CHAPTER 9: SISTER TRANSFORMATION EQUATIONS

SECTION 9:0 INTRODUCTION

In this chapter we will look at my original work on the Dot-theory. This work started in 1981 and continued for 28 years. In my book “Doppler Space Time” the transformation from mass to charge was studied with respect to several Sister solutions. The Sister One solution was that mass equals charge times the speed of light C. The Sister 2 solution specifies that charge is mass times the speed of light C. This solution species that energy is charge times the speed of light C. Another solution specified that mass equals charge.

Over the years I have studied all three solutions. I started the study with charge equals mass times velocity. This involved trying to understand the approximate equation:

MC = π Q (9-1)

I studied this equation for many years but did not fully understand it. For the Doppler Space Time book, I presented:

M = QC (9-2)

Equation 9-2 became my sister 1 equation and equation 9-2 was presented as my Sister 2 solution. Recently I studied:

M = Q (9-3)

Equation 9-3 was the Sister solution for my latest manuscript. Since that time, IU studied the proton and came to understand equation 9-1. Therefor3e I am returning to my original Sister 1 transformation equation, which I studied in Detail for many years prior to my 2000 book Doppler Space Time. Let us now look at the details of the transformation of charge to mass velocity.

SECTION 9-1: TRANSFORMATION OF CHARGE TO MASS VELOCITY

In this section we will look at the transformation of charge to mass velocity from a Dot-Wave Unified Field theory perspective. In the Dot-Wave theory, the entire universe is both electrical and mechanical in nature. However charge and mass are not independent properties. Both and charge mass are transformed properties of energy.

We can make a chart of the transformation possibilities such as mass equals charge, mass equals charge times the speed of light C, and mass equals charge divided by the speed of light C. I have studied these charts over the last 28 years. At various times one solution will appear more correct to me that the other two. However until the recent detailed study of the proton, all three solution appears equally plausible. For this chapter, the energy equals charge times velocity solution will be discussed in detail. Thus:

E= M C^2 (9-4)

In Equation 9-4, energy equals mass time the speed of light C squared. In reality the equation should be:

M = E/C^2 (9-5)

The correct equation is that mass is a property of energy. Mass by itself is not an independent property. In effect there is no such thing as mass. Mass is merely concentrated energy. The next equation of importance is:

E = QC (9-6)

In Equation 9-6 energy is charge moving at the speed of light C. This is a piece of a photon. If we stop the little charge moving at light speed, it takes on the property of mass. Thus moving charges when stopped change into stationary concentrated energy, which is mass.

We can now write the conversion of charge to mass. Thus:

MC = Q (9-7)

In Equation 9-7 we find that momentum which is mass moving at the speed of light C equals charge. Likewise when we reduce the speed of charge, we produce mass. With these conversion equations we can now produce a chart of all the physical units in terms of coulombs, meters, and seconds. Likewise we can produce a chart with the units of kilograms, meters, and seconds.

Equation 9-7 comes from the study of the proton. The electron charge spins around the electron to produce a gyroscopic mass. For the proton the positive charge spins around the proton faster and more times. Therefore a moving charge is momentum and contains mechanical energy. It is an electro-photon. When the moving charge is brought to rest, the result is mass.

Using the energy equal charge times velocity transformation solution, we can write transformation equations for all the mechanical units in terms of coulombs, meters, and seconds. We can then make a chart of all the quantities in physics equations. To do this we use the standard physics equations.

Force = KQQ / R^2 (9-8)

In equation 9-8 we know that the force between two charges is the electrical constant K times the charge of the first charge times the charge of the second charge divided by the distance between the charges R squared.

h = Energy x Time (9-9)

In equation 9-9 we know that Plank’s constant h has the units of energy times time.

GMM/R^2 = KQQ/R^2 (9-10)

In equation 9-10 we know that the gravitational constant G times mass squared equals the electrical constant K times the charge Q squared. For the mass equals the transformation of charge solution, the gravitational constant G has the same units as Coulomb’s constant K.

V =KQ/ R (9-11)

In equation 9-11 we know that the voltage V equals the electrical constant K times the charge Q divided by the distance R.

Uo εo = 1/C^2 (9-12)

In equation 9-12 we know that the product of the electrical permeability times the electrical permitivity is equal to one divided by the speed of light squared.

B = Uo I / R (9-13)

In equation 9-13 we know that the flux density B is equal to the permeability Uo times the current I divided by the distance R.

These standard equations permit us to make a chart of the units for the mass to charge transformation solution.

TABLE 9-1: CONVERSION CHART FOR MC=Q TRANSFORMATION SOLUTION.

Quantity.........................MCS System...................MKS System

Mass (M).........................Cou Sec/Met..................Kilograms (Kg)

Charge (Q)........................Coulombs (Cou)...............Kg Met /Sec

Energy............................Cou Met / Sec...............Kg Met^2/Sec^2

Coulomb constant(K).............Met^2/Cou Sec................Met/Kg

Force (F)..........................Cou / Sec..................Kg Met/Sec^2

Momentum (MV)...................Cou .......................Kg Met / Sec^2

Plank’s constant (h)..............Cou Met..................Kg Met^2 /Sec

Permeability (Uo).................Sec/ Cou..............Sec^2 /Kg Met

Permitivity (εo)................Cou Sec /Met^2...............Kg/Met

Voltage (V).....................Met / Sec.................Met/ Sec

Velocity (v)......................Met/Sec..................Met/Sec

Current (I).......................Cou/Sec...................Kg Met/ Sec^2

Impedance (Z)....................Met / Cou................Sec/Kg

Grav. Constant (G)............Met^4 /Cou Sec^3..........Met^3/ Kg Sec^2

Power (P)................./......Cou Met / Sec^2...........Kg Met^2 /Sec^3

Flux density (B).................1/Met.......................1/ Met

Inductance (L)..................Met Sec /Cou................Sec^2 / Kg

Charge/Mass (Q/M)...............Met/Sec.....................Met/Sec

Capacitance (C)..................Cou Sec / Met..................Kg

Table 9-1 enables us to look at all the units from a new perspective. Since we transformed the mechanical units into electrical units we can produce mechanical equations using electrical units. This is the MCS system, which are meters, coulombs, and seconds. In the second part of the chart, we replaced all the electrical units with the MKS system of kilograms, meters, and seconds.

In the chart we notice that the units of mass are identical with the units of capacitance. Both mass and capacitance are the means of storing energy. We notice that velocity has the same units as voltage. If we apply a voltage to a radio tube, the higher the voltage, the faster the electrons will flow. Therefore voltage and velocity has the same units.

We notice that force and current have the same units in the chart. If we look at a current of electrons hitting an object, a force results. Thus current or photonic flow is identical with force. In the chart we see that momentum is the same as charge. This is not as clear to understand. However energy is charge momentum. Thus it is the moving charge itself which has the property of energy. A moving charge produces current and this current spin around a distance. Therefore we have a little gyroscopic action which is a form of kinetic energy.