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Vermiculite is a 2:1 clay, meaning it has 2 tetrahedral sheets for every one octahedral sheet. It is a limited expansion clay with a medium shrink-swell capacity. Vermiculite has a high cation exchange capacity at 100-150 meq/100g. Vermiculite clays are weathered micas in which the K+ ions between the molecular sheets are replaced by Mg2+ and Fe2+ cations.