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The electromagnetic fields that comprise a photon are in a state of constant change. This change drives the central point of a photon forward through space. We measure the photon's path to be that of the central point, but the fields exist spatially around the photon at an amplitude that is greatest close to the point and diminishes as the square of distance away from the point.When this photon nears its target, churning electrons belonging to atoms in the target begin to sense the photon's approach. Some electromagnetic fields in the electrons will be in good phase relation with the approaching photon. Among this huge jumble of moving electrons, some will be more inclined to absorb the photon's fields than others. Those most inclined will probably not be dead centre in the photon's path.
So why don't electrons stick to protons instead of flying around the nucleus? Magnets do it, so why can't atoms?
It has to do with the uncertainty principle.
Quote from: Mr. Scientist on 26/10/2009 10:58:54It has to do with the uncertainty principle.I'm afraid not. It's actually a result of two physical phenomena.1) Pauli exclusion principleThis states that two fermions must be distinguishable i.e. you can always tell them apart. In practice, this means they must have at least one different quantum number. This restricts electrons into their shell structure. For example, consider hydrogen. The first shell (s- shell) has quantum numbers (1,1,1) and (1,1,-1). This is why two electrons, at most, can occupy the s- shell. These number combinations are easily derivable by solving the Schrodinger wave equation for hydrogen.2) EntropyProcesses in physics tend to increase the entropy of the universe. Energy likes to go from ordered states to disordered (like how a ball wants to roll down a slope). A proton and an electron is more energetically favourable than a neutron. The decay of neutrons this way is known as beta decay. In order to 'squash' together a proton and an electron into a neutron you need to supply a large amount of energy, as well as overcome the electron degeneracy force (as you're probably going to try it with a large collection of atoms rather than waiting millions of years for a single electron to pair up). This occurs inside neutron stars.
But it seems that we hve experimental evidence for these conclusions.
But, we know the collapse must occur as an actual transition from having matter acts as waves and then suddenly not.
Personally, I have become increasingly convinced our four dimensional world is entangled with one, or probably several other "Dimensions". In our universe NOTHING transits from point A to point B through an infinite number of points. I am unaware of ANY motion that does not pop in and out of our universe according to the various Plank Units.
I see no possible way to explain this other then to accept some sort of extra dimensional involvement, that theoretically could communicate faster the the speed of light. I send a series of entangled particles in your direction, followed by a similar sequence of non entagle particles. You notice the diference, and work out some sort of Morse code with the senders. Almost instantaneously you have joined a universeal communications exchange. Of course the signal SENT to you travels at light speed. The subsequent communications is instantaneous.
Quantum Phenomena:How come the quantum then is because empty space has limits on the amount of electric and magnetic amplitude it can support. These limits cause Planck's constant. These limits therefore cause the quantum nature of the universe. We have not invented anything new for this realization. We just noticed the obvious cause for a well known effect. But we only noticed it because we looked for a cause for the quantum effect.
It's about each particle of rest mass craving a unique space-time position, not willingly sharing it with others. There is more to it naturally as with helium4 etc, but that's how I see it from a simplified definition. And without that principle matter should become chaotic as I think, and the chair might become?? (possibly Anti matter or matter, they are still defined as rest mass, as I understands it.
And yeah, you hit a very delicate point there discussing HUP.What is a 'observer'?Does it need consciousness to be defined as such?Or is it enough with something, interacting with something else?
But there are some weird effects to it, thinking of it from the probability of finding a electron in a atom. The electron (in its orbital inside the atom) is from the point of probability 'smeared out' as I understands it. The measurement alone must then be the definition of 'where it is/was'.
The short answer is that a "proton and electron stuck together" does happen, in a neutron.
Indeed the simplest Schrodinger equation leads to that the maximum of electron density is exactly where the proton is ... but this model is just one point charge in potential of another fixed point charge - greatly simplifies the real physics. In the real world electron being in the same place as proton would mean that they create neutron, but it would require relatively huge energy: 782keV. So including strong force holding baryons together would rather remove this density maximum from the Schrödinger's ground state.This simplest Schrödinger picture misses much more, like magnetic dipole moments, relativistic corrections, interaction with environment ... it is rather surprising that it works so well, especially as Nuclear shell model where they model this unbelievably complex internal structure of large nucleus with just a simple potential well.Connecting with independence of environment behavior, which should be seen as thermal noise, we see how unbelievably strong this universality of Schrödinger's ground state is ...... and indeed it should be - if we make "classical" thermodynamical considerations of corpuscular entities, it turns out that models based on the fundamental in statistical physics: maximal uncertainty principle - Maximal Entropy Random Walk, in opposite to standard "generic random walk" only approximating this principle, also leads to stationary probability density being exactly squares of coordinates of dominant eigenvector of corresponding Hamiltonian: the quantum ground state. Here is comparison of such "classical"(approximated) and "quantum"(corrected) random walks on defected lattice - the second has strong (Anderson's) localization properties:
What you don't understand? I have only pointed out that this density maximum in the center is a nonsense from the point of particle physics (binding proton with electron would cost m_n-m_p-m_e=782keV). This simple Schrödinger equation ignores much more physical aspects, but still gives impressively good agreement, even in nuclear shell model - it is because the quantum ground state is something extremely universal,
also from thermodynamical point of view as Maximal Entropy Random Walk shows (these papers and my last PhD thesis was about) ...
This random walk you're describing, would that then be a mechanism that we can foresee? It's what sets the spin states, if I get you right? But it would still be governed by probability, or are you saying that your model give us a tool for a 'classical explanation' that is predictable?
I'm probably jumping to conclusions here, but there is one more thing that intrigue me with your ideas. You refer to particles as possibly having 'internal clocks'