I looked it up and it seems that there are four 'properties' to the electron, and those need to be different for each ‘orbital’.

N- Which is its intrinsic 'energy'

L- Which is the ‘orbital’ itself as I understand it, its ‘height’ over the nucleus, sort of.

M- Which is the 'direction' of the orbital around the nucleus

Ms- Which is the Spin.

The two most important of these are N and L.

According to the Pauli Exclusion Principle no two electrons may share the same values for all four numbers. And the Pauli Exclusion Principle states that no two fermions (matter) can occupy the same quantum state at once.

The reason that there can be two electrons in the same orbital is their opposite spin that then allows them to be of different quantum states sharing what’s called an orbital. And the orbital represents the region where an electron can be expected to exist with most probably (90 percent probability more or less)

“In the ground state of an atom, the states are "filled" in order of increasing energy. i.e., the first electron goes into the lowest energy state, the second into the next lowest, and so on. The fact that the 3d state is higher in energy than the 4s state but lower than the 4p is the reason for the existence of the transition metals. “

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An electron 'orbiting' will be 'placed' in different orbital due to its energy,

where N1 is the closest to the nucleus. N2 the orbital above etc.

And L is the orbital. The rule here is L=N-1

So if N = 1 then L (orbital) = 0

M is the orientation of the orbitals in XYZ (Three dimensions)

And M can equal anything between -L and +L.

For example If L is 1, then M can equal -1,0,1.

(which then mean that N=2 as L=N-1)

Ms which then is 'Spin'. And the spin of the electron can equal - 1/2 or 1/2.

And so for any two electrons in the same orbital they need an opposite spin.

And yeah, it gives me a headache

as this too is true.

---Quote----

A true electron orbit is not nearly so simple as a circle or ellipse. According to quantum physics, there is no set motion. We can talk about an average radius of an orbit. We can talk about the angular momentum and energy of an orbit. We can talk about how much of the orbit is in the horizontal plane.

In reality, the electron's orbit is not any specific motion. It bounces all over the place. Higher energy electrons have a greater average radius. Different electrons have different angular momentums. Exact path cannot be determined.

Dr. Ken Mellendorf

Physics Instructor

Illinois Central College

---End of quote---

(Why I use this citation is that all the other 'values' we use to describe that electron with are distinct 'properties' of something we just can describe by probability, if you see how I think here.)

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And when we speak about magnetism we say that “atomic dipole moments are locally aligned, producing a macroscopic, non-zero magnetic field from the domain.”

(Which just means, creating a magnetic field by their ‘dipoles’ being aligned in the same direction, like when you connect magnets to each other.)

And a ‘Dipole’ is a pair of equal and opposite electric charges or magnetic poles, separated by a small distance.

Do spin contain opposite magnetic poles?

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Which then mean that the electron is a charged particle having an angular momentum created by spin (Ms) and orbital motion (L) Or should that be (M)? Or both (L and M)?

“From classical electrodynamics, a rotating electrically charged body creates a magnetic dipole with magnetic poles of equal magnitude but opposite polarity.

This analogy holds as an electron indeed behaves like a tiny bar magnet. One consequence is that an external magnetic field exerts a torque on the electron magnetic moment depending on its orientation with respect to the field.”

So atomic dipole moments are when the electron spin is ‘spinning’/aligned in the same ‘direction’.

And the ‘spin’ that we describe as being aligned comes from the Dirac equation, a fundamental equation connecting the electron's spin with its electromagnetic properties.

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Electron magnetic dipole moment==

I do try to understand this but it is strange.