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Some of the recently discovered biochemical and immunochemical properties of these proteins suggest they evolved for protection against dedicated or continuous consumption by mammalian seed eaters. One recent publication even raises the question 'is wheat safe for anyone to eat?'
Comparative pathophysiologyComparison of different forms of gluten sensitivity Gluten-sensitive enteropathyWheat allergyGluten-sensitive idiopathic neuropathyTypical symptomssteatorrhoea,malnutrition,diarrhea,lactose intolerance,food allergiesEczema,Asthma ataxiaperipheral neuropathysPrimarytissue targetsSmall intestine(epi)dermisbronchiintestinesCNSPeripheral nervesAtypical pathologiesAID (numerous)chronic constipationneuropathiescancer(lymphoid)arthritismigrainesanaphylaxis(exerciseor aspirin induced)unknownSecondarytargets(common)blood(chemistry)bowelnervous system,autoantigensconnective tissueCNSvascularunknownImmunoglobinisotypeIgAIgGIgEIgG, IgAIgGIgAAntibodyrecognitionα/β,γ-gliadin (AGA)transglutaminase(ATA)albumins,globulins,Prolamins (ω-gliadin),glutelinsα/β-gliadinHLAassociationsDQ2.5DQ8DQ2.2/DQ7.5unknownDQ2DQ8?DQ1?CellularimmunityT-cellsEosinophilsMonocytesMast cellsEosinophilsunknownBackground &referencesCoeliac diseaseGSEA conditionsWheat allergyIGS Neuropathies
No idea, but I'd want to know the same sets of details for other foodstuffs which might be substituted before forming any opinions. That is to say... do we only know about issues with wheat because that's what's mostly eaten in the western countries where a lot of this sort of research is going on.
Indeed. But we do have to eat quite a lot of stuff overall... starvation being more of a problem for most that gluten.
An awful lot of grains besides wheat contain gluten.. the mothers of two of my four housemates have coeliac disease, so I know very few details but have heard a lot of expositions of the tiresomeness of buying gluten-free foods.I guess not eating wheat leaves, um, potatoes, and rice... I'm not entirely clear about the climate and space requirements for growing those, but I've a suspicion feeding everyone would become an issue (given the shelf life of potatoes vs grains, and the lack of paddy fields in the northern US and the big grain growing regions of Europe).Also, as I said above, the default behaviour in Europe is to eat a lot of wheat. So those people who are sensitive to wheat have problems. If we ate something else instead, would we discover that other foods have similar effects on different people? I'd want to see that research done before encouraging a major shift in lifestyle and agriculture.Obviously everyone eating a varied diet would reduce the risk of any one foodstuff causing problems (and make it easier for those who cannot tolerate one to find other things to eat).
I believe that until recently, the knowledge of the effects of gluten on some have not been known because these people did not survive. The genes that cause the problems are recessive and only become active when both parents carry them.
If you look at Wiki it gives an icidence of gluten intolerance of about 1% and an incidence of from 1% to 100 % for lactose intolerance, depending on the ethnic group.At best, if you said that wheat wasn't safe to eat you would have to say that milk wasn't either. Of course, for most people these 2 foods are perfectly well tollerated.
Idiopathic gluten sensitivities are not as well defined as GSE or allergy. The debate over this subset stems from the fact that identification of all grades of GSE and allergies is not uniformly approached. Most cases of early GSE go undetected, particularly before 2005. There appears to be a small fraction of non-GSE gluten-sensitive individuals that show neither gluten-allergies but do have elevated anti-gliadin IgA or IgG. Common symptoms are peripheral neuropathies and cerebral ataxia. Within the GSE set these may be explained by calcification of brain channels and avitaminosis. Within the 'true' IGS, close examination has not been done. It is unclear how much of the phenomena can be explained by allergies, by contribution of innate immunity, or some altered T-cell mediated immunity.At present, an improvement in patient condition on gluten-free (GF) diet indicates a sensitivity. Some of the categories listed below may be moved to GSE or Gluten allergy with more research or in the case of Crohn's Disease, should be removed as being gluten sensitive.Silent Disease. Depending on testing somewhere between 3 and 15% of the normal population have anti-gliadin antibodies (AGA). Studies using anti-gliadin antibodies (AGA) reveal that in undiagnosed or untreated individuals with AGA, with increasing risk for lymphoid cancers and decreased risk for other associated with affluence. Though it is unknown in these studies the percentage that are GSE.