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Electron guns only work in near vacuum, (like in a ...sorry, you cannot view external links. To see them, please
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How about this diagram? Does it need vacuum?
They typically make the electron gun using a tungsten filament - which would oxidise in air in a few 10's seconds or quicker if operated at the usual dull red heat.
For use in air you could use a nichrome wire (which won't oxidise)
If I had money to burn I could use a yttria coated rhenium filament which would survive being heated to bright red or even white heat in air.
I know they use them in mass spectrometers. The advantage is that they don't die if you let some air in.