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... enteroviruses - a common family of viruses which cause symptoms such as vomiting and diarrhoea
Human enteroviruses (family Picornaviridae) infect millions of people worldwide each year, resulting in a wide range of clinical outcomes ranging from unapparent infection to mild respiratory illness (common cold), hand, foot and mouth disease, acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis, aseptic meningitis, myocarditis, severe neonatal sepsis-like disease, and acute flaccid paralysis.
It typically occurs in small epidemics in nursery schools or kindergartens, usually during the summer and autumn months.
Life course sun exposure and risk of prostate cancer: population-based nested case-control study and meta-analysis...Our data and meta-analyses provide limited support for the hypothesis that increased exposure to sunlight may reduce prostate cancer risk. The findings warrant further investigation because of their implications for vitamin D chemoprevention trials. 2009 UICC
Vitamin D and multiple sclerosisRecently, it has been clearly demonstrated that exogenous 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, the hormonal form of vitamin D3, can completely prevent experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a widely accepted mouse model of human multiple sclerosis (MS). This finding has focused attention on the possible relationship of this disease to vitamin D. Although genetic traits certainly contribute to MS susceptibility, an environmental factor is also clearly involved. It is our hypothesis that one crucial environmental factor is the degree of sunlight exposure catalyzing the production of vitamin D3 in skin, and, further, that the hormonal form of vitamin D3 is a selective immune system regulator inhibiting this autoimmune disease. Thus, under low-sunlight conditions, insufficient vitamin D3 is produced, limiting production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, providing a risk for MS. Although the evidence that vitamin D3 is a protective environmental factor against MS is circumstantial, it is compelling. This theory can explain the striking geographic distribution of MS, which is nearly zero in equatorial regions and increases dramatically with latitude in both hemispheres. It can also explain two peculiar geographic anomalies, one in Switzerland with high MS rates at low altitudes and low MS rates at high altitudes, and one in Norway with a high MS prevalence inland and a lower MS prevalence along the coast. Ultraviolet (UV) light intensity is higher at high altitudes, resulting in a greater vitamin D3 synthetic rate, thereby accounting for low MS rates at higher altitudes. On the Norwegian coast, fish is consumed at high rates and fish oils are rich in vitamin D3. Further, experimental work on EAE provides strong support for the importance of vitamin D3 in reducing the risk and susceptibility for MS. If this hypothesis is correct, then 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 or its analogs may have great therapeutic potential in patients with MS. More importantly, current research together with data from migration studies opens the possibility that MS may be preventable in genetically susceptible individuals with early intervention strategies that provide adequate levels of hormonally active 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 or its analogs.
From time to time I get a cold- It's a viral infection.I get a headache and a runny nose so I take one of the over-the-counter remedies that are on the market. The symptoms are reduced.Nobody claims that the aspirin and decongestant are killing the cold virus.Vitamin D may well cure the symptoms of MS and (at least some cases of) MS may be caused by a virus. (And if that's generally true then it's certainly interesting, in spite of the toxicity of vitamin D.)That doesn't mean that vitamin D kills the virus.
Human Cathelicidin (LL-37), a Multifunctional Peptide, is Expressed by Ocular Surface Epithelia and has Potent Antibacterial and Antiviral Activity [nofollow]We report for the first time that LL-37 demonstrates significant antiviral inhibitory activity (>98% inhibition) against HSV-1 [Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1], the leading viral cause of corneal blindness in industrialized countries.Additionally, we report for the first time that LL- 37 demonstrated statistically significant inhibitory activity in vitro against Ad19 [Adenovirus], a major cause of conjunctivitis and epidemic keratoconjunctivitis in local and global epidemics.
Selective killing of vaccinia virus by LL-37: implications for eczema vaccinatum [nofollow]The current study is the first to identify human and murine cathelicidins as innate antimicrobial peptides capable of interfering in vitro and in vivo with replication of vaccinia virus.
The antimicrobial peptide LL-37 inhibits HIV-1 replication [nofollow]Here we demonstrate that LL-37 inhibits HIV-1 replication in PBMC, including primary CD4+ T cells
So, you do think that, albeit indirectly, chocolate cake kills viruses.Fair enough. My opinion is different.Incidentally, I think that many aspects of the immune system depend on one or more vitamins in one way or another. For example it's fair to say that without our skin we wuld be much more susceptible to viral attack. Vitamin C is vital in the production of the collagen which holds that skin together.Without vitamin C we would be more prone to viral infection.Does that make vitamin C a viruscide?Do all vitamins kill viruses?In the end, what doesn't kill them?
What my mind is made up about is the assertion that "vitamins can do magic" is crap.
Quote from: Bored chemist on 25/11/2009 18:51:44What my mind is made up about is the assertion that "vitamins can do magic" is crap.Vitamin D is unique amongst vitamins because it's a pre-hormone and is part of the endocrine system. Genetic research from the last 10-20 years has revealed that vitamin D (as calcitriol) regulates many important functions throughout the body, including immunity, inflammation and cell propagation. These functions are linked to a number of morbidities.Ecological studies link latitude and skin colour to 'vitamin D' morbidities; cohort studies link low vitamin D levels with 'vitamin D' morbidities; epidemiological studies show high levels of vitamin D deficiency by latitude and by skin colour; the few RCTs involving large dose supplementation show that vitamin D significantly reduces 'vitamin D' morbidities.Not "vitamins", just vitamin D; not magic, just science.
Unless you are prepared to take part in this experiment you are accepting that vitamin D doesn't kill viruses.
Some recent discussion about ancient reports of cod liver oil use... ...sorry, you cannot view external links. To see them, please
REGISTER or LOGINRickets in Lion Cubs at the London Zoo in 1889: Some New Insights.Chesney RW, Hedberg G.aDepartment of Pediatrics, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee.In 1889, when Dr John Bland-Sutton, a prominent surgeon in London, England, was consulted concerning fatal rickets in more than 20 successive litters of lion cubs at the London Zoo, he evaluated the role of diet relative to the development of rickets. He prescribed goat meat and bones and cod-liver oil to be added to the lean horse-meat diet of the cubs and their mothers. Rickets reversed, the cubs survived, and litters were reared successfully. In classic controlled studies conducted in puppies and young rats 3 decades later, the crucial role of calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D in both prevention and therapy of rickets was elucidated. Later studies led to the identification of the structural features of vitamin D. Although the Bland-Sutton interventional diet obviously provides calcium and phosphate from bones and vitamin D from cod-liver oil, other benefits of this diet were not initially recognized.Chewing bones promotes tooth and gum health and removes bacteria-laden tartar.Cod-liver oil also contains vitamin A, which is essential for the prevention of infection and for epithelial cell health. Taurine-conjugated bile salts are also necessary for the intestinal absorption of fat-soluble vitamins, including A and D. Moreover, unlike dogs and rats, all feline species are unable to synthesize taurine yet can only conjugate bile acids with taurine. This sulfur-containing beta-amino acid must be provided in the carnivorous diet of a large cat.Taurine-conjugated bile salts were provided in the oil cold-pressed from cod liver.The now famous Bland-Sutton "experiment of nature," namely, fatal rickets in lion cubs, was cured by the addition of minerals and vitamin D. However, gum health and the presence of taurine-conjugated bile salts undoubtedly permitted absorption of vitamin A and D, the latter promoting the cure of rickets.Pediatrics. 2009 Apr 6. [Epub ahead of print]
Vitamin D could help fight hepatitis CA new study has found that administering vitamin D to hepatitis C patients dramatically reduces the presence of the virus in the blood.The study, carried out at Rebecca Sieff Hospital in Safed and Hillel Yaffeh Medical Center in Hadera by Dr. Assy Nimer and Dr. Saif Abu-Mouch covered 90 hepatitis C patients.The findings were presented in late November at a conference of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.For six months, in addition to the standard treatment, which included Interferon once a week and a daily dose of the antiviral drug Ribavirin, 30 patients were also treated with 1,000 units of vitamin D a day. A control group of 60 patients went without the vitamin.In order to assess the impact of vitamin D on the treatment of the disease, before starting the study, all patients, including those from the control group and those who were found to have a vitamin D deficiency, were given supplements, so that all participants began the study from the same point.A month after the start of treatment, the virus had disappeared from the blood in 44 percent of the group receiving vitamin D supplements, as opposed to just 18 percent among the control group.After three months, the success rate for the group getting the supplement rose to 96 percent, compared to 48 percent in the control group.Other findings from the study, which will be presented next month in Kfar Blum at a conference of the Israeli Association for the Study of the Liver, indicate that this trend continues even after the end of drug treatment.The initial results show that six months after the end of treatment, 90 percent of patients treated with drug therapy and vitamin D supplements had the virus disappear and completely recovered."The drug treatment for hepatitis C patients is usually administered for around a year, and occasionally the virus disappears from the blood, but remains in other places, for example, in the liver and lymph glands," explained Nimer, the director of the Liver Disease Unit at Rebecca Sieff Hospital. "At the end of the treatment, the virus may return to the blood, but we found that in patients who were also given the vitamin D supplement, the virus did not return, that is, it was excreted by the body."How vitamin D helps improve the condition of hepatitis patients is not entirely clear. However, according to Nimer, "It has already been proven that vitamin D benefits the immune system by increasing the activity of T cells [white blood cells that help in the fight against pathogens], improves the body's reaction to the insulin hormone, and reduces the level of pro-inflammatory proteins that cause liver infections caused by viruses."...
As a boy in the thirties suffering fro asthma I used to visit Great Ormond street hospital to be irradiated with UV presumably to create vitamin D.I cannot recall if it did any good.
Vitamin D controls T cell antigen receptor signaling and activation of human T cellsAbstractPhospholipase C (PLC) isozymes are key signaling proteins downstream of many extracellular stimuli. Here we show that naive human T cells had very low expression of PLC-γ1 and that this correlated with low T cell antigen receptor (TCR) responsiveness in naive T cells. However, TCR triggering led to an upregulation of ~75-fold in PLC-γ1 expression, which correlated with greater TCR responsiveness. Induction of PLC-γ1 was dependent on vitamin D and expression of the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Naive T cells did not express VDR, but VDR expression was induced by TCR signaling via the alternative mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 pathway. Thus, initial TCR signaling via p38 leads to successive induction of VDR and PLC-γ1, which are required for subsequent classical TCR signaling and T cell activation.
"We have discovered that the first stage in the activation of a T cell involves vitamin D, explains Professor Carsten Geisler from the Department of International Health, Immunology and Microbiology. When a T cell is exposed to a foreign pathogen, it has an immediate biochemical reaction and extends a signaling device or Ďantenna' known as a vitamin D receptor, with which it search for vitamin D. This means that the T cell must have vitamin D or activation of the cell will cease. If the T cells cannot find enough vitamin D in the blood, they won't even begin to mobilise."
Get out in that frosty morning sunshine...!
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REGISTER or LOGIN as UMIN000001373.Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Mar 10. [Epub ahead of print]
Quote from: alanan on 12/03/2010 05:56:48Try looking at this site ...sorry, you cannot view external links. To see them, please
REGISTER or LOGIN as UMIN000001373.Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Mar 10. [Epub ahead of print]
So, it does as good a job as chocolate cake.For those people who are poorly nourished, improving their diet improves their health.Not exactly rocket science and not evidence for vitamin D killing the virus.