A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE !!

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LOL.. Me neither! Hee hee!

Lithium
From Wikipedia

Lithium (pronounced /ˈlɪθiəm/) is a chemical element with the symbol Li and atomic number 3. It is a soft alkali metal with a silver-white color. Under standard conditions, it is the lightest metal and the least dense solid element. Like all alkali metals, lithium is highly reactive, corroding quickly in moist air to form a black tarnish. For this reason, lithium metal is typically stored under the cover of oil.

According to theory, lithium (mostly 7Li) was one of the few elements synthesized in the Big Bang, although its quantity has vastly decreased. The reasons for its disappearance and the processes by which new lithium is created continue to be important matters of study in astronomy. Lithium is the 33rd most abundant element on Earth, [1] but due to its high reactivity only appears naturally in the form of compounds. Lithium occurs in a number of pegmatitic minerals, but is also commonly obtained from brines and clays; on a commercial scale, lithium metal is isolated electrolytically from a mixture of lithium chloride and potassium chloride.

Trace amounts of lithium are present in the oceans and in some organisms, though the element serves no apparent biological function in humans. Nevertheless, the neurological effect of the lithium ion Li+ makes some lithium salts useful as a class of mood stabilizing drugs. Lithium and its compounds have several other commercial applications, including heat-resistant glass and ceramics, high strength-to-weight alloys used in aircraft, and lithium batteries. Lithium also has important links to nuclear physics: the splitting of lithium atoms was the first man-made form of a nuclear reaction, and lithium deuteride serves as the fusion fuel in staged thermonuclear weapons.
« Last Edit: 13/06/2008 23:06:09 by neilep »

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Maxwell, James Clerk
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James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish mathematician and theoretical physicist. His most significant achievement was the development of the classical electromagnetic theory, synthesizing all previous unrelated observations, experiments and equations of electricity, magnetism and even optics into a consistent theory.[1] His set of equations—Maxwell's equations—demonstrated that electricity, magnetism and even light are all manifestations of the same phenomenon: the electromagnetic field. From that moment on, all other classical laws or equations of these disciplines became simplified cases of Maxwell's equations. Maxwell's work in electromagnetism has been called the "second great unification in physics", after the first one carried out by Newton.

Maxwell demonstrated that electric and magnetic fields travel through space in the form of waves, and at the constant speed of light. Finally, in 1864 Maxwell wrote A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field where he first proposed that light was in fact undulations in the same medium that is the cause of electric and magnetic phenomena. His work in producing a unified model of electromagnetism is considered to be one of the greatest advances in physics.

Maxwell also developed the Maxwell distribution, a statistical means to describe aspects of the kinetic theory of gases. These two discoveries helped usher in the era of modern physics, laying the foundation for future work in such fields as special relativity and quantum mechanics. He is also known for creating the first true colour photograph in 1861.

Maxwell is considered by many physicists to be the most influential nineteenth century scientist on twentieth century physics. His contributions to the science are considered by many to be of the same magnitude as those of Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein. In 1931, on the centennial of Maxwell's birthday, Einstein himself described Maxwell's work as the "most profound and the most fruitful that physics has experienced since the time of Newton.

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NADIR

From Wiki


[attachment=3242]
Diagram showing the relationship between the Zenith, the Nadir, and different types of Horizon. Note how the Nadir is opposite the Zenith.The nadir (from Arabic ندير nadeer نظير nathir, "opposite") is the astronomical term for the point directly below the observer, or more precisely, the point with an inclination of −90°. In simple terms, if you are standing on the Earth, it is the direction "down" toward your feet.




Geometrically, it is the point on the celestial sphere intersected by a line drawn from the observer's location on the Earth's surface through the center of the Earth. The point opposite the nadir is the zenith. Nadir also refers to a downward-facing viewing angle of an orbiting satellite[2], such as is employed during remote sensing of the atmosphere, as well as when an astronaut faces the Earth while performing an EVA.

The word is also used figuratively to mean the lowest point of a person's spirits. [

« Last Edit: 13/06/2008 13:27:44 by neilep »
Rosalind Franklin was my first cousin and one my life's main regrets is that I never met this brilliant and beautiful lady.
She discovered the Single DNA Helix in 1953, then it was taken by Wilkins without her knowledge or agreeement.

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Ostrom, John
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


[attachment=3256]



John H. Ostrom (February 18, 1928 – July 16, 2005) was an American paleontologist who revolutionized modern understanding of dinosaurs in the 1960s, when he demonstrated that dinosaurs are more like big non-flying birds than they are like lizards (or "saurians"), an idea first proposed by Thomas Henry Huxley in the 1860s, but which had garnered few supporters. The first of Ostrom's broad-based reviews of the osteology and phylogeny of the primitive bird Archaeopteryx appeared in 1976. His reaction to the eventual discovery of feathered dinosaurs in China, after years of acrimonious debate, was bittersweet (Gentile, 2000).
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 Palmieri , Luigi
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Luigi Palmieri (April 22, 1807 - September 9, 1896) was an Italian physicist and meteorologist.


He was born at Faicchio, Benevento, Italy. He died at Naples, Italy. Palmieri made observation of the eruptions on Mount Vesuvius. He also researched earthquakes and meteorological phenomena.

Palmieri received a degree in architecture from the University of Naples. In 1845, Palmieri was the professor of physics at the Royal Naval School at Naples. In 1847, Palmieri was the chair of physics at the university. In 1848, he began working at the Vesuvius Observatory. By 1854, Palmieri was the observatory director. Using a seismometer for the detection and measurement of ground tremors, Palmieri was able to detect very slight movements and to predict the eruption of volcanos.

Using a modified Peltier electrometer, he researched atmospheric electricity. He developed a modified Morse telegraph. He improved the anemomete and pluviometer.
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Quinine



Quinine (IPA: /ˈkwaɪnaɪn, kwɪˈniːn, ˈkwiːniːn/) is a natural white crystalline alkaloid having antipyretic (fever-reducing), antimalarial, analgesic (painkilling), and anti-inflammatory properties and a bitter taste. It is a stereoisomer of quinidine.

Quinine was the first effective treatment for malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum, appearing in therapeutics in the 17th century. It remained the antimalarial drug of choice until the 1940s, when other drugs took over. Since then, many effective antimalarials have been introduced, although quinine is still used to treat the disease in certain critical situations. Quinine is available with a prescription in the United States. Quinine is also used to treat nocturnal leg cramps and arthritis, and there have been attempts (with limited success) to treat prion diseases. It was once a popular heroin adulterant.


It was first brought to Europe by Jesuits and it was also used to cure King Louis XIV.
Chemical structure
Quinine contains two major fused-ring systems: The aromatic quinoline and the bicyclic quinuclidine.

Mechanism of action against P. falciparum
The drug acts by inhibiting the hemozoin biocrystallization, thus facilitating an aggregation of cytotoxic heme. Toxic free heme accumulates in the parasites, leading to their death.

History
Quinine was extracted from the bark of the South American cinchona tree and was isolated and named in 1817 by French researchers Pierre Joseph Pelletier and Joseph Bienaimé Caventou. The name was derived from the original Quechua (Inca) word for the cinchona tree bark, "Quina" or "Quina-Quina", which roughly means "bark of bark" or "holy bark". Prior to 1820, the bark was first dried, ground to a fine powder and then mixed into a liquid (commonly wine) which was then drunk.

Large scale use of quinine as a prophylaxis started around 1850, although it had been used in un-extracted form by Europeans since at least the early 1600s. Quinine was first used to treat malaria in Rome in 1631. During the 1600s, malaria was endemic to the swamps and marshes surrounding the city of Rome. Over time, malaria was responsible for the death of several Popes, many Cardinals and countless common citizens of Rome. Most of the priests trained in Rome had seen malaria victims and were familiar with the shivering brought on by the cold phase of the disease. In addition to its anti-malarial properties, quinine is an effective muscle relaxant, long used by the Quechua Indians of Peru to halt shivering brought on by cold temperatures. The Jesuit Brother Agostino Salumbrino (1561-1642), an apothecary by training and who lived in Lima, observed the Quechua using the quinine-containing bark of the cinchona tree for that purpose. While its effect in treating malaria (and hence malaria-induced shivering) was entirely unrelated to its effect in controlling shivering from cold, it was still the correct medicine for malaria. At the first opportunity, he sent a small quantity to Rome to test in treating malaria. In the years that followed, cinchona bark became one of the most valuable commodities shipped from Peru to Europe.

Quinine also played a significant role in the colonization of Africa by Europeans. As the harbinger of modern pharmacology, Quinine was the prime reason why Africa ceased to be known as the white man's grave. According to socialist historian Clifford Conner in "A People's History of Science", "It was quinine's efficacy that gave colonists fresh opportunities to swarm into the Gold Coast, Nigeria and other parts of west Africa..." (Conner pp 95-96 also cites Porter, "The Greatest Benefit to Mankind," pp. 465-466).

Synthetic quinine
Main article: quinine total synthesis
Cinchona trees remain the only practical source of quinine. However, under wartime pressure, research towards its artificial production was undertaken. A formal chemical synthesis was accomplished in 1944 by American chemists R.B. Woodward and W.E. Doering.[1] Since then, several more efficient quinine total syntheses have been achieved[2], but none of them can compete in economic terms with isolation of the alkaloid from natural


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quinine
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She discovered the Single DNA Helix in 1953, then it was taken by Wilkins without her knowledge or agreeement.

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Rosalind Franklin
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia




[attachment=3292]




 

Rosalind Elsie Franklin (25 July 1920 Notting Hill, London – 16 April 1958 Chelsea, London) was an English biophysicist and X-ray crystallographer who made very important contributions to the understanding of the fine structures of DNA, viruses, coal and graphite. Franklin is best known for her work on the X-ray diffraction images of DNA which were an important influence on Crick and Watson's 1953 hypothesis regarding the structure of DNA. When her work was published it also presented critical evidence in support of their hypothesis. Later she led pioneering work on the tobacco mosaic and polio viruses. She died in 1958 of bronchopneumonia, secondary carcinomatosis, and carcinoma of the ovary; her death certificate read: "A Research Scientist, Spinster, Daughter of Ellis Arthur Franklin, a Banker."
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SPLIT PERSONALITY.... more commonly known these days as:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dissociative_identity_disorder


Dissociative identity disorder
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Dissociative identity disorder
Classification and external resources
ICD-10    F44.8
ICD-9    300.14
MeSH    D009105

Dissociative Identity Disorder, as defined by the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), is a psychiatric diagnosis that describes a condition in which a single person displays multiple distinct identities or personalities, each with its own pattern of perceiving and interacting with the environment.[1] The diagnosis requires that at least two personalities routinely take control of the individual's behavior with an associated memory loss that goes beyond normal forgetfulness; in addition, symptoms cannot be due to substance abuse or medical condition. Earlier versions of the DSM named the condition multiple personality disorder (MPD) and the term is still used by the ICD-10. There is controversy around the existence, possible causes, appearance across cultures, and epidemiology of the condition.
Contents
[hide]

    * 1 Controversy
    * 2 Classification
    * 3 Signs and symptoms
    * 4 Causes
    * 5 Pathophysiology
    * 6 Diagnosis
    * 7 Screening
    * 8 Treatment
    * 9 Prognosis
    * 10 Epidemiology
    * 11 History
    * 12 Cultural references
    * 13 See also
    * 14 Notes
    * 15 Further reading
    * 16 External links

 Controversy;

    Main article: Multiple personality controversy

DID is a controversial diagnosis and condition, with much of the literature on DID being generated and published in North America, to the extent that it was regarded as a phenomenon confined to that continent.[2][3][4] Even within North American psychiatrists, there is a lack of consensus regarding the validity of DID,[5][6] with some researchers considering it a culture bound, iatrogenic condition[4][7] though this idea is neither confirmed nor has been accepted by many researchers in the field. [8][9][10][11][12][13] The DSM is explicit about the controversy over the condition, identifying both the objective evidence of physical and sexual abuse in the history of individuals diagnosed with DID and that individuals accused of abuse are motivated to deny or distort past actions, but also points out that childhood memories may be distorted, and that individuals with DID are highly hypnotizable and unusually vulnerable to suggestion.[1] Practitioners who accept DID as a valid disorder have produced an extensive amount of literature, and research originating outside North America has appeared in recent years that documents the epidemiology of the condition in a far greater variety of countries and cultures. Scientific interest in DID peaked in the mid 1990s, then sharply declined, and may now not have widespread scientific acceptance.[14]


Some believe that DID should be re-classified as a trauma disorder.[15]

[edit] Signs and symptoms

Individuals with DID demonstrate a variety of symptoms with wide fluctuations across time; functioning can vary from severe impairment in daily functioning to normal or high abilities. Symptoms can include:[16]

    * multiple mannerisms, attitudes and beliefs that are dissimilar to each other
    * headaches and other body pains
    * distortion or loss of subjective time
    * depersonalization
    * amnesia
    * depression

Patients may experience an extremely broad array of other symptoms that resemble epilepsy, schizophrenia, anxiety, Mood disorders, posttraumatic stress, personality, and eating disorders, with frequent misdiagnoses and ineffective treatment.[16] Patients may experience auditory hallucinations of the various alters conversing, and may be misdiagnosed as psychotic as a result. Changes in identity, loss of memory, and awaking in unexplained locations and situations often leads to chaotic personal lives.[16]

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Traeger,Alfred Hermann OBE (August 2, 1895 – July 31, 1980) was an Australian inventor, chiefly known for the development of the pedal radio.

Traeger was born in Victoria, and raised near Adelaide, South Australia.

He was instrumental in the establishment and early success of the Royal Flying Doctor Service of Australia. Traeger had an interest in radio for much of his life. During the 1920s, he was contacted by Rev John Flynn to assist in experiments which were to enable remote families access to medical treatment by using radio equipment. Since much of remote Australia had no access to electricity, the initial problem was how to provide reliable power to a radio. Traeger consequently developed a pedal generator to power a morse code wireless set.

He made subsequent refinements to this system. A keyboard was developed which enabled unskilled operators to type their message in plain language and have it transmitted in morse. He later developed a voice-capable transceiver.

Due to the success of these inventions, the Traeger Transceivers company was founded, and radios were exported to a number of countries. Traeger was awarded an OBE in 1944.
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Uziel Gal
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia



[attachment=3394]



Uziel "Uzi" Gal (Hebrew: עוזיאל "עוזי" גל), born Gotthard Glass (December 15, 1923–September 7, 2002), was a German-born- Israeli gun designer best remembered as the designer and namesake of the Uzi submachine gun.

Gal was born in Weimar, Germany. When the Nazis came to power in 1933 he moved first to England and later, in 1936, to Kibbutz Yagur in the British Mandate of Palestine. In 1943 he was arrested for illegally carrying a gun and sentenced to six years in prison. However he was pardoned and released in 1946, serving less than half of his sentence.

Gal began designing the Uzi submachine gun in 1948, shortly after the Israel War of Independence. In 1951 it was officially adopted by the Israeli Defense Force and was called the Uzi after its creator. Gal did not want the weapon to be named after him but his request was ignored. In 1955 he was decorated with Tzalash HaRamatkal and in 1958, Gal was the first person to receive the Israel Security Award, presented to him by Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion for his work on the Uzi.

In 1975 Gal retired from the IDF, and the next year he moved to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, so that his daughter Tamar, who had serious brain damage, could receive special medical attention.

Gal continued his work as a firearms designer until his death from cancer in 2002.
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Vicodin = is a pain medication which is 5mg hydrocodone and 500mg Tylenol when the Hydrocodone is upped and the Tylenol bumped down it is  called "Norco" which comes in a 10mg Hydrocodone and a 325mg Tylenol!

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Wankel engine
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


[attachment=3524]


The Wankel engine is a type of internal combustion engine which uses a rotary design to convert pressure into a rotating motion instead of using reciprocating pistons. Its four-stroke cycle is generally generated in a space between the inside of an oval-like epitrochoid-shaped housing and a roughly triangular rotor. This design delivers smooth high-rpm power from a compact, lightweight engine.

The engine was invented by German engineer Felix Wankel. He began its development in the early 1950s at NSU Motorenwerke AG (NSU) before completing a working, running prototype in 1957. NSU then subsequently licenced the concept to other companies across the globe, who added more efforts and improvements in the 1950s and 1960s.

Because of their compact, lightweight design, Wankel rotary engines have been installed in a variety of vehicles and devices such as automobiles and racing cars, aircraft, go-karts, personal water crafts, and auxiliary power units.
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Offline Alan McDougall

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Lithium to get a little off topic was a godsendfor sufferers of sever bipolar like me.

As a medicine it helped me return to a fairly normal existence. It is toxic and the blood levels must be carefully monitored
The Truth remains the Truth regardless of our beliefs or opinions the Truth is always the Truth even if we know it or do not know it (The Truth remains the Truth)

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Lithium to get a little off topic was a godsendfor sufferers of sever bipolar like me.

As a medicine it helped me return to a fairly normal existence. It is toxic and the blood levels must be carefully monitored

You describe it in the past tense !...does this mean you are better ?..cured ?....on different meds now ?

Thank you for your contributions Alan !
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 Xing ,Yi (Chinese: 一行; pinyin: Yī Xíng; Wade-Giles: I-Hsing, 683–727), born Zhang Sui (张遂), was a Chinese astronomer, mathematician, mechanical engineer, and Buddhist monk of the Tang Dynasty (618–907). His astronomical celestial globe was the first to feature a clockwork escapement mechanism, the first in a long tradition of Chinese astronomical clockworks.


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Offline Carolyn

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James Whitney Young (January 24, 1941) was born in Portland, Oregon, and is currently the resident astronomer of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Table Mountain Observatory (TMO) near Wrightwood, California having been with them for 45 years. A very prolific asteroid observer of both physical properties and astrometric positions, he has discovered some 390 main belt asteroids in the last six years, as well as two NEOs, 2003 BV35 and 2003 RW11, two Trojan asteroids, 2002 VQ and 2003 FE42, three Mars crossers, 2005 SA, 2005 SB, and 2007 WX3, and one extra-galactic supernova, SN 2005eg.

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Ahmed Hassan Zewail (Arabic: أحمد حسن زويل) (born February 26, 1946 in Damanhur, Egypt) is an Egyptian American scientist, and the winner of the 1999 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on femtochemistry.

Femtochemistry
is the science that studies chemical reactions on extremely short timescales, approximately 10–15 seconds (this is one femtosecond, hence the name).

In 1999, Ahmed H. Zewail received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his pioneering work in this field.

Zewail’s technique uses flashes of laser light that last for a few femtoseconds. Femtochemistry is the area of physical chemistry that addresses the short time period in which chemical reactions take place and investigates why some reactions occur but not others. Zewail’s picture-taking technique made possible these investigations. One of the first major discoveries of femtochemistry was to reveal details about the intermediate products that form during chemical reactions, which cannot be deduced from observing the starting and end products. Many publications have discussed the possibility of controlling chemical reactions by this method, but this remains controversial.

The simplest approach and still one of the most common techniques is known as pump-probe spectroscopy. In this method, two or more optical pulses with variable time delay between them are used to investigate the processes happening during a chemical reaction. The first pulse (pump) initiates the reaction, by breaking a bond or exciting one of the reactants. The second pulse (probe) is then used to interrogate the progress of the reaction a certain period of time after initiation. As the reaction progresses, the response of the reacting system to the probe pulse will change. By continually scanning the time delay between pump and probe pulses and observing the response, workers can follow the progress of the reaction in real time.
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Offline Karen W.

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Aberration of light

An annual apparent shift in the positions of stars against the background of more distant stars,
caused by the earth's orbital motion. The shift appears as a circle, an ellipse or even a short line, depending on the distance of the star above or below the earth's orbital plane.

[size=07pt](taken from Colan A. Ronan "the universe the cosmos explained" Glossary)[/size]
« Last Edit: 09/07/2008 14:33:41 by Karen W. »

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Bullocks !

A bullock is a bull which has been castrated !

[attachment=3691]

Here are a load of Bullocks !





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A cyst is a closed sac having a distinct membrane and division on the nearby tissue. They may contain air, fluids, or semi-solid material. A collection of pus is called an abscess, not a cyst. Once formed, the cyst could go away by itself or will have to be removed using surgery.
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The Doppler effect (or Doppler shift), named after Christian Doppler, is the change in frequency and wavelength of a wave for an observer moving relative to the source of the waves. It is commonly heard when a vehicle sounding a siren approaches, passes and recedes from an observer. The received frequency is higher than the emitted frequency when the siren approaches, is equal to the emitted frequency as it passes the observer and is lower than the emitted frequency as it recedes from the observer.

For waves that propagate in a medium, such as sound waves, the velocity of the observer and of the source are relative to the medium in which the waves are transmitted. The total Doppler effect may therefore result from motion of the source, motion of the observer, or motion of the medium. Each of these effects is analysed separately. For waves which do not require a medium, such as light or gravity in special relativity, only the relative difference in velocity between the observer and the source needs to be considered.

[attachment=4273]
A source of waves moving to the left.
The frequency is higher on the left than
on the right.



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Offline H2O2

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X is for xylem tissue, found in a plants vascular system, used to transport water and solutes.
If you can meet with triumph & disaster and treat each imposter the same.

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X is for xylem tissue, found in a plants vascular system, used to transport water and solutes.

Brilliant post H202...but if ewe look closely that each post is sequential in the alphabet...ie: this one that ewe just posted should have started with an ' E' to follow on from the ' D ' of Doppler !

Wanna try again ?....good on ya and no worries. thanks for your contribution!
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Etymology
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Etymology is the study of the history of words —(The history of these words date as far back as two minutes ago)  [;D]) when they entered a language, from what source, and how their form and meaning have changed over time.

In languages with a long detailed history, etymology makes use of philology, the study of how words change from culture to culture over time. However, etymologists also apply the methods of comparative linguistics to reconstruct information about languages that are too old for any direct information (such as writing) to be known. By analyzing related languages with a technique known as the comparative method, linguists can make inferences, about their shared parent language and its vocabulary. In this way, word roots have been found which can be traced all the way back to the origin of, for instance, the Indo-European language family.

Even though etymological research originally grew from the philological tradition, nowadays much etymological research is done in language families where little or no early documentation is available, such as Uralic and Austronesian.

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Filament Propagation


(Wiki)

In nonlinear optics, filament propagation is propagation of a beam of light through a medium without diffraction. This is possible because the Kerr effect causes an index of refraction change in the medium, resulting in self-focusing of the beam.

Filament propagation of laser pulses in the atmosphere was observed in 1994 by Gérard Mourou and his team at University of Michigan. The balance between the self-focusing refraction and self-attenuating diffraction by ionization and rarefaction of a laser beam of terawatt intensities, created by chirped pulse amplification, in the atmosphere creates "filaments" which act as waveguides for the beam thus preventing divergence. If a light filament drops below the intensity needed for this dynamic balance, called modulation instability, it can merge with another filament and continue propagating without broadening as with all earlier means of sending light. The filaments, having made a plasma, turn the narrowband laser pulse into a broadband pulse having a wholly new set of applications.

Filament propagation in a semiconductor medium can also be observed in large aperture vertical cavity surface emitting

In nonlinear optics, filament propagation is propagation of a beam of light through a medium without diffraction. This is possible because the Kerr effect causes an index of refraction change in the medium, resulting in self-focusing of the beam.

Filament propagation of laser pulses in the atmosphere was observed in 1994 by Gérard Mourou and his team at University of Michigan. The balance between the self-focusing refraction and self-attenuating diffraction by ionization and rarefaction of a laser beam of terawatt intensities, created by chirped pulse amplification, in the atmosphere creates "filaments" which act as waveguides for the beam thus preventing divergence. If a light filament drops below the intensity needed for this dynamic balance, called modulation instability, it can merge with another filament and continue propagating without broadening as with all earlier means of sending light. The filaments, having made a plasma, turn the narrowband laser pulse into a broadband pulse having a wholly new set of applications.

Filament propagation in a semiconductor medium can also be observed in large aperture vertical cavity surface emitting

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Filament_propagation
Rosalind Franklin was my first cousin and one my life's main regrets is that I never met this brilliant and beautiful lady.
She discovered the Single DNA Helix in 1953, then it was taken by Wilkins without her knowledge or agreeement.

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Glycine  is the organic compound with the formula NH2CH2COOH. It is the smallest of the 20 amino acids commonly found in proteins, coded by codons GGU, GGC, GGA and GGG. Because it has specialized structural properties in protein architecture, this compact amino acid is often evolutionarily conserved. For example, cytochrome c, myoglobin, and hemoglobin all contain conserved glycines. Glycine is unique among the proteinogenic amino acids in that is not chiral. Most proteins contain only small quantities of glycine. A notable exception is collagen, which contains about 35% glycine. In its solid, i.e., crystallized, form, glycine is a free-flowing, sweet-tasting crystalline material.





Ewe can't look me in the eye and say that you are not fascinated by that can ewe ?
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Why yes yes I can!!! LOL

HEAD.... THE UPPER TOP OF THE HUMAN BODY,
OPPOSITE OF THE FEET. THE HEAD HOLDS THE BRAIN AND CONSISTS HOUSES THE EYES, EARS, NOSE, MOUTH, TONGUE and MULTIPLE MUSCLES, BONES,BLOOD, TEETH ETC..ETC...ETC..
« Last Edit: 17/12/2009 08:03:58 by Karen W. »

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HEAD.... THE HEAD HOLDS THE BRAIN

I might dispute that statement in some cases!!!

e.g. Traffic Wardens, it is a requirement by ALL local authorities here in the UK that Traffic Wardens should have hollow heads.
If brains were made of dynamite, I wouldn't have enough to blow my nose.

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Indian summer is a name given to a period of sunny, warm weather in autumn, not long before winter. Usually occurring after the first frost, Indian summer can be in September, October, or early November in the northern hemisphere, and March, April, or early May in the Southern hemisphere. It can persist for a few days or extend to a week or more. This term is not related to the summer season in India.

[attachment=4827]
A typical day within a period of "Indian Summer"

WIKI LINK HERE
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Nice SAVE.... LOL...


Jewel BOX (Open Stellar Cluster)





NGC 4755: A Jewel Box of Stars
Credit & Copyright: Michael Bessell (RSAA, ANU), MSO

Explanation: The great variety of star colors in this open cluster underlies its name: The Jewel Box. One of the bright central stars is a red supergiant, in contrast to the many blue stars that surround it. The cluster, also known as Kappa Crucis contains just over 100 stars, and is about 10 million years old. Open clusters are younger, contain few stars, and contain a much higher fraction of blue stars than do globular clusters. This Jewel Box lies about 7500 light-years away, so the light that we see today was emitted from the cluster before even the Great Pyramids in Egypt were built. The Jewel Box, pictured above, spans about 20 light-years, and can be seen with binoculars towards the southern constellation of Crux.

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Emil Theodor Kocher (August 25, 1841 – July 27, 1917) was a Swiss physician, medical researcher, and Nobel laureate for his work in the physiology, pathology and surgery of the thyroid.

Kocher was born in Berne, Switzerland. He studied in Zürich, Berlin, London and Vienna, and obtained his doctorate in Berne in 1865. In 1872, he succeeded Georg Albert Lücke as Ordinary Professor of Surgery and Director of the University Surgical Clinic at the Inselspital in Berne. He published works on a number of subjects other than the thyroid gland including hemostasis, antiseptic treatments, surgical infectious diseases, on gunshot wounds, acute osteomyelitis, the theory of strangulated hernia, and abdominal surgery. His new ideas on the thyroid gland were initially controversial but his successful treatment of goiter with a steadily decreasing mortality rate soon won him recognition. The prize money, from the Nobel prize he received, helped him to establish the Kocher Institute in Berne.

A number of instruments and surgical techniques (for example, the Kocher manoeuvre) are named after him, as well as the Kocher-Debre-Semelaigne syndrome.


[attachment=4973]
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lepton era

(′lep′tän ′ir·ə)

(astronomy) The period in the early universe, following the hadron era, during which electrons, positrons, neutrinos, and photons were present in nearly equal numbers; roughly between 10-4 and 20 seconds after the big bang.

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MICROSCOPE!
[attachment=6732]



 Microscope
Robert Hooke's microscope
Uses    Small sample observation
Notable experiments
   Discovery of cells
Inventor    Hans Lippershey
Hans Janssen
Related items    Electron microscope

A microscope (from the Greek: μικρός, mikrós, "small" and σκοπεῖν, skopeîn, "to look" or "see") is an instrument for viewing objects that are too small to be seen by the naked or unaided eye. The science of investigating small objects using such an instrument is called microscopy. The term microscopic means minute or very small, not visible with the eye unless aided by a microscope.

History

    See also: History of optics

Microscopes trace their history back almost 1200 years with Abbas Ibn Firnas's corrective lenses,[1] and it was Ibn al-Haytham's Book of Optics — written between 1011 and 1021 — that laid the foundation for optical research on the magnifying glass. Also, a device called the reading stone by an unknown inventor (thought to be Ibn Firnas) magnified text when laid on top of reading materials.[2]

The first true microscope was made around 1595 in Middelburg, Holland.[3] Three different eyeglass makers have been given credit for the invention: Hans Lippershey (who also developed the first real telescope); Hans Janssen; and his son, Zacharias. The coining of the name "microscope" has been credited to Giovanni Faber, who gave that name to Galileo Galilei's compound microscope in 1625.[4] (Galileo had called it the "occhiolino" or "little eye".)

The most common type of microscope—and the first to be invented—is the optical microscope. This is an optical instrument containing one or more lenses that produce an enlarged image of an object placed in the focal plane of the lens(es). There are, however, many other microscope designs.

[edit] Types
Several types of microscopes

"Microscopes" can largely be separated into three classes: optical theory microscopes (Light microscope), electron microscopes (e.g.,TEM), and scanning probe microscopes (SPM).

Optical theory microscopes are microscopes which function through the optical theory of lenses in order to magnify the image generated by the passage of a wave through the sample. The waves used are either electromagnetic (in optical microscopes) or electron beams (in electron microscopes). The types are the Compound Light, Stereo, and the electron microscope.

[edit] Optical microscopes

    Main article: Optical microscope

Optical microscopes, through their use of visible wavelengths of light, are the simplest and hence most widely used type of microscope.

Optical microscopes typically use refractive lenses of glass and occasionally of plastic or quartz, to focus light into the eye or another light detector. Mirror-based optical microscopes operate in the same manner. Typical magnification of a light microscope, assuming visible range light, is up to 1500x with a theoretical resolution limit of around 0.2 micrometres or 200 nanometers. Specialized techniques (e.g., scanning confocal microscopy) may exceed this magnification but the resolution is diffraction limited. Using shorter wavelengths of light, such as the ultraviolet, is one way to improve the spatial resolution of the microscope as are techniques such as Near-field scanning optical microscope.
A stereo microscope is often used for lower-power magnification on large subjects.

Various wavelengths of light, including those beyond the visible range, are sometimes used for special purposes. Ultraviolet light is used to enable the resolution of smaller features as well as to image samples that are transparent to the eye. Near infrared light is used to image circuitry embedded in bonded silicon devices as silicon is transparent in this region. Many wavelengths of light, ranging from the ultraviolet to the visible are used to excite fluorescence emission from objects for viewing by eye or with sensitive cameras.

    * phase contrast microscope:Phase contrast microscopy is an optical microscopy illumination technique in which small phase shifts in the light passing through a transparent specimen are converted into amplitude or contrast changes in the image.

A phase contrast microscope does not require staining to view the slide. This microscope made it possible to study the cell cycle.

[edit] Electron Microscope

Two major variants of electron microscopes exist:

    * Scanning electron microscope (SEM): looks at the surface of bulk objects by scanning the surface with a fine electron beam and measuring reflection. May also be used for spectroscopy.
    * Transmission electron microscope (TEM): passes electrons completely through the sample, analogous to basic optical microscopy. This requires careful sample preparation, since electrons are scattered so strongly by most materials.This is a scientific device that allows people to see objects that could normally not be seen by the naked or unaided eye.
    * Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM): is a powerful technique for viewing surfaces at the atomic level.

The SEM, TEM, STM are include in the scanning probe microsocpy.

[edit] Established types of scanning probe microscopy

    * AFM, atomic force microscopy
          o Contact AFM
          o Non-contact AFM
          o Dynamic contact AFM
          o Tapping AFM
    * BEEM, ballistic electron emission microscopy
    * EFM, electrostatic force microscope
    * ESTM electrochemical scanning tunneling microscope
    * FMM, force modulation microscopy
    * KPFM, kelvin probe force microscopy
    * MFM, magnetic force microscopy
    * MRFM, magnetic resonance force microscopy
    * NSOM, near-field scanning optical microscopy (or SNOM, scanning near-field optical microscopy)
    * PFM, Piezo Force Microscopy
    * PSTM, photon scanning tunneling microscopy
    * PTMS, photothermal microspectroscopy/microscopy
    * SAP, scanning atom probe [5]
    * SECM, scanning electrochemical microscopy
    * SCM, scanning capacitance microscopy
    * SGM, scanning gate microscopy
    * SICM, scanning ion-conductance microscopy
    * SPSM spin polarized scanning tunneling microscopy
    * SThM, scanning thermal microscopy[2]
    * STM, scanning tunneling microscopy
    * SVM, scanning voltage microscopy
    * SHPM, scanning Hall probe microscopy

Of these techniques AFM and STM are the most commonly used followed by MFM and SNOM/NSOM.

[edit] Other microscopes

Scanning acoustic microscopes use sound waves to measure variations in acoustic impedance. Similar to Sonar in principle, they are used for such jobs as detecting defects in the subsurfaces of materials including those found in integrated circuits.




« Last Edit: 07/02/2009 01:13:40 by Karen W. »

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Nanotechnology, which is sometimes shortened to "Nanotech", refers to a field whose theme is the control of matter on an atomic and molecular scale. Generally nanotechnology deals with structures of the size 100 nanometers or smaller, and involves developing materials or devices within that size.

Nanotechnology is extremely diverse, ranging from novel extensions of conventional device physics, to completely new approaches based upon molecular self-assembly, to developing new materials with dimensions on the nanoscale, even to speculation on whether we can directly control matter on the atomic scale.

There has been much debate on the future of implications of nanotechnology. Nanotechnology has the potential to create many new materials and devices with wide-ranging applications, such as in medicine, electronics, and energy production. On the other hand, nanotechnology raises many of the same issues as with any introduction of new technology, including concerns about the toxicity and environmental impact of nanomaterials , and their potential effects on global economics, as well as speculation about various doomsday scenarios. These concerns have led to a debate among advocacy groups and governments on whether special regulation of nanotechnology is warranted.
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Otto Wallach
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Otto Wallach (27 March 1847 - 26 February 1931) was a German chemist and Nobel laureate for work on alicyclic compounds.


[attachment=7698]

Wallach was born at Königsberg, the son of a Prussian official. His father was transferred to Stettin (Szczecin) and later to Potsdam. Otto Wallach went to school, a Gymnasium, in Potsdam, where he got in contact with literature and the history of art, two subjects he was interested his whole life. At this time he also started private chemical experiments at the house of his parents.

In 1867 he started studying chemistry at the University of Göttingen, where at this time Friedrich Wöhler was head of the organic chemistry. After one semester at the University of Berlin with August Wilhelm von Hofmann, Wallach received his Doctoral degree from the University of Göttingen in 1869, and worked as a Professor in the University of Bonn (1870-89) and the University of Göttingen (1889-1915). Wallach died at Göttingen.
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Π = Pi

The ratio of any circle's circumference to its diameter.

Binary Value           11.00100100001111110110…
Decimal Value            3.14159265358979323846…
Hexadecimal Value    3.243F6A8885A308D31319…

The mind is like a parachute. It works best when open.  -- A. Einstein

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Quasar
Quasi-Stellar Radio Source


Taken from:

http://space.about.com/od/deepspace/a/quasarinfo.htm

"A Quasar is an enormously bright object at the edge of our universe with the appearance of a star when viewed through a telescope. It emits massive amounts of energy, more energy than 100 normal galaxies combined. The name comes from a shortening of quasi-stellar radio source (QSR). Current theories hold that quasars are one type of active galactic nuclei (AGN). Many astronomers believe supermassive black holes may lie at the center of these galaxies and power their explosive energy output. In one second, a typical quasar releases enough energy to satisfy the electrical energy needs of Earth for the next billion years."
[attachment=7837]
"Hubble Image of Quasar
NASA, A. Martel, H. Ford, M. Clampin, G. Hartig, G. Illingworth, the ACS Science Team and ESA"



"It is thought by many astronomers that quasars are the most distant objects yet detected in the Universe. With the massive amounts of energy a quasar emits, it can be a trillion times brighter than our own sun. Because of this, they often drown out the light from all other stars in the same galaxy. Yet, despite this, they are not visible to the naked eye."

"Quasars were first detected in the 1960s as sources of radio waves. In addition to radio waves and visible light, quasars also emit ultraviolet rays, infrared waves, X-rays, and gamma-rays. Most quasars are larger than our solar system. A quasar is approximately 1 kiloparsec in width. Because of their distance, when we view quasars, we are seeing light from very early in the life of our universe, giving scientists information about the early stages of the Universe."

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Srinivasa Ramanujan was born in a poor Tamil Brahmin family that resided in the town of Kumbakonam. He attended school there and did averagely well. While in school he came across a book entitled A synopsis of elementary results in Pure and Applied Mathematics by George Carr. This book is just a compendium of results on integrals, infinite series and other mathematical entities found in analysis. Yet it left a lasting impression on Ramanujan; in fact it virtually determined his mathematical style. He would later write mathematics as a string of results without proof or with the barest outline of a proof.

     After school Ramanujan was hooked on mathematics. He spent all his time with his head over a slate working with problems in number theory that interested him and neglected everything else. The result was that he could never get through another examination. An early marriage as was usual at those times led to a frantic search for a job to earn an income. He became a clerk in the Madras Port Trust with the help of some well wishers.

     In the meantime Ramanujan kept showing his results to various people who he thought would be interested or would help him get a job that would give him a lot of time to do mathematics. He wrote to a couple of well known British mathematicians giving a list of some of the results he had obtained. They ignored him - thought he was a crank! Finally he wrote to one of the most distinguished English mathematicians of the time - a person who had done a lot of work on number theory - G H Hardy. Hardy arranged for Ramanujan to come to Trinity College, Cambridge where he and Ramanujan met almost daily discussing mathematics for about three years. Ramanujan died shortly after at the age of 33.

All interested people are referred to The Man Who Knew Infinity: A Life of the Genius Ramanujan by Robert Kanigel.


« Last Edit: 16/06/2009 09:05:34 by neilep »
MAHESH

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Thanks for the info, I appreciate it.

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Terby is a crater on the northern edge of Hellas Planitia, Mars. The 174 km diameter crater is centered at 28°S, 73°E with an elevation of −5 km. It is named after François J. Terby. It is the site of an ancient lakebed and has clay deposits.



[attachment=8537]
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Venus


[attachment=8733]

Second major planet from the Sun. Named for the Roman goddess, Venus is, after the Moon, the most brilliant natural object in the night sky. Venus comes closer to Earth—about 26 million mi (42 million km)—than any other planet. Its orbit around the Sun is nearly circular at a distance of about 67 million mi (108 million km) and takes 225 days; its rotation, in retrograde motion, takes even longer (243 days). As viewed from Earth, Venus undergoes phase changes similar to the Moon's, going through one cycle of phases in 584 days. It is seen only near sunrise or sunset and has long been known as both the morning star and the evening star. Venus is a near twin of Earth in size and mass but is completely enveloped by thick clouds of concentrated sulfuric acid droplets. Its surface gravity is about 90percnt that of Earth. Its atmosphere is over 96percnt carbon dioxide, with a pressure about 95 times Earth's. The dense atmosphere and thick cloud layers trap incoming solar energy so efficiently that Venus has the highest surface temperature of any of the Sun's planets, more than 860 °F (460 °C). Radar imaging indicates that the surface is dry and rocky, consisting mostly of gently rolling plains, broad depressions, and two large elevated regions analogous to continents on Earth; Venus also has impact craters, extensive lava fields, and massive shield volcanos. The interior is thought to be similar to that of Earth, with a metal core, a dense rocky mantle, and a less-dense rocky crust. Unlike Earth, Venus has no intrinsic magnetic field.
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Yuty (A Mars Crater)


[attachment=9432]



The crater is about 18 km in diameter, and is surrounded by complex ejecta lobes, one of which partly covers an older crater. Many craters at equatorial and mid-latitudes on Mars have this form of ejecta morphology, which is believed to arise when the impacting object melts ice in the subsurface. Liquid water in the ejected material would then allow it to flow, forming the characteristic lobe shapes.


Source:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yuty_Crater
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http://www.google.com/search?q=volcano&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&aq=t&rls=com.ubuntu:en-US:unofficial&client=firefox-a

Aleutian Islands of Alaska, "Ash cloud"


[attachment=9469]

Volcano
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

[attachment=9470]


Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station, May 2006

Cross-section through a stratovolcano (vertical scale is exaggerated):
1. Large magma chamber
2. Bedrock
3. Conduit (pipe)
4. Base
5. Sill
6. Dike
7. Layers of ash emitted by the volcano
8. Flank    9. Layers of lava emitted by the volcano
10. Throat
11. Parasitic cone
12. Lava flow
13. Vent
14. Crater
15. Ash cloud
Pinatubo ash plume reaching a height of 19 km, 3 days before the climactic eruption of 15 June 1991

A volcano is an opening, or rupture, in a planet's surface or crust, which allows hot, molten rock, ash, and gases to escape from below the surface. Volcanic activity involving the extrusion of rock tends to form mountains or features like mountains over a period of time. The word volcano is derived from the name of Vulcano island off Sicily. In turn, it was named after Vulcan, the Roman god of fire.[1]

Volcanoes are generally found where tectonic plates are diverging or converging. A mid-oceanic ridge, for example the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, has examples of volcanoes caused by divergent tectonic plates pulling apart; the Pacific Ring of Fire has examples of volcanoes caused by convergent tectonic plates coming together. By contrast, volcanoes are usually not created where two tectonic plates slide past one another. Volcanoes can also form where there is stretching and thinning of the Earth's crust (called "non-hotspot intraplate volcanism"), such as in the African Rift Valley, the Wells Gray-Clearwater volcanic field and the Rio Grande Rift in North America and the European Rhine Graben with its Eifel volcanoes.

Volcanoes can be caused by mantle plumes. These so-called hotspots, for example at Hawaii, can occur far from plate boundaries. Hotspot volcanoes are also found elsewhere in the solar system, especially on rocky planets and moons.

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Binary Star

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Binary_star

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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For the band, see Binary Star (band).
This is a featured article. Click here for more information.
Hubble image of the Sirius binary system, in which Sirius B can be clearly distinguished (lower left).

[attachment=10861]

A binary star is a star system consisting of two stars orbiting around their common center of mass. The brighter star is called the primary and the other is its companion star, comes,[1] or secondary. Research between the early 1800s and today suggests that many stars are part of either binary star systems or star systems with more than two stars, called multiple star systems. The term double star may be used synonymously with binary star, but more generally, a double star may be either a binary star or an optical double star which consists of two stars with no physical connection but which appear close together in the sky as seen from the Earth. A double star may be determined to be optical if its components have sufficiently different proper motions or radial velocities, or if parallax measurements reveal its two components to be at sufficiently different distances from the Earth. Most known double stars have not yet been determined to be either bound binary star systems or optical doubles.

Binary star systems are very important in astrophysics because calculations of their orbits allow the masses of their component stars to be directly determined, which in turn allows other stellar parameters, such as radius and density, to be indirectly estimated. This also determines an empirical mass-luminosity relationship (MLR) from which the masses of single stars can be estimated.

Binary stars are often detected optically, in which case they are called visual binaries. Many visual binaries have long orbital periods of several centuries or millennia and therefore have orbits which are uncertain or poorly known. They may also be detected by indirect techniques, such as spectroscopy (spectroscopic binaries) or astrometry (astrometric binaries). If a binary star happens to orbit in a plane along our line of sight, its components will mutually eclipse and transit each other; these pairs are called eclipsing binaries, or, as they are detected by their changes in brightness during eclipses and transits, photometric binaries.

If the orbits of components in binary star systems are close enough they can gravitationally distort their mutual outer stellar atmospheres. In some cases, these close binary systems can exchange mass, which may bring their evolution to stages that single stars cannot attain. Examples of binaries are Algol (an eclipsing binary), Sirius, and Cygnus X-1 (of which one member is probably a black hole). Binary stars are also common as the nuclei of many planetary nebulae, and are the progenitors of both novae and type Ia supernovae.

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D would have to be for Digital Systems. Is there any aspect of our lives that they have not altered in the last fifty years?
There ain'ta no sanity clause, and there ain'ta no centrifugal force æther.

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Extinction Event


An extinction event (also known as: mass extinction; extinction-level event, ELE) is a sharp decrease in the number of species in a relatively short period of time. Mass extinctions affect most major taxonomic groups present at the time — birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, fish, invertebrates and other simpler life forms. They may be caused by one or both of:

    * extinction of an unusually large number of species in a short period.
    * a sharp drop in the rate of speciation.

Over 97% of species that ever lived are now extinct, but extinction occurs at an uneven rate. Based on the fossil record, the background rate of extinctions on Earth is about two to five taxonomic families of marine invertebrates and vertebrates every million years. Marine fossils are mostly used to measure extinction rates because they are more plentiful and cover a longer time span than fossils of land organisms.

Since life began on Earth, several major mass extinctions have significantly exceeded the background extinction rate. The most recent, the Cretaceous–Tertiary extinction event, occurred 65 million years ago, and has attracted more attention than all others as it marks the extinction of nearly all dinosaur species, which were the dominant animal class of the period. In the past 540 million years there have been five major events when over 50% of animal species died. There probably were mass extinctions in the Archean and Proterozoic Eons, but before the Phanerozoic there were no animals with hard body parts to leave a significant fossil record.

Estimates of the number of major mass extinctions in the last 540 million years range from as few as five to more than twenty. These differences stem from the threshold chosen for describing an extinction event as "major", and the data chosen to measure past diversity.


Every time wifey cooks is almost an E.E !  [;D]
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