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Offline Karen W.

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Vortex


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

"Vortex created by the passage of an aircraft wing, revealed by coloured smoke"




A vortex (pl. vortices) is a spinning, often turbulent, flow of fluid. Any spiral motion with closed streamlines is vortex flow. The motion of the fluid swirling rapidly around a center is called a vortex. The speed and rate of rotation of the fluid are greatest at the center, and decrease progressively with distance from the center.


Vortices display some special properties:

    * The fluid pressure in a vortex is lowest in the center where the speed is greatest, and rises progressively with distance from the center. This is in accordance with Bernoulli's Principle. The core of a vortex in air is sometimes visible because of a plume of water vapour caused by condensation in the low pressure of the core. The spout of a tornado is a classic and frightening example of the visible core of a vortex. A dust devil is also the core of a vortex, made visible by the dust drawn upwards by the turbulent flow of air from ground level into the low pressure core.

    * The core of every vortex can be considered to contain a vortex line, and every particle in the vortex can be considered to be circulating around the vortex line. Vortex lines start and end at the boundary of the fluid, but they do not start or end in the fluid. (See Helmholtz's theorems.) Vortices readily deflect and attach themselves to a solid surface. For example, a vortex usually forms ahead of the propeller disk or jet engine of a slow-moving airplane. One end of the vortex line is attached to the propeller disk or jet engine, but when the airplane is taxiing the other end of the vortex line readily attaches itself to the ground rather than end in midair. The vortex can suck water and small stones into the core and then into the propeller disk or jet engine.

    * Two or more vortices that are approximately parallel and circulating in the same direction will quickly merge to form a single vortex. The circulation of the merged vortex will equal the sum of the circulations of the constituent vortices. For example, a sheet of small vortices flows from the trailing edge of the wing or propeller of an airplane when the wing is developing lift or the propeller is developing thrust. In less than one wing chord downstream of the trailing edge of the wing these small vortices merge to form a single vortex. If viewed from the tail of the airplane, looking forward in the direction of flight, there is one wingtip vortex trailing from the left-hand wing and circulating clockwise, and another wingtip vortex trailing from the right-hand wing and circulating anti-clockwise. The result is a region of downwash behind the wing, between the pair of wingtip vortices. These two wingtip vortices do not merge because they are circulating in opposite directions.

    * Vortices contain a lot of energy in the circular motion of the fluid. In an ideal fluid this energy can never be dissipated and the vortex would persist forever. However, real fluids exhibit viscosity and this dissipates energy very slowly from the core of the vortex. (See Rankine vortex). It is only through dissipation of a vortex due to viscosity that a vortex line can end in the fluid, rather than at the boundary of the fluid. For example, the wingtip vortices from an airplane dissipate slowly and linger in the atmosphere long after the airplane has passed. This is a hazard to other aircraft and is known as wake turbulence.

[edit] Dynamics

A vortex can be any circular or rotary flow that possesses vorticity. Vorticity is a mathematical concept used in fluid dynamics. It can be related to the amount of "circulation" or "rotation" in a fluid. In fluid dynamics, vorticity is the circulation per unit area at a point in the flow field. It is a vector quantity, whose direction is (roughly speaking) along the axis of the swirl. Also in fluid dynamics, the movement of a fluid can be said to be vortical if the fluid moves around in a circle, or in a helix, or if it tends to spin around some axis. Such motion can also be called solenoidal. In the atmospheric sciences, vorticity is a property that characterizes large-scale rotation of air masses. Since the atmospheric circulation is nearly horizontal, the (3 dimensional) vorticity is nearly vertical, and it is common to use the vertical component as a scalar vorticity. Mathematically, it is defined as,

        \vec \omega = \nabla \times \vec \mathit{u}

where \vec \mathit{u} is the fluid velocity.

[edit] Two types of vortex

In fluid mechanics, a distinction is often made between two limiting vortex cases. One is called the free (irrotational) vortex, and the other is the forced (rotational) vortex. These are considered as below:
Two autumn leaves in a counter-clockwise vortex (reference position).
Two autumn leaves in a counter-clockwise vortex (reference position).
      
Two autumn leaves in a rotational vortex rotate with the counter-clockwise flow.
Two autumn leaves in a rotational vortex rotate with the counter-clockwise flow.
      
Two autumn leaves in an irrotational vortex preserve their original orientation while moving counter-clockwise.
Two autumn leaves in an irrotational vortex preserve their original orientation while moving counter-clockwise.

[edit] Free (irrotational) vortex

When fluid is drawn down a plug-hole, one can observe the phenomenon of a free vortex. The tangential velocity v varies inversely as the distance r from the center of rotation, so the angular momentum, rv, is constant; the vorticity is zero everywhere (except for a singularity at the center-line) and the circulation about a contour containing r=0 has the same value everywhere. The free surface (if present) dips sharply (as r − 2 ) as the center line is approached.

The tangential velocity is given by:

    v_{\theta} = \frac{\Gamma}{2 \pi r}\,                 (2.1)

where Γ is the circulation and r is the radial distance from the center of the vortex.

In non-technical terms the circular streamlines toward the center can sweep out a given angle faster than the outer streamlines. The speed along the circular path of flow is held constant or decreases as you move out from the center. At the same time the inner streamlines have a shorter distance to travel to complete a ring. If you were running a race on a circular track would you rather be on the inside or outside, assuming the goal was to complete a circle? Imagine a leaf floating in a free vortex. The leaf's tip points to the center and the blade straddles multiple streamlines. The outer flow is slow in terms of angle traversed and it exerts a backwards tug on the base of the leaf while the faster inner flow pulls the tip forwards. The drag force opposes rotation of the leaf as it moves around the circle.

[edit] Forced (rotational) vortex

In a forced vortex the fluid essentially rotates as a solid body (there is no shear). The motion can be realised by placing a dish of fluid on a turntable rotating at T radians/sec; the fluid has vorticity of 2 T everywhere, and the free surface (if present) is a parabola.

The tangential velocity is given by:

    v_{\theta} = \omega r\,                 (2.2)

where ω is the angular velocity and r is the radial distance from the center of the vortex.

[edit] Observations

A vortex can be seen in the spiraling motion of air or liquid around a center of rotation. Circular current of water of conflicting tides form vortex shapes. Turbulent flow makes many vortices. A good example of a vortex is the atmospheric phenomenon of a whirlwind or a tornado or dust devil. This whirling air mass mostly takes the form of a helix, column, or spiral. Tornadoes develop from severe thunderstorms, usually spawned from squall lines and supercell thunderstorms, though they sometimes happen as a result of a hurricane.

In atmospheric physics, a mesovortex is on the scale of a few miles (smaller than a hurricane but larger than a tornado). [2] On a much smaller scale, a vortex is usually formed as water goes down a drain, as in a sink or a toilet. This occurs in water as the revolving mass forms a whirlpool. This whirlpool is caused by water flowing out of a small opening in the bottom of a basin or reservoir. This swirling flow structure within a region of fluid flow opens downward from the water surface.

[edit] Instances

    * In the hydrodynamic interpretation of the behaviour of electromagnetic fields, the acceleration of electric fluid in a particular direction creates a positive vortex of magnetic fluid. This in turn creates around itself a corresponding negative vortex of electric fluid.
    * Smoke ring : A ring of smoke which persists for a surprisingly long time, illustrating the slow rate at which viscosity dissipates the energy of a vortex.
    * Lift-induced drag of a wing on an aircraft.
    * The primary cause of drag in the sail of a sloop.
    * Whirlpool : a swirling body of water produced by ocean tides or by a hole underneath the vortex, where water drains out, as in a bathtub. A large, powerful whirlpool is known as a maelstrom. In popular imagination, but only rarely in reality, can they have the dangerous effect of destroying boats.[citation needed]
    * Tornado : a violent windstorm characterized by a twisting, funnel-shaped cloud. A less violent version of a tornado, over water, is called a waterspout.
    * Hurricane : a much larger, swirling body of clouds produced by evaporating warm ocean water and influenced by the Earth's rotation. Similar, but far greater, vortices are also seen on other planets, such as the permanent Great Red Spot on Jupiter and the intermittent Great Dark Spot on Neptune.
    * Polar vortex : a persistent, large-scale cyclone centered near the Earth's poles, in the middle and upper troposphere and the stratosphere.
    * Sunspot : dark region on the Sun's surface (photosphere) marked by a lower temperature than its surroundings, and intense magnetic activity.
    * The accretion disk of a black hole or other massive gravitational source.
    * Spiral galaxy : a type of galaxy in the Hubble sequence which is characterized by a thin, rotating disk. Earth's galaxy, the Milky Way is of this type.

« Last Edit: 30/01/2008 04:42:43 by Karen W. »

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Walton, Mary

Mary Walton (a girly ! and Woman inventor).....developed a method of deflecting smoke stack emissions.
In 1879, Mary Walton patented a method of deflecting smoke stack emissions (U.S. patent #221,880) through water tanks and later adapted the system for use on locomotives.

Mary Walton also invented a noise reduction system for elevated railroads in New York City. In the 1880s, many cities developed a mass transit system using noisy elevated trains. To reduce the noise, Mary Walton invented a sound-dampening system that cradled the track in a wooden box lined with cotton and then filled with sand.

She received U.S. patent #237,422 for the system on February 8, 1881, and later sold the rights to the Metropolitan Railroad of New York City.

Source:http://inventors.about.com/od/wstartinventors/a/Mary_Walton.htm
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X is for Xlyophone



The xylophone (from the Greek words ξύλο (wood) and φωνή (voice), meaning 'wooden sound') is a musical instrument in the percussion family which probably originated in Indonesia. [1] It consists of wooden bars of various lengths that are struck by plastic, wooden, or rubber mallets. Each bar is tuned to a specific pitch of the musical scale. Xylophone can refer to western style concert xylophones or to one of the many wooden mallet percussion instruments found around the world. Xylophones are tuned to different scale systems depending on their origin, including pentatonic, heptatonic, diatonic, or chromatic. The arrangement of the bars is generally from low (longer bars) to high (shorter bars).
« Last Edit: 30/01/2008 11:52:17 by Simulated »

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Offline Alandriel

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Y - YODA



Yoda is a fictional character from the Star Wars universe. Yoda first appears in the saga in The Empire Strikes Back as a Jedi Master, and trains Luke Skywalker in the ways of the Jedi. In the prequel trilogy, he serves as Grand Master of the Jedi Order. Yoda

"Luminous beings are we, not this crude matter"


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A is Automobile/car.
From Wiki.
Automobile
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
"Car" redirects here. For other uses, see Car (disambiguation).
 
Karl Benz's "Velo" model (1894) - entered into an early automobile race
Passenger cars in 2000
World map of passenger cars per 1000 people.An automobile (via French from Greek auto, self and Latin mobilis moving, a vehicle that moves itself rather than being moved by another vehicle or animal) or motor car (usually shortened to just car) is a wheeled passenger vehicle that carries its own motor. Most definitions of the term specify that automobiles are designed to run primarily on roads, to have seating for one to eight people, to typically have four wheels, and to be constructed principally for the transport of people rather than goods.[1] However, the term is far from precise because there are many types of vehicles that do similar tasks.

There were 590 million passenger cars worldwide (roughly one car for every eleven people) as of 2002.[2]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Automobile

Rosalind Franklin was my first cousin and one my life's main regrets is that I never met this brilliant and beautiful lady.
She discovered the Single DNA Helix in 1953, then it was taken by Wilkins without her knowledge or agreeement.

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B is for Bananna



Banana is the common name for a fruit and also the herbaceous plants of the genus Musa which produce the commonly eaten fruit. They are native to the tropical region of Southeast Asia and Australia. Today, they are cultivated throughout the tropics. [1]

Banana plants are of the family Musaceae. They are cultivated primarily for their fruit, and to a lesser extent for the production of fibre and as ornamental plants. As the bananas are mainly tall, upright, and fairly sturdy, they are often mistaken for trees, when the truth is the main or upright stem is called a pseudostem, literally meaning "fake stem", which for some species can obtain a height of up to 2–8 m, with leaves of up to 3.5 m in length. Each pseudostem would produce a bunch of yellow, green, or even red bananas before dying and being replaced by another pseudostem.

The banana fruit grow in hanging clusters, with up to 20 fruit to a tier (called a hand), and 3-20 tiers to a bunch. The total of the hanging clusters is known as a bunch, or commercially as a "banana stem", and can weigh from 30–50 kg. The fruit averages 125 g, of which approximately 75% is water and 25% dry matter content. Each individual fruit (known as a banana or 'finger') has a protective outer layer (a peel or skin) with a fleshy edible inner portion. Typically, the fruit has numerous strings (called 'phloem bundles') which run between the skin and the edible portion of the banana, and which are commonly removed individually after the skin is removed. Bananas are a valuable source of vitamin B6, vitamin C, and potassium.

Bananas are grown in at least 107 countries.[1] In popular culture and commerce, "banana" usually refers to soft, sweet "dessert" bananas that are usually eaten raw. The bananas from a group of cultivars with firmer, starchier fruit are called plantains, and are generally used in cooking rather than eaten raw. Bananas may also be dried and eaten as a snack food. Dried bananas are also ground into banana flour.

Although the wild species have fruits with numerous large, hard seeds, virtually all culinary bananas have seedless fruits. Bananas are classified either as dessert bananas (meaning they are yellow and fully ripe when eaten) or as green cooking bananas. Almost all export bananas are of the dessert types; however, only about 10-15% of all production is for export, with the U.S. and EU being the dominant buyers.



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Castor Fiber

The Eurasian beaver. Up to 50% larger than the American/Canadian Castor Canadensis, and far more intelligent  [^]
Fledgling science site at http://www.sciencefile.org/SF/content/view/54/98/ needs members and original articles. If you can help, please join.

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We just talkeda bout Castor Canadensis in Envirothon.

D is for Damn (i mean dam ha)

A dam is a barrier that divides waters. Dams generally serve the primary purpose of retaining water, while other structures such as levees and dikes are used to prevent water flow into specific land regions. The tallest dam in the world is the 300 meter high Nurek Dam in Tajikistan.[1]


The word dam can be traced back to Middle English,[2] and before that, from Middle Dutch, as seen in the names of many old cities.[3]

Most of the first Dams were built in Mesopotamia up to 7,000 years ago. These were used to control the water level, for Mesopotamia's weather affected the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, and could be quite unpredictable. The earliest recorded dam is believed to have been on the Sadd Al-Kafara at Wadi Al-Garawi, which is located about 25 kilometers south of Cairo, and built around 2600 B.C.[4] It was destroyed by heavy rain shortly afterwards.[4]

The oldest surviving and standing dam in the world is believed to be the Grand Anicut, also known as the Kallanai, an ancient dam built on the Kaveri River in the state of Tamil Nadu located in southern India. It was built by the Chola king Karikalan, and dates back to the 2nd century AD.[5] Du Jiang Yan in China is the oldest surviving irrigation system included a dam that directed waterflow. It was finished in 251 B.C.

The Kallanai is a massive dam of unhewn stone, over 300 meters long, 4.5 meters high and 20 meters (60 feet) wide,[5] across the main stream of the Kaveri. The purpose of the dam was to divert the waters of the Cauvery across the fertile Delta region for irrigation via canals. The dam is still in excellent repair, and served as a model for later engineers, including the Sir Arthur Cotton's 19th-century dam across the Kollidam, the major tributary of the Cauvery. The land area irrigated by the ancient irrigation network, of which the dam was the centerpiece, was 69,000 acres (280 square kilometers). By the early 20th century the irrigated area had been increased to about 1,000,000 acres (4,000 square kilometers).

In ancient China, the Prime Minister of Chu (state), Sunshu Ao, is the first known hydraulic engineer of China. He served Duke Zhuang of Chu during the reign of King Ding of Zhou (606 BC-586 BC), ruler of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty. His large earthen dam flooded a valley in modern-day northern Anhui province that created an enormous irrigation reservoir (62 miles in circumference), a reservoir that is still present today.[6]

In the Netherlands, a low-lying country, dams were often applied to block rivers in order to regulate the water level and to prevent the sea from entering the marsh lands. Such dams often marked the beginning of a town or city because it was easy to cross the river at such a place, and often gave rise to the respective place's names in Dutch. For instance the Dutch capital Amsterdam (old name Amstelredam) started with a dam through the river Amstel in the late 12th century, and Rotterdam started with a dam through the river Rotte, a minor tributary of the Nieuwe Maas. The central square of Amsterdam, believed to be the original place of the 800 year old dam, still carries the name Dam Square or simply the Dam.

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EQUINOX

In astronomy, equinox can have two meanings:

    * The moment when the Sun is positioned directly over the Earth's equator and, by extension, the apparent position of the Sun at that moment—see below.

    * A moment in time at which the vernal point, celestial equator, and other such elements are taken to be used in the definition of a celestial coordinate system—see Equinox (celestial coordinates)

An equinox in astronomy is that moment in time (not a whole day) when the center of the Sun can be observed to be directly above the Earth's equator, occurring around March 20 and September 23 each year.

More technically, at an equinox, the Sun is at one of two opposite points on the celestial sphere where the celestial equator (i.e. declination 0) and ecliptic intersect. These points of intersection are called equinoctial points—the vernal point and the autumnal point. By extension, the term equinox may be used to denote an equinoctial point.

There is either an equinox (autumn and spring) or a solstice (summer and winter) on approximately the 21st day of the last month of every quarter of the calendar year. On a day which has an equinox, the center of the Sun will spend a nearly equal amount of time above and below the horizon at every location on Earth and night and day will be of nearly the same length. The word equinox derives from the Latin words aequus (equal) and nox (night).

In reality, the day is longer than the night at an equinox. Commonly the day is defined as the period that sunlight reaches the ground in the absence of local obstacles. From Earth, the Sun appears as a disc and not a single point of light; so, when the center of the Sun is below the horizon, the upper edge is visible. Furthermore, the atmosphere refracts light; so, even when the upper limb of the Sun is below the horizon, its rays reach over the horizon to the ground. In sunrise/sunset tables, the assumed semi-diameter (apparent radius) of the sun is 16 minutes of arc and the atmospheric refraction is assumed to be 34 minutes of arc. Their combination means that when the upper limb of Sun is on the visible horizon its center is 50 minutes of arc below the geometric horizon, which is the intersection with the celestial sphere of a horizontal plane through the eye of the observer. These effects together make the day about 14 minutes longer than the night at the equator, and longer still at sites toward the poles. The real equality of day and night only happens at places far enough from the equator to have at least a seasonal difference in daylength of 7 minutes, and occurs a few days towards the winter side of each equinox.

[attachment=2276]


SOURCE:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Equinox




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Offline Simulated

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F is for Front (Weather)

A weather front is a boundary in between two masses of air of different densities and is the principal cause of significant weather. In surface weather analyses, fronts are depicted using various colored lines and symbols. The air masses separated by a front usually differ in temperature and humidity. Cold fronts may feature narrow bands of thunderstorms and severe weather, and may on occasion be preceded by squall lines or dry lines. Warm fronts are usually preceded by stratiform precipitation and fog. The weather usually quickly clears after a front passes. Some fronts produce no precipitation and little cloudiness, although there is invariably a wind shift.

Cold and occluded fronts generally move from west to east, while warm fronts move poleward. Because of the greater density of air in their wake, cold fronts and cold occlusions move faster than warm fronts and warm occlusions. Mountains and warm bodies of water can slow the movement of fronts. When a front becomes stationary, and the density contrast across the frontal boundary vanishes, the front can degenerate into a line which separates regions of differing wind velocity, known as a shearline. This is most common over the open ocean

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Gold is a chemical element with the symbol Au (from the Latin aurum, meaning shining dawn) and atomic number 79. It is a highly sought-after precious metal which, for many centuries, has been used as money, a store of value and in jewelry. The metal occurs as nuggets or grains in rocks, underground "veins" and in alluvial deposits. It is one of the coinage metals. Gold is dense, soft, shiny and the most malleable and ductile of the known metals. Pure gold has a bright yellow color traditionally considered attractive.

Gold formed the basis for the gold standard used before the fiat currency monetary system was employed by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the Bank for International Settlements (BIS). It is specifically against IMF regulations to base any currency against gold for all IMF member states. The ISO currency code of gold bullion is XAU.

Modern industrial uses include dentistry and electronics, where gold has traditionally found use because of its good resistance to oxidative corrosion.

Chemically, gold is a trivalent and univalent transition metal. Gold does not react with most chemicals, but is attacked by chlorine, fluorine, aqua regia and cyanide. Gold dissolves in mercury, forming amalgam alloys, but does not react with it. Gold is insoluble in nitric acid, which will dissolve silver and base metals, and this is the basis of the gold refining technique known as "inquartation and parting". Nitric acid has long been used to confirm the presence of gold in items, and this is the origin of the colloquial term "acid test," referring to a gold standard test for genuine value.


[attachment=2286]




SOURCE:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gold
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H is for the Heimlich Manouevre (sp).
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Heimlich

Heimlich maneuver
Heimlich first published his findings about the maneuver in a June 1974 informal article in Emergency Medicine entitled, "Pop Goes the Cafe Coronary." On June 19, 1974, the Seattle Post reported that retired restaurant owner Isaac Piha used the procedure to rescue choking victim Irene Bogachus in Bellevue, WA.

From 1976-1985, the American Heart Association and American Red Cross choking rescue guidelines taught rescuers to first perform a series of backblows to remove the FBAO (foreign body airway obstruction); if backblows failed, then rescuers were taught to proceed with the Heimlich maneuver (a/k/a abdominal thusts). After a July 1985 American Heart Association conference, backblows were removed from choking rescue guidelines. From 1986-2005, the Heimlich maneuver was the only recommended treatment for choking in the published guidelines of the American Heart Association and the American Red Cross.

Year 2005 choking rescue guidelines published by the American Heart Association ceased referring to "the Heimlich maneuver" and instead called the procedure "abdominal thrusts." The new guidelines stated that chest thrusts and back blows may also be effective treatments for choking.

In Spring 2006, the American Red Cross "downgraded" the use of the Heimlich maneuver, essentially returning to the pre-1986 guidelines. For conscious victims, the new guidelines (nicknamed "the five and five"), recommend first applying five backblows; if this method fails to remove the airway obstruction, rescuers were to then apply five abdominal thrusts. For unconscious victims, the new guidelines recommend chest thrusts, a method first recommended in a 1976 study by Charles Guildner MD whose results were duplicated in a year 2000 study by Audun Langhelle MD. The 2006 guidelines also eliminated the phrase "Heimlich maneuver" and replaced it with the more descriptive "abdominal thrust."

Dr. Heimlich's promotion of the use of abdominal thrusts in cases of near-drowning and to treat asthma has been dogged by allegations of fraud based on the research of his son, Peter M. Heimlich. The 2005 drowning rescue guidelines of the American Heart Association removed all citations or articles written by Dr. Heimlich and warn against the use of the Heimlich maneuver for drowning rescue as unproven and dangerous, since it may induce vomiting leading to aspiration.

On May 28, 2003, Heimlich's 30-year colleague and co-author, Edward A. Patrick MD PhD of Union, Kentucky, issued a press release stating he was the uncredited co-developer of the maneuver. From Outmaneuvered by Thomas Francis, Radar Magazine, November 10, 2005:

"I would like to get proper credit for what I've done," Patrick told me. "But I'm not hyper about it." Patrick's ex-wife Joy tells a different story: Whenever my kids would say "Heimlich maneuver," he would correct them and say, "Patrick maneuver."


Rosalind Franklin was my first cousin and one my life's main regrets is that I never met this brilliant and beautiful lady.
She discovered the Single DNA Helix in 1953, then it was taken by Wilkins without her knowledge or agreeement.

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Irinyi,János


János Irinyi (May 17, 1817 – December 17, 1895); IPA:  sometimes also spelled János Irínyi) [1] was a Hungarian chemist and inventor of the noiseless and non-explosive match. He achieved this by mixing the phosphorus with lead dioxide instead of the potassium chlorate used previously.[
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J is for Jiminy Cricket!



Jiminy Cricket is a fictional character who first appeared in the 1940 Walt Disney animated film Pinocchio. He was appointed by the Blue Fairy to serve as the official conscience for Pinocchio. He is also a comical and wise partner who accompanies Pinocchio on his adventures. He is based on the unnamed talking cricket who plays a similar but smaller role in the original story of The Adventures of Pinocchio.

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K is for Karen Warvi...LOL.. Member of this most wonderful Science forum..Chatterbox

extraordinarie..Hee hee.. Teacher and Student of all things great and small!!

Willing to learn from one and all!

Love to rhyme and read it too. Enjoying my time here with all of you!!

"Life is not measured by the number of Breaths we take, but by the moments that take our breath away."

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L is for Love

The word love has many different meanings in English, from something that gives a little pleasure ("I loved that meal") to something one would die for (patriotism, family). It can describe an intense feeling of affection, an emotion or an emotional state. In ordinary use, it usually refers to interpersonal love. Probably due to its psychological relevance, love is one of the most common themes in art and music.

Just as there are many types of lovers, there are many kinds of love. Though love is inherent in all human cultures, cultural differences make any universal definition difficult to establish.[1] One definition attempting to be universally applicable is Thomas Jay Oord's: to love is to act intentionally, in sympathetic response to others (including God), to promote overall well-being. This definition applies to the positive connotations of love.

Expressions of love may include the love for a "soul" or mind, the love of laws and organizations, love for a body, love for nature, love of food, love of money, love for learning, love of power, love of fame, love for the respect of others, etcetera. Different people place varying degrees of importance on the kinds of love they receive. According to many philosophers, the only goal of life is to be happy. And there is only one happiness in life: to love and be loved. Love is essentially an abstract concept, much easier to experience than to explain.

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M, N, O & P

My, Oh My,

Cartoon crickets? previous things without any science basis at all?

No, No, No.

Please keep this thread on topic, PLEASE
The mind is like a parachute. It works best when open.  -- A. Einstein

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Offline DoctorBeaver

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Let's go back to J and do this properly

Joy, Jim

Geologist and abuser of beavers.

He is a geologist from the old school - when he didn't take a doctorate to get a teaching job, he saw a need in college to become well educated in the European fashion and has done that for himself since 1970. He has done consulting in hydrology (not his forte) petroleum, coal, environmental, and hydrothermal geology worldwide. He has also been the chief operating officer for an oil company.
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Offline Karen W.

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Laparoscopy

http://www.ivf.com/laprscpy.html

Laparoscopy is direct visualization of the peritoneal cavity, ovaries, outside of the tubes and uterus by using a laparoscopy. The laparoscopy is an instrument somewhat like a miniature telescope with a fiber optic system which brings light into the abdomen. It is about as big around as a fountain pen and twice as long.

An instrument to move the uterus during surgery will be placed in the vagina. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is put into the abdomen through a special needle that is inserted just below the navel. This gas helps to separate the organs inside the abdominal cavity, making it easier for the physician to see the reproductive organs during laparoscopy. The gas is removed at the end of the procedure.

"Life is not measured by the number of Breaths we take, but by the moments that take our breath away."

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Offline opus

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M is for MNEMONIC- eg My Very Easy Method Just Speeds Up Naming.....- oh dear , can't use that one anymore...

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Numerical analysis

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   


(c. 1800–1600 BCE) [1] with annotations. (Image by Bill Casselman)Numerical analysis is the study of algorithms for the problems of continuous mathematics (as distinguished from discrete mathematics).

One of the earliest mathematical writings is the Babylonian tablet YBC 7289, which gives a sexagesimal numerical approximation of , the length of the diagonal in a unit square.[1] Being able to compute the sides of a triangle (and hence, being able to compute square roots) is extremely important, for instance, in carpentry and construction.[2] In a square wall section that is two meters by two meters, a diagonal beam has to be  meters long.[3]

Numerical analysis continues this long tradition of practical mathematical calculations. Much like the Babylonian approximation to , modern numerical analysis does not seek exact answers, because exact answers are impossible to obtain in practice. Instead, much of numerical analysis is concerned with obtaining approximate solutions while maintaining reasonable bounds on errors.

Numerical analysis naturally finds applications in all fields of engineering and the physical sciences, but in the 21st century, the life sciences and even the arts have adopted elements of scientific computations. Ordinary differential equations appear in the movement of heavenly bodies (planets, stars and galaxies); optimization occurs in portfolio management; numerical linear algebra is essential to quantitative psychology; stochastic differential equations and Markov chains are essential in simulating living cells for medicine and biology.

Before the advent of modern computers numerical methods often depended on hand interpolation in large printed tables. Nowadays (after mid 20th century) these tables have fallen into disuse, because computers can calculate the required functions. The interpolation algorithms nevertheless may be used as part of the software for solving differential equations and the like.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Numerical_analysis
Rosalind Franklin was my first cousin and one my life's main regrets is that I never met this brilliant and beautiful lady.
She discovered the Single DNA Helix in 1953, then it was taken by Wilkins without her knowledge or agreeement.

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John Ostrom


John H. Ostrom (February 18, 1928 – July 16, 2005) was an American paleontologist who revolutionized modern understanding of dinosaurs in the 1960s, when he demonstrated that dinosaurs are more like big non-flying birds than they are like lizards (or "saurians"), an idea first proposed by Thomas Henry Huxley in the 1860s, but which had garnered few supporters. The first of Ostrom's broad-based reviews of the osteology and phylogeny of the primitive bird Archaeopteryx appeared in 1976. His reaction to the eventual discovery of feathered dinosaurs in China, after years of acrimonious debate, was bittersweet


[attachment=2318]



SOURCE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Ostrom





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Offline Karen W.

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Photon = A particle or quantum of electromagnetic radiation.

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Qabala Radar

No, not a device for detecting misguided celebrities such as Madonna  [:D]

from Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qabala_radar

The Qabala Radar or Qabala Radar (Radiolocation) Station (in many Western sources Qabala is spelled Gabala) is a Daryal-type (known in the West as Pechora after the location Daryal was first tested and installed) bistatic phased-array early warning radar,[1] built by the Soviet Union in the Qabala district of the Azerbaijan SSR
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Offline JimBob

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Since "Q" & "R" have just been quite deftly used up, It is "S" next.

Smegma
- a thick, cheeselike, sebaceous secretion that .....



(its a family site)
The mind is like a parachute. It works best when open.  -- A. Einstein

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Offline rosalind dna

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Tinnitus is a disease that affects people by constant ringing in their ears. Of different
kinds of hearing and natures as well as this link says

Tinnitus (pronounced /tɪˈnaɪtəs/ or /ˈtɪnɪtəs/,[1] from the Latin word for "ringing"[2]) is the perception of sound in the human ear in the absence of corresponding external sound(s).

Tinnitus can be perceived in one or both ears or in the head. It is usually described as a ringing noise, but in some patients it takes the form of a high pitched whining, buzzing, hissing, humming, or whistling sound, or as ticking, clicking, roaring, "crickets" or "tree frogs" or "locusts", tunes, songs, or beeping.[3] It has also been described as a "whooshing" sound, as of wind or waves.[4]


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tinnitus
Rosalind Franklin was my first cousin and one my life's main regrets is that I never met this brilliant and beautiful lady.
She discovered the Single DNA Helix in 1953, then it was taken by Wilkins without her knowledge or agreeement.

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Offline Carolyn

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Uvula

The uvula (pronounced /ˈjuːvjələ/) is a small, mucosa-covered set of muscles, musculus uvulae, hanging down from the soft palate, near the back of the throat. The word is derived from the diminutive of uva, the Latin word for "grape", due to the uvula's grape-like shape.


Function in voice
The uvula plays an important role in the articulation of the sound of the human voice to form the sounds of speech.[1] It functions in tandem with the back of the throat, the palate, and air coming up from the lungs to create a number of guttural and other sounds. Consonants pronounced with the uvula are not found in English; however, languages such as Arabic, French, German, Hebrew, Ubykh, and Hmong use uvular consonants to varying degrees. Certain African languages use the uvula to produce click consonants as well. In English (as well as many other languages), it closes to prevent air escaping through the nose when making some sounds.




Source:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uvula

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Varicose veinsFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

An Indian Railways worker affected by varicose veins in Karnataka, India.Varicose veins are veins that have become enlarged and twisted. The term commonly refers to the veins on the leg, although varicose veins occur elsewhere. Veins have leaflet valves to prevent blood from flowing backwards (retrograde). Leg muscles pump the veins to return blood to the heart. When veins become enlarged, the leaflets of the valves no longer meet properly, and the valves don't work. One cause of valve failure is Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT), which can cause permanent damage to the valves. The blood collects in the veins and they enlarge even more. Varicose veins are common in the superficial veins of the legs, which are subject to high pressure when standing. Besides cosmetic problems, varicose veins are often painful, especially when standing or walking. They often itch, and scratching them can cause ulcers. Serious complications are rare. Non-surgical treatments include sclerotherapy, elastic stockings, elevating the legs, and exercise. The traditional surgical treatment has been vein stripping to remove the affected veins. Newer surgical treatments are less invasive (see radiofrequency ablation) and are slowly replacing traditional surgical treatments. Since most of the blood in the legs is returned by the deep veins, and the superficial veins only return about 10%, they can be removed or ablated without serious harm.[1][2] Varicose veins are distinguished from reticular veins (blue veins) and telangiectasias (spider veins) which also involve valvular insufficiency,[3] by the size and location of the veins.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Varicose_veins
Rosalind Franklin was my first cousin and one my life's main regrets is that I never met this brilliant and beautiful lady.
She discovered the Single DNA Helix in 1953, then it was taken by Wilkins without her knowledge or agreeement.

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Offline Karen W.

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Wagon-wheel effect
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wagon-wheel_effect

The wagon-wheel effect (alternatively, or stagecoach-wheel effect, stroboscopic effect) is an optical illusion in which a spoked wheel appears to rotate differently from its true rotation. The wheel can appear to rotate more slowly than the true rotation, it can appear stationary, or it can appear to rotate in the opposite direction from the true rotation. This last form of the effect is sometimes called the reverse rotation effect.

The wagon-wheel effect is most often seen in film or television depictions of stagecoaches or wagons in Western movies, although recordings of any regularly spoked wheel will show it, such as helicopter rotors and aircraft propellers. It can also commonly be seen when a rotating wheel is illuminated by flickering light. These forms of the effect are known as stroboscopic effects and they arise from temporal aliasing: the original smooth rotation of the wheel is visible only intermittently. A version of the wagon-wheel effect can also be seen under continuous illumination.
See more at:



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wagon-wheel_effect

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X is for X-Ray (Even though its probably been done before

An X-ray (or Röntgen ray) is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength in the range of 10 to 0.01 nanometers, corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz to 30 EHz. X-rays are primarily used for diagnostic radiography and crystallography. X-rays are a form of ionizing radiation and as such can be dangerous. In many languages it is called Röntgen radiation after one of the first investigators of the X-rays, Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen.

And from Science Class they were founded by him in 1899 (I beileve)

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Offline neilep

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Yellow fever (also called yellow jack, black vomit or vomito negro, or sometimes American Plague) is an acute viral disease. It is an important cause of hemorrhagic illness in many African and South American countries despite existence of an effective vaccine. The yellow refers to the jaundice symptoms that affect some patients.

Yellow fever has been a source of several devastating epidemics. French soldiers were attacked by yellow fever during the 1802 Haitian Revolution; more than half of the army perished from the disease. Outbreaks followed by thousands of deaths occurred periodically in other Western Hemisphere locations until research, which included human volunteers (some of whom died), led to an understanding of the method of transmission to humans (primarily by mosquitos) and development of a vaccine and other preventative efforts in the early 20th century.

Despite the costly and sacrificial breakthrough research by Cuban physician Carlos Finlay, American physician Walter Reed, and many others over 100 years ago, unvaccinated populations in many developing nations in Africa and Central and South America continue to be at risk. As of 2001, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that yellow fever causes 200,000 illnesses and 30,000 deaths every year in unvaccinated populations.

[attachment=2341]

An electron micrograph of Yellow Fever Virus virions.
 Virions are spheroidal, uniform in shape and are 40-60nm
in diameter. The name "Yellow Fever" is due to the ensuing
 jaundice that affects some patients. The vector is the
 Aedes aegypti or Haemagogus spp. mosquito.
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Offline DoctorBeaver

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grrrr... for Y I was going to put the "Ying Tong Song"  [:(!]
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Zircon

Zircon is a mineral belonging to the group of nesosilicates. Its chemical name is zirconium silicate and its corresponding chemical formula is ZrSiO4. Hafnium is almost always present in quantities ranging from 1 to 4%. The crystal structure of zircon is tetragonal crystal class. The natural color of zircon varies between colorless, yellow-golden, red, brown, and green. Colorless specimens that show gem quality are a popular substitute for diamond; these specimens are also known as "Matura diamond". It is not to be confused with cubic zirconia, a synthetic substance with a completely different chemical composition.

The name either derives from the Arabic word zarqun, meaning vermilion, or from the Persian zargun, meaning golden-colored. These words are corrupted into "jargoon", a term applied to light-colored zircons. Yellow zircon is called hyacinth, from a word of East Indian origin; in the Middle Ages all yellow stones of East Indian origin were called hyacinth, but today this term is restricted to the yellow zircons.

Zircon is regarded as the traditional birthstone for December.


Source:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zircon
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A if for -a-

Main Entry: -a-
Function: combining form
Etymology: International Scientific Vocabulary

 : replacing carbon especially in a ring *aza-*

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B is for B1

Main Entry:thiamine
Pronunciation:*th*-*-m*n, -*m*n
Variant:also thiamin  \-m*n\
Function:noun
Etymology:thiamine alteration of thiamin, from thi- + -amin (as in vitamin)
Date:1937

 : a vitamin (C12H17N4OS)Cl of the B complex that is essential to normal metabolism and nerve function and is widespread in plants and animals   called also vitamin B1

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C is for Calcium

Main Entry:calcium
Pronunciation:*kal-s*-*m
Function:noun
Usage:often attributive
Etymology:New Latin, from Latin calc-, calx lime
Date:1808

 : a silver-white bivalent metallic element of the alkaline-earth group occurring only in combination   see ELEMENT table

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D is for D1

Main Entry:calciferol
Pronunciation:kal-*si-f*-*r*l, -*r*l
Function:noun
Etymology:calciferous + ergosterol
Date:1931

 : an alcohol C28H43OH usually prepared by irradiation of ergosterol and used as a dietary supplement in nutrition and medicinally in the control of rickets and related disorders   called also vitamin D2

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E is for E Vitamin

Main Entry:vitamin E
Function:noun
Date:1925

 : any of several fat-soluble vitamins that are chemically tocopherols, are essential in the nutrition of various vertebrates in which their absence is associated with infertility, degenerative changes in muscle, or vascular abnormalities, are found especially in leaves and in seed germ oils, and are used chiefly in animal feeds and as antioxidants

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F is for the F1 Layer

Main Entry:F1 layer
Pronunciation:*ef-*w*n-
Function:noun
Date:1933

 : the lower of the two layers into which the F region of the ionosphere splits in the daytime that occurs at varying heights from about 80 to 120 miles (130 to 200 kilometers) above the earth's surface

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G is for G1 Phase

Main Entry:G1 phase
Pronunciation:*j*-*w*n-
Function:noun
Etymology:growth
Date:1966

 : the period in the cell cycle from the end of cell division to the beginning of DNA replication   compare G2 PHASE, M PHASE, S PHASE

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H is for H (get it? hahah)

Main Entry:4*H
Pronunciation:*f*r-**ch, *f*r-
Function:adjective
Etymology:from the fourfold aim of improving the head, heart, hands, and health
Date:1926

 : of or relating to a program set up by the U.S. Department of Agriculture orig. in rural areas to help young people become productive citizens by instructing them in useful skills (as in agriculture, animal husbandry, and carpentry), community service, and personal development
  –4*H'er also    4*Her \-**-ch*r\  noun 



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I is for Iodine

Main Entry:iodine
Pronunciation:**-*-*d*n, -d*n, -*d*n
Function:noun
Usage:often attributive
Etymology:French iode, from Greek ioeid*s violet colored, from ion violet
Date:1814

1 : a nonmetallic halogen element obtained usually as heavy shining blackish gray crystals and used especially in medicine, photography, and analysis   see ELEMENT table
2 : a tincture of iodine used especially as a topical antiseptic

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Jade


Jade is an ornamental stone. The term jade is applied to two different rocks that are made up of different silicate minerals. Nephrite jade consists of the calcium- and magnesium-rich amphibole mineral actinolite (aggregates of which also make up one form of asbestos). The rock called jadeitite consists almost entirely of jadeite, a sodium- and aluminium-rich pyroxene. The trade name Jadite is sometimes applied to translucent/opaque green glass.

The English word 'jade' is derived from the Spanish term "cholo (first recorded in 1565) or 'loin stone', from its reputed efficacy in curing ailments of the loins and kidneys. 'Nephrite' is derived from lapis nephriticus, the Latin version of the Spanish piedra de ijada.[1]

Nephrite and jadeite were used by people from the prehistoric for similar purposes. Both are about the same hardness as quartz, and they are exceptionally tough. They are beautifully coloured and can be delicately shaped. Thus it was not until the 19th century that a French mineralogist determined that "jade" was in fact two different materials.

Among the earliest known jade artifacts excavated from prehistoric sites are simple ornaments with bead, button, and tubular shapes[2]. Additionally, jade was used for axe heads, knives, and other weapons. As metal-working technologies became available, the beauty of jade made it valuable for ornaments and decorative objects. Jade has a Mohs hardness of between 6.5 and 7.0,[3] so it can be worked with quartz or garnet sand, and polished with bamboo or even ground jade.


[attachment=2512]


[attachment=2514]
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K is for K (Potassium)

Main Entry:potassium
Pronunciation:p*-*ta-s*-*m
Function:noun
Usage:often attributive
Etymology:New Latin, from potassa potash, from English potash
Date:circa 1807

 : a silver-white soft light low-melting univalent metallic element of the alkali metal group that occurs abundantly in nature especially combined in minerals   see ELEMENT table

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L is for Lime

Main Entry:5lime
Function:noun
Etymology:French, from Spanish lima, from Arabic l*ma, l*m
Date:1583

1 : the small globose yellowish green fruit of a lime with a usually acid juicy pulp used as a flavoring agent and as a source of vitamin C
2 : a spiny tropical citrus tree (Citrus aurantifolia) with elliptical oblong narrowly winged leaves

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John C. Mather


John Cromwell Mather (b. August 7, 1946, Roanoke, Virginia) is an American astrophysicist, cosmologist and Nobel Prize in Physics laureate for his work on COBE with George Smoot. COBE was the first experiment to measure "... the black body form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation."

This work helped cement the big-bang theory of the universe using the Cosmic Background Explorer Satellite (COBE). According to the Nobel Prize committee, "the COBE-project can also be regarded as the starting point for cosmology as a precision science."[1]

Mather is a senior astrophysicist at the U.S. space agency's (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland and adjunct professor of physics at the University of Maryland, College Park. In 2007, Mather was listed among Time magazine's 100 Most Influential People in The World.


[attachment=2540]
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N is for Neuston

Main Entry:neuston
Pronunciation:*n*-*st*n, *ny*-
Function:noun
Etymology:German, from Greek, neuter of neustos swimming, from nein to swim more at  NATANT
Date:1928

 : minute organisms that float in the surface film of water

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O is for Osteoplasty

Main Entry:osteoplasty
Pronunciation:**s-t*-*-*plas-t*
Function:noun
Date:circa 1860

 : plastic surgery on bone;  especially   : replacement of lost bone tissue or reconstruction of defective bony parts
  –osteoplastic \**s-t*-*-*plas-tik\  adjective

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P is for Pabluum

Main Entry:pabulum
Pronunciation:*pa-by*-l*m
Function:noun
Etymology:Latin, food, fodder; akin to Latin pascere to feed more at  FOOD
Date:1733

1 : FOOD;  especially   : a suspension or solution of nutrients in a state suitable for absorption
2 : intellectual sustenance
3 : something (as writing or speech) that is insipid, simplistic, or bland