in the United States on November 14, 2006. The Zune 4, 8 and 80 were announced on October 2, 2007. The new Zunes offer the ability to sync wirelessly (automatically if connected to a power supply but can be manually started without it), a new touchpad-style input device, additional file support for H.264 and MPEG-4 files, podcast support, upgraded song-sharing licensing, and software that includes support for DRM-free music in the Marketplace. The Zune 80 also has a larger, 3.2” screen. A free firmware update added the new software features to the original Zune (now called the Zune 30) and was released on November 13, 2007.[5]

« Last Edit: 20/01/2008 16:08:59 by Simulated »

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Offline rosalind dna

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Adenoids part of your throats but if they become infected can be removed, mine were as were my tonsils at 3 years old.


Adenoids (or pharyngeal tonsils, or nasopharyngeal tonsils) are a mass of lymphoid tissue situated at the very back of the nose, in the roof of the nasopharynx, where the nose blends into the mouth.

Normally, in children, they make a soft mound in the roof and posterior wall of the nasopharynx, just above and behind the uvula.



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adenoid
Rosalind Franklin was my first cousin and one my life's main regrets is that I never met this brilliant and beautiful lady.
She discovered the Single DNA Helix in 1953, then it was taken by Wilkins without her knowledge or agreeement.

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B is for Buxite



Bauxite is the most important aluminium ore. It consists largely of the minerals gibbsite Al(OH)3, boehmite γ-AlO(OH), and diaspore α-AlO(OH), together with the iron oxides goethite and hematite, the clay mineral kaolinite and small amounts of anatase TiO2. It was named after the village Les Baux-de-Provence in southern France, where it was first discovered in 1821 by geologist Pierre Berthier.

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Offline rosalind dna

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Crystallography like the sort that was used to discover the Double Helix DNA and it's
a form of X-rays.



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X-ray_crystallography
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crystallography
Rosalind Franklin was my first cousin and one my life's main regrets is that I never met this brilliant and beautiful lady.
She discovered the Single DNA Helix in 1953, then it was taken by Wilkins without her knowledge or agreeement.

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D is for Dimples

Sorry no fancy picutre this time they are to bigg lol

Dimples are visible indentations of the skin, caused by underlying flesh, which form on some people's cheeks when they smile. Dimples are genetically inherited and are a dominant trait.[1] Dimples on each cheek are a relatively common occurrence for people with dimples. A rarer form is the single dimple, which occurs on one side of the face only. Anatomically, dimples may be caused by variations in the structure of the facial muscle called zygomaticus major. Specifically, the presence of a double or bifid zygomaticus major muscle may explain the formation of cheek dimples.[2] This bifid variation of the muscle originates as a single structure from the zygomatic bone. As it travels anteriorly, it then divides with a superior bundle that inserts in the typical position above the corner of the mouth. An inferior bundle inserts below the corner of the mouth.

Dimples are considered attractive in some cultures. Babies commonly have dimples, but sometimes these disappear (or become less noticeable) as the muscles lengthen with age; consequently, dimples are often associated with youth.


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E is Epilepsy (which I have had for ages)

It is a condition that affects the nerves in your brain and the static electricity in your
brain goes on overload when a seizure/fit happens which there are many different kinds and names for.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epilepsy
http://www.epilepsynse.org.uk/pages/info/leaflets/explaini.cfm
http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/conditions/epilepsy1.shtml
Rosalind Franklin was my first cousin and one my life's main regrets is that I never met this brilliant and beautiful lady.
She discovered the Single DNA Helix in 1953, then it was taken by Wilkins without her knowledge or agreeement.

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F is for Fire

[attachment=2183]


Fire is the heat and light energy released during a chemical reaction, in particular a combustion reaction. Depending on the substances alight, and any impurities within, the color of the flame and the fire intensity might vary.
« Last Edit: 20/01/2008 17:12:27 by neilep »

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Rosalind Franklin was my first cousin and one my life's main regrets is that I never met this brilliant and beautiful lady.
She discovered the Single DNA Helix in 1953, then it was taken by Wilkins without her knowledge or agreeement.

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H is for Highway

OK what's up with my pictures from wiki being really big?? (I Fixed it ..Neil)

[attachment=2181]



Highway is a term commonly used to designate major roads intended for travel by the public between important destinations, such as cities. The term highway can also be varied country-to-country, and can be referred to as a road, freeway, superhighway, autoroute, autobahn, parkway, expressway, autostrasse, autostrada, byway, auto-estrada or motorway.

Highway designs vary widely. They can include some characteristics of grade separations, multiple lanes of traffic, a median between lanes of opposing traffic, and access control (ramps and grade separation). Highways can also be as simple as a two-lane, shoulderless road.

The United States has the largest network of highways, including Interstate highways and United States Numbered Highways. This network is present in every state and connects all major cities. The Expressway Network of the People's Republic of China, also known as National Trunk Highway System (NTHS) has a total length of about 45,400 km at the end of 2006 [1][2][3], which is the world's second longest only after the United States.

According to world views, the characteristics of a highway can differ. For example, in the United States of America's state of California, civil code 360(590) defines that a highway refers to "any way or place of whatever nature, publicly maintained and open to the use of the public for purposes of vehicular travel." Streets, avenues and even one lane dirt roads are therefore considered highways within the state of California, so long as they are maintained by the state. Multi-lane, high-speed roadways with restricted access are called freeways according to California's civil code, whereby all freeways are highways but not all highways are freeways. In other jurisdictions, such as the Canadian province of Ontario, all public roadways are legally defined as a highway, regardless of its ownership.

Some highways, like the Pan-American Highway or the European routes, bridge multiple countries. Australia's Highway 1 is the longest national highway in the world at over 20,000km and runs almost the entire way around the country.

Highways are not always continuous stretches of pavement. For example, some highways are interrupted by bodies of water, and ferry routes may serve as sections of the highway.
« Last Edit: 20/01/2008 17:11:29 by neilep »

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I is for Isthmus eg Isthmus of Panama.

An Isthmus is a narrow strip of land or small island


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isthmus
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isthmus_of_Panama
Rosalind Franklin was my first cousin and one my life's main regrets is that I never met this brilliant and beautiful lady.
She discovered the Single DNA Helix in 1953, then it was taken by Wilkins without her knowledge or agreeement.

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J is for Jar



A jar is small, approximately cylindrical container for food, made of glass or clay, and also plastic as in the case of a "jar" of peanut butter.


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K is for Kepplar, Johannes



He was German mathematician, astronomer and astrologer,
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kepplar
http://galileo.rice.edu/sci/kepler.html
Rosalind Franklin was my first cousin and one my life's main regrets is that I never met this brilliant and beautiful lady.
She discovered the Single DNA Helix in 1953, then it was taken by Wilkins without her knowledge or agreeement.

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Loupe
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


A loupe (pronounced loop), is a type of magnification device used to see things one is looking at more closely. In this respect, they are simply a form of a modified microscope, allowing the user to be able to better apply the phenomenon of microscopy to his or her trade.


[attachment=2185]
Men are the same as women, just inside out !

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M is for the childhood infection - Mumps



Which causes swelling of the throat glands and makes the person feel poorly.





More on mumps here and here
« Last Edit: 20/01/2008 17:44:28 by neilep »
Rosalind Franklin was my first cousin and one my life's main regrets is that I never met this brilliant and beautiful lady.
She discovered the Single DNA Helix in 1953, then it was taken by Wilkins without her knowledge or agreeement.

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Niels Bohr
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Niels Henrik David Bohr [nels ˈb̥oɐ̯ˀ] (October 7, 1885 – November 18, 1962) was a Danish physicist who made fundamental contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum mechanics, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922. He was also part of the team of physicists working on the Manhattan Project. Bohr married Margrethe Nørlund in 1912, and one of their sons, Aage Niels Bohr, grew up to be an important physicist, who like his father received the Nobel prize, in 1975. Bohr is widely considered to be the one of the greatest physicists of the 20th century.


[attachment=2187]


Men are the same as women, just inside out !

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O is for Ostrich



The Ostrich (Struthio camelus) is a large flightless bird native to Africa (and formerly the Middle East). It is the only living species of its family, Struthionidae, and its genus, Struthio. Ostriches share the order Struthioniformes with emus, kiwis, and other ratites. It is distinctive in its appearance, with a long neck and legs and the ability to run at speeds of about 65 km/h (40 mph), the top land speed of any bird.[2] The Ostrich is the largest living species of bird and lays the largest egg of any bird species.

The diet of the Ostrich mainly consists of seeds and other plant matter, though it eats insects. It lives in nomadic groups which contain between five and 50 birds. When threatened, the Ostrich will either hide itself by lying flat against the ground, or will run away. If cornered, it can cause injury and death with a kick from its powerful legs. Mating patterns differ by geographical region, but territorial males fight for a harem of two to seven females.

The Ostrich is farmed around the world, particularly for its feathers, which are decorative and are also used for feather dusters. Its skin is used for leather and its meat marketed commercially.

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paul.fr

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W is for posts without text. My assumption is that posts here are to enlighten and inform the reader, so simply posting a title and link does neither. Please remember that members and nonmembers print these topics, a simple title and link does not let the person read at their leisure.

Please can we all post some information to accompany any links...even if it's a long, direct quot from said linked page.

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Q is for Queen (Band)

Science of Great Rock Music!

Queen are a British rock band formed in 1970 in London by guitarist Brian May, lead vocalist Freddie Mercury and drummer Roger Taylor, with bassist John Deacon joining the following year. Queen rose to prominence during the 1970s and are one of Britain's most successful bands of the past three decades.[1]

The band is noted for their musical diversity, multi-layered arrangements, vocal harmonies and incorporation of audience participation into their live performances.[2] Their 1985 Live Aid performance was voted the best live music performance of all time in a BBC poll.[3]

Queen had moderate success in the early 1970s, with the albums Queen and Queen II, but it was with the release of Sheer Heart Attack in 1974 and A Night at the Opera the following year that the band gained international success. All of the band's studio albums reached number one on numerous charts around the world. Since 1973, they have released fifteen studio albums, five live albums, and numerous compilation albums. They are estimated to have sold over 300 million albums worldwide ,[4] including more than 32.5 million in the United States alone,[5] making them one of the world's best-selling music artists.

Following Mercury's death in 1991 and Deacon's retirement later in the decade,[6] May and Taylor have performed infrequently under the Queen label. Since 2005, they have been collaborating with Paul Rodgers, under the moniker Queen + Paul Rodgers.


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Roger Penrose

Sir Roger Penrose, OM, FRS (born 8 August 1931) is an English mathematical physicist and Emeritus Rouse Ball Professor of Mathematics at the Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford and Emeritus Fellow of Wadham College. He is renowned for his work in mathematical physics, in particular his contributions to general relativity and cosmology. He is also a recreational mathematician and philosopher. Roger Penrose is the son of scientist Lionel S. Penrose and Margaret Leathes, and the brother of mathematician Oliver Penrose and correspondence chess grandmaster Jonathan Penrose. He was born in Colchester, Essex, England.
Source: Wikipedia

[attachment=2195]
Credit:http://www.abc.net.au/quantum/stories/s108094.htm

The Road to Reality: A Complete Guide to the Laws of the Universe
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia



The Road to Reality is a book on modern physics by the British mathematical physicist Roger Penrose, published in 2004. It covers the basics of the standard model of modern physics, discussing general relativity and quantum mechanics and then expands on the possible unification of these two theories.

The book is just over 1100 pages, of which the first 350 are dedicated to mathematics - Penrose's goal was to acquaint inquisitive readers with the mathematical tools needed to understand the remainder of the book in depth. On page 383 physics enters the discussion with the topic of spacetime. From there it moves on to fields in spacetime, deriving the classical electrical and magnetic forces from first principles; that is, if one lives in spacetime of a particular sort, these fields develop naturally as a consequence. Energy and conservation laws appear in the discussion of the Lagrangians and Hamiltonians, before moving onto a full discussion of quantum physics, particle theory and quantum field theory. A discussion of the measurement problem in quantum mechanics is given a full chapter; superstrings are given a chapter near the end of the book, so is loop gravity and twistor theory. The book ends with an exploration of other theories and possible ways forward.

The book discusses the physical world. Many fields that scientists in the 19th century believed were separate, electricity and magnetism for instance, are facets of a single property, electromagnetism. Some texts, both popular and university level, introduce these topics as separate concepts and then "force" the combination on them much later. In Road to Reality this process is reversed, by first demonstrating the mathematics that is needed to discuss the spacetime we appear to live in, then showing that electromagnetism simply falls out fully formed.

As Penrose admits, the final chapters reflect his personal perspective, as opposed to what he considers current fashion among theoretical physicists. He is skeptical about String Theory, optimistic about Twistor theory, and holds some controversial views about the role of consciousness in physics, as laid out in his earlier books (see Shadows of the Mind).
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S is for Sadness


Sadness is a mood characterized by feelings of disadvantage and loss. When sad, people often become quiet, less energetic and withdrawn. Sadness is considered to be the opposite of happiness, and is similar to the emotions of sorrow, grief, misery and melancholy. The philosopher Baruch Spinoza defined sadness as the “transfer of a person from a large perfection to a smaller one.”

Sadness is a temporary lowering of mood ('feeling blue'), whereas clinical depression is characterized by a persistent and intense lowered mood, as well as disruption to one's ability to function in day to day matters

« Last Edit: 21/01/2008 02:20:49 by neilep »

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T is for Terminator





Terminator is from Latin and means "finisher."

The Terminator is a 1984 science fiction/action film directed and co-written by James Cameron. It features Arnold Schwarzenegger, Linda Hamilton and Michael Biehn.

The film takes place in 1984, introducing the concept of a "terminator", specifically the titular character (Arnold Schwarzenegger), a seemingly unstoppable cyborg assassin who has been sent back from the year 2029 by a race of artificially intelligent computer-controlled machines bent on the extermination of mankind. The Terminator's mission is to kill Sarah Connor (Linda Hamilton) whose future son founds a resistance against the machines. A human, Kyle Reese, is also sent back from the future to protect her.

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U is for Unibrow

A unibrow or monobrow, medically known as a synophrys, refers to a "confluence of eyebrows"; i.e. the presence of abundant hair between the eyebrows, so that they seem to converge to form one long eyebrow.

The words unibrow and monobrow are in the Oxford English Dictionary, and unibrow was added to the Merriam-Webster Dictionary in 2006. Medical dictionaries, such as Dorland's Medical Dictionary, contain the word synophrys.