Title: Charge Relativity and Hu’s Unification Theory (HUT)

Wanchung Hu

PostDoc Fellow

Taipei, Taiwan ROC

Correspondence to: lukluk73_2006@yahoo.com.tw

Abstract

General relativity deals with mass and its cause on space-time curvature. The other fundamental force-electromagnetism and its effect on space-time geometry are being neglected. Here, we propose that electromagnetism causes space-time to become a spiral shape structure. Coulomb’s electricity causes open spiral with non-zero divergence, and magnetism causes close spiral with zero divergence. The author calls this new relation between electric charges and space-time “charge relativity”. The original general relativity should be called “mass relativity”. The equation of charge relativity is F=(Ue/c^2)Te; F is Faraday tensor and Te is electromagnetic electrise tensor. Faraday tensor is actually the torsion tensor of space-time structure. Charge relativity can explain sun’s magnetic field shape-parker spiral. The charge relativity can explain why the spiral galaxies are spiral shaped. Because there is electromagnetism in spiral galaxies mediating attraction, dark matter is not needed any more to explain the discrepancy between Virial mass and mass from light-to-mass ratio. The spiral shaped space-time structure can also explain the repulsive characteristics as well as attractive characteristics between two charges. According to the new charge relativity, general relativity, and universal lightity, forces mediated by space-time can be summarized in one equation. I call this equation “Hu’s Unification Theory”. The equation is R+F-H=(Ug/c^2)Tg+(Ue/c^2)Te-(K/c)Tr; H is stess tensor caused by radiation pressure P=(KT^4)/c. This equation is like Einstein’s field equation and is to explain the universe space-time structure. The new theory is very exciting and it can bring us some important breakthrough in physics research.

Main Text

It is well known that Einstein’s general relativity says that mass causes space-time curvature to produce gravity. However, the relationship between electromagnetism and space-time is neglected. Here, we propose that electromagnetism is also mediated by space-time structure change. This new theory-charge relativity is going to replace current quantum electrodynamic theory (QED). QED says that electromagnetism is mediated by photo transfer and change. This description cannot explain the field (strength line of force) characteristics of electromagnetism. If electromagnetism is mediated by photo change, there will be no difference when test charge is near the central charge or the test charge is far away from central charge. According to Faraday’s force line theory, test charge will receive more field force when it is approaching the central charge. Second, I propose a new atom model saying that all electrons are orbiting in the same plane around the atomic nucleus. For example: Neon has full 8 electrons in its outer orbit, so two electrons must be in the opposite position in the orbit. It means that when one electron is in the right side of atomic nucleus, there must be the other electrons in the left side of atomic nucleus. QED says when attractive electromagnetism is mediated when two charges are releasing photos back to back. Thus, when proton and the first electron are releasing photos back to back for electromagnetism attraction, there must be the other electron receiving the photos released by protons and the second electron will be expelled out due to repulsive electromagnetism explained by QED. Third, QED is based on Shrodinger and Dirac’s quantum mechanics formula, and quantum mechanics is proved to be wrong according to my new atom model. Based on the above three reasons, I will need to propose a new theory to replace QED.

One important reason for Einstein’s proposing general relativity is Newton’s gravity formula (F=GMm/r^2) implies that gravity is a force with action in distance and gravity can be mediated faster than lightspeed. This disobeys the basis principle of special relativity. However, Coulomb’s electrostatic force formula (F=KQq/r^2) also implies that electromagnetism is also a force with action in distance and electromagnetism can be mediated faster than lightspeed. Thus, we need to propose a new theory to let electromagnetism obeys the fundamental principle of special relativity. I propose here that electromagnetism is also mediated by space-time structure change. We know mass can cause a dent (curvature) of space-time due to Einstein’s general relativity. I propose that charge can cause spiral formation of space-time structure. Because dent (curvature) can cause inertia, spiral formation by charge is not causing a central dent or curvature. However, positive charge and negative charge should have different spiral orientation in a given space-time. It means charges know that orientation of space-time 4D structure and produce two kinds of spiral formation. If two negative charges or two positive charges are approaching, the space-time spiral structure in-between the two charges are differently oriented and there will be repulsion. If one positive charge and one negative charge are approaching, the space-time spiral structure in-between the two charges are same oriented and there will be attraction. Thus, it well explains that attractive and repulsive characteristics of electromagnetism. It is worth noting that electricity is mediated by rest charge and magnetism is mediated by spinning charge. Coulomb’s electricity causes open spiral with non-zero divergence, and magnetism causes close spiral with zero divergence. Due to the non-zero divergence, spiral structure caused by rest charge should be open spiral. It means that vortex lines originate from the central object and they curve and extend to reach the peripheral boundary. The spiral structure is a three dimensional structure. It means that charge can recognize space-time orientation and causes spiral shape structure in three horizontal planes. If the space-time is defined by x,y,z axis, then the spiral structure can be found in xy plane, yz plane, and xz plane. Spiral structure itself is a plane with vortex shape. When a charge is spinning(magnetism), the direction of spiral formation will be changed to align the charge’s spinning direction. Thus, it can explain why two charges with different spin direction will attract each other and two charges with same spin direction will repulse each other.

The relation between charge and space-time is called “charge relativity”. The formula is F=(Ue/c^2)*Te

(F is Faraday tensor, Ue is electromagnetic permeability in free space, c is lighspeed, Te is electrise tensor)

If we assume Au=(-cA, Φ), δu=(V, (1/c)δ/δt), then E=VΦ-δA/δt and B=VxA.

According to the current Farady tensor formula, Farady tensor is:

F=J/(e*c)=Ue*c*J

(J is four-current(cp , J) with p is charge density, e(epsilon) is electric constant)

It means that “numbers of force lines that end in an charge element is equal to Ue*c times the amount of charge in that element.”

Since we know that electrise formula is E=Qc^2. We can multiple c*J with c^2, so we can let Te=c^2*(c*J). I call this new tensor: electromagnetic electrise tensor. So,

F=(Ue/c^2)*Te

If J is four current (cp,0,0,0), c^2*(c*J) becomes (cp^4,0,0,0). It is compatible with the general relativity proof.

General relativity’s formula is:

R=(8πG/c^4)*Tg

(Tg is stess-energy tensor, G=gravity constant=(1/2)S*c^2, S=spinity constant)

Since gravity and spinity are closely related, I think Tg should represent gravitospinity tensor.

Thus,

R=(4πS/c^2)*Tg

Let S=Ug/4π(Ug is gravitospinity permeability in free space), the formula becomes:

R=(Ug/c^2)*Tg

When Tg=diag(T00,0,0,0), Tg=diag(cp^4,0,0,0). Thus, we can see similarity between general relativity and charge relativity.

It is important to introduce a theory: generalized field theory (GFT) by Dr. MI Wanas here[1,2]. This theory unified gravity and electromagnetism in geometry. It says that curvature tensor is gravity and torsion tensor is electromagnetism. First of all, we define the symmetric part of Euv:

Euv=1/2(Euv+Evu)

After deduction, we can get Ruv-1/2gR=Tuv which is gravity.

Second, we define the skew part of Euv:

Euv=1/2(Euv-Evu)=0

After deduction, we can get tensor F which fulfills:

Fuv=Cuv-Cvu ;by definition, tensor F is a torsion tensor.

And,

Fuv,x+Fxu,v+Fvx,u=Fuv;x+Fxu;v+Fvx;u=0; by definition, tensor F fulfills Faraday tensor

Why is torsion tensor equal to electromagnetic tensor(Faraday tensor)? We can also derive it from the definition of torsion tensor and Faraday tensor. By definition, torsion tensor is:

Tuv=Cuv-Cvu-Ruv

If the basis is holonomic, then the Lie bracket vanishes. It means that Ruv=0. Because Coulomb electromagnetic force is conservative force, the force is path independent and is only associated with the beginning state and end state of a charge. Thus, Coulomb electromagnetic force is holonomic. Then, the torsion tensor becomes:

Tuv=Cuv-Cvu

By differentiation, form covariant terms of second rank:

Cuv=δCu/δXv-{uv,t}Ct

Cuv is extension(covariant derivative) of the tensor Cu

The second term in the above equation is symmetrical in the indices u and v. Thus,

Tuv=Cuv-Cvu=δCu/δXv-δCv/δXu

By the definition of Faraday tensor, electromagnetic tensor F is equal to:

Fuv=δCu/δXv-δCv/δXu

Thus, Fuv=Tuv. Faraday tensor is torsion tensor.

From the above equations, we can get electromagnetic field tensor (F). It is also because vector Cu represents the generalized electromagnetic potential. If we say electromagnetism causes space-time structure spiral formation, then it is very reasonable to use torsion tensor to describe electromagnetic tensor since vortex lines are aligned with torsion tensor. We can find similarity because both Faraday tensor and torsion tensor are anti-symmetric tensors. Although one may argue that torsion tensor can have 24 components, I think there is only one torsion tensor which matches the one Faraday tensor since charge can recognize the space-time structure orientation and give only one 3D spiral structure in xy, yz, and xz planes.

We need to look at charge relativity in detail, Fraraday tensor means it is the number of force lines from an element charge. Thus, it suggests that Faraday’s force lines actually cause the spiral formation of space-time structure. The spiral space-time structure itself is actual Faraday’s force line and Fradaday tensor. Thus, I propose the charge relativity formula here to explain the relationship between charge and space-time. Recently, there is a new theory called Einstein-Cartan-Evans theory to unite gravity and electromagnetism. It also assumed that electromagnetic tensor is torsion tensor. However, it thought that electromagnetism is caused by spin. In my opinion, spin doesn’t cause electromagnetism. Mass spin causes spinity which in turns causes space-time rotation. In addition, spinity caused by spin is closely related to gravity since they have the same permeability constant. Electromagnetism should cause space-time spiral structure formation!

In astronomy, dark matter theory was proposed because there is huge discrepancy between Virial mass calculated by dynamic law and mass estimated by light-to-mass ratio. The total amount of mass in spiral galaxies cannot explain why the peripheral galaxies can rotate around the central galactic core in such high speed. If we consider the electromagnetism attraction between galactic core and peripheral stars, we can explain why spiral galaxies can gather together to rotate. Thus, dark matter is not needed any more. In the Milky Way galactic core, there is huge amount of antimatter cloud (positron cloud), so there should be strong electromagnetic attraction between peripheral galaxies with large amount of electrons and central galactic core with large amount of positrons. Charge relativity can also explain why spiral galaxies are spiral shaped. In elliptical galaxies, there are not assumed dark matter existing. It is because there is no electromagnetism in elliptical galaxies. Thus, elliptical galaxies are not spiral shaped. Current density wave theory to explain galaxy’s spiral shape is wrong. Because of charge relativity, the electromagnetism causes spiral galaxies to have open spiral shapes.

In addition, this theory can explain why our sun’s magnetic field is spiral shaped. The sun’s magnetic field is called “Parker Spiral” and is a open spiral structure. This shape of magnetic field was thought to be influenced by solar wind release. However, I think the real reason is that our sun has charges that is different from usual planets without charges in solar system. Thus, sun’s electromagnetism causes space-time spiral structure. This new theory can also explain why spiral galactic magnetic fields are aligned to its spiral arms. It is because the galaxy’s electromagnetism causes space-time spiral shape structure to aggregate peripheral stars to rotate. Thus, the galaxy’s magnetic field is perfectly aligned to its spiral arms.

In my last article, I proposed that radiation pressure(universal lightity) is the best candidate of dark energy which causes universe expansion. Because gravity, electromagnetism, and lightity are all mediated by space-time, the three fundamental forces can be united in one equation. I call this Hu’s Uinfication Theory (HUT). It is a preliminary small building and I hope to hear everybody’s comments. Because the radiation pressure formula is

P=(K/c)T^4 (K=Stefan-Boltzman constant, T=absolute temperature)

The stress tensor should be:

H=F/A=(K/c)*a*T^4/A (a=surface area of central galactic core, A=peripheral area)

Thus,

H=(K/c)*Tr (Tr=radiation pressure stress tensor)

Similar to Einstein’s universe field equation, I propose:

R+F-H=(Ug/c^2)Tg+(Ue/c^2)Te-(K/c)Tr

R mediates space-time curvature, F mediates space-time spiral shape, and H mediates space-time expansion. R and F cause matter to gather together. It is a new universe field equation. I sincerely hope to get your invaluable opinions or comments.

References

1. MI Wanas and SA Ammar Space-time Structure and Electromagnetism arXiv:gr-qc/0505092v1; 18May 2005

2. FI Mikhail and MI Wanas A Generalized Field Theory: I. Field Equations Proceedings of the Roral Society of London, Series A 356(1687),471; 26Sep1977

3. A Einstein The Foundation of the General Theory of Relativity Annalen der Physik 49,769; 1916

Date: 2008/11/7 12:00pM