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SECTION 8-1: THE TIME OF THE UNIVERSE SINCE BIG BANG

The gravitational force between two hydrogen atoms is due to the expansion of the hydrogen atom as it slowly loses energy. The cause is the quantized radiated loss of dot-waves into space. Thus the hydrogen atoms lose energy as the universe expands. A secondary cause of the gravitational force is the expansion of the dot-waves per unit time. This is a common mode effect and causes everything in the universe to expand simultaneously.

The gravitational constant then contains two components. As the Universe evolves one component may be larger than the other. The expansion component would be very large at big bang. The radiation component would be very large also but lately many scientists believe that the early universe had a much more rapid inflation period. This would necessitate that the expansion component of the gravitational field to be much larger at big bang.

The expansion component could be considered negative gravity. The insides of the dot-waves are like compressed springs. At the big bang all the energy of the proton is compressed into the Plank radius. As long as external energy was flowing into the shrinking protons/neutrons, no big bang could take place. The minute the external flow was used up, the super protons/neutrons exploded.

This explosion caused a rapid increase in the size of the universe and a continued outward expansion. Basically the universe expands at the speed of light along the plane. It expands at a slower speed from the radius of the universe to the common center.

The universe is a surface sphere a distance Ru from the common center. The electro-magnetic fields go outward to a distance 2Ru from the common center. However the actual motion of the universe from big bang to the present is a logarithmic spiral.

At the big bang, the distances were very small and the time dimension was large as compared with the Plank time. Today the universe is very large and the Plank time is very small. Therefore long ago we had a four dimensional universe in which all dimensions were basically equal. Today the time dimension is so small that we believe we live in a single universe. In reality we live in a triplicity but the differences between the three universes are so small in time that it cannot be measured.

The important thing to understand is that the initial logarithmic spiral was a four dimensional spiral. Today we have basically three dimensions. Therefore today the universe looks like a perfect simple sphere. We can now calculate the time of the universe from big bang and then correct the time for four dimensions, which are now three dimensions.

The general force equation is:

F = M d(V)/d(t) + C d(M)/d(t) (8-1)

The force of gravity is due to the loss of mass per unit time. The first part of equation 8-1 is zero because the mass loss occurs at light speed C. Therefore the force is:

F = C d(M)/d(t) (8-2)

In general as energy is lost from the hydrogen atom, the Bohr orbit expands.

The loss of energy is due to the loss of dot-waves in radiation. This shows up as expansion of the Bohr orbit. We can then write the equation for the Bohr orbit expansion and equate it to the gravitational force. To write this equation, we need to introduce the Bohr Orbit expansion velocity (VB*)

F=2 (Uo (QC/137.036) x (4pi Q VB* ) / R^2 (8-3)

In equation 8-3 we have two repulsive currents within each hydrogen atom. The first current is the electrical current in the first Bohr orbit ground state. This is:

I = QC/137.036 R (8-4)

In Equation 8-4 we have the current loop of the charge Q moving around the Bohr orbit at a distance of 5.291772E-11 meters. This produces a magnetic current vector. The current is not in one plane. The current circulates through all planes. Thus the resulting magnetic field is a spherical magnetic field.

The second current is a planar spherical current (8-5)

I = 4 pi Q VB* / R (8-6)

These two currents are repulsive currents. They cause the Bohr orbit to expand and at the same time they cause pressure upon space. These forces are the electrical equivalent of the dot-waves radiating from the hydrogen atoms. Space is filled with electro-dot-waves and grav-dot-waves. Space reacts by pushing back on the two hydrogen atoms. So we have a balance of forces between the repulsive electrical current flow and corresponding outward flow of dot-waves and the dot-waves of space pushing the atoms together. The second equation is our regular Newtonian equation. Thus:

F = G MH MH / R^2 (8-7)

Here we have two hydrogen atoms, which are pushed together by the space dots. The gravitational fields add up. Each atom of the sun will produce a small piece of the sun's field. Each atom of the Earth will produce a small piece of the Earth’s field. The gravitational attraction works because it is between the total expansion energy field of the mass of object one interacting with space dots. The space dots push back upon each atom. The net result is that there is a net force directed toward the center of gravity of the mass. The same is true for the second mass.

The space dots then produce a vector pattern in which more force is directed toward the center of gravity of the two masses. Thus gravity is a very simple force.

We now want an Engineering method to determine the time since big bang. As the dot-waves expand, the ruler expands and the time clock slows. This is a common mode expansion and we cannot feel that we are expanding. At the big bang, this expansion was very strong. Today it is much less.

It may very well be that once the proton stabilized, the inflationary forces became negligible. For the moment we have to make an Engineering approximation to the expansion equations.

Let us assume that the universe follows an exponential waveshape. In addition let us assume that it approximates a four dimensional logarithmic spiral. Therefore the time of the universe from the common center is smaller than the total time. First we can calculate the total time.

An exponential function would give the same results as a linear approximation since everything would vary the same. For the present analysis we can use a straight-line engineering method. Soon after the big bang, the size of the Bohr Orbit was basically zero as compared to its present size. Therefore we can use zero as the initial size of the Bohr Orbit for our analysis.

We know the size of the Bohr orbit at present is 5.291772E-11 meters. We also know that the size of the Bohr radius at big bang was basically zero by our ruler. We can then solve for the expansion velocity. From equations 2-3 and 2-7; using MH = 1.673533E-27, G = 6.67428E-11, Uo = 1.256637E-6, C= 2.997925E8, Q = 1.602176E-19, and RB = 5.291772E-11, we get:

Vb* = 137.036 G MH MH / 8 pi Q^2 C Uo (8-8)

Vb* = 1.053941E-28 meters/second (8-9)

Dividing the Bohr radius by the Bohr expansion velocity gives us the time of the universe (TU) since big bang as:

Tu* = 5.020938E17 seconds (8-10)

Using 365.25 days per years we find that:

Tu* = 15.91039 Billion years (8-11)

The straight-line analysis of the hydrogen atom produces a ballpark number of 15.91039 billion years for the time since big bang. The best solution for the expansion of the universe since big bang is a four dimensional logarithmic spiral. Therefore the time and or distance to the common center is less that 15.9 billion years by a conversion factor.

By studying the math of the logarithmic spiral, one solution for the conversion is:

Ratio = (3/4)^0.5 = 0.8660254 (8-12)

Equation 2-12 is an Engineering approximation to a simple logarithmic, which has been expended to four dimensions. A better answer would require study by various mathematicians. For this simple analysis the above number seems good for a ballpark answer. For an n alternative we can use the simple expression e/π as the conversion factor. Thus:

e/π = 0.8652560 (8-13)

The second expression gives us the natural log and pi as the conversion factor. Since the natural log does not appear in the various equations directly, it appears possible that it should appear in this equation. This is especially true since we are dealing with a transient solution. Therefore:

Tu = 0.8652560TU* = 13.76656 Billion years (8-14)

Tu = 4.344397E17 Seconds (8-15)

Equations 2-14&15 specifies that the time to the center of the universe by a straight line is 13.77 billion years or 4.344E17 seconds. The distance to the center of the universe by a straight line is:

Ru = Tu C (8-16)

Ru = 1.302418E26 meters (8-17)

Equation 8-17 specifies that the radius of the electro-magnetic field to the center of the universe is equal to the time of the universe times the speed of light (C). For a constant velocity straight-line solution, the electro-magnetic field has expanded at light speed C following a logarithmic path. However the universe has only expanded at a speed from the common center lower than the speed of light C. The speed is:

Vu = 0.8652560C (8-18)

In equation 8-18 we find that the universe is expanding at the speed of light C in the logarithmic planar dimensions. It is only expanding at 0.865C from the common center. Therefore the universe is not expanding at light speed C as far as we are concerned.