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The cosmological constant has negative pressure equal to its energy density and so causes the expansion of the universe to accelerate. The reason why a cosmological constant has negative pressure can be seen from classical thermodynamics; Energy must be lost from inside a container to do work on the container. A change in volume dV requires work done equal to a change of energy −p dV, where p is the pressure. But the amount of energy in a box of vacuum energy actually increases when the volume increases (dV is positive), because the energy is equal to ρV, where ρ (rho) is the energy density of the cosmological constant. Therefore, p is negative and, in fact, p = −ρ.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dark_energy#Cosmological_constant [nofollow]

Hi! You are not a tad.. You deal with dark energy, dark matter, cosmological constant, speed of light!! Looks like a merry mix-up. Please stick to issue, simplify, clarify what is your question in relation to what causes the acceleration of the expansion of the universe?.

Cosmological constant depends on its infinity mass but not on volume of particles content..matter. Dark matter and dark energy, as conceived as fundamental particles, that pops in and out of outer space, (re-spacetime, same cosmological constant of Dr. Einstein),, are sparse in outer space/ spacetime. Reiterating if both are that voluminous 94% of the entire mass of the universe, outer space would be more dim, but as evidence outer space is transparent proves both do not occupy that much outer space.]Cosmological constant depends on its infinity mass but not on volume of particles content..matter. Dark matter and dark energy, as conceived as fundamental particles, that pops in and out of outer space, (re-spacetime, same cosmological constant of Dr. Einstein),, are sparse in outer space/ spacetime. Reiterating if both are that voluminous 94% of the entire mass of the universe, outer space would be more dim, but as evidence outer space is transparent proves both do not occupy that much outer space.

"The cosmological constant depends roughly on the total mass in the universe divided by it's volume. Both the mass and the volume must be measured at the "same time" to get the density."I expect you, as always, to have your basic facts right That said, do you have any good links to it.As you state the universes size and the amount of matter is definitely open for speculation.

"It is easy to prove that the fastest an object can "appear" to move directly away from the earth or an observer is only C/2 simply because for any earth based second of time a radially moving object at nearly the speed of light moves nearly one light second further away from the earth every second."So what you're pointing out is that the light reflected will only show us the position the (light) second before and not its 'real one' at the moment of observation, right? (presumed it was one light second away at the reflection)

"Any additional velocity of recession from C/2 to nearly C must be the result of the parametric expansion of the universe due to frame dragging this "rocket" away from the earth

Quote from: Good ElfThe expansion on the Universe may actually "drag" distant points away from each other "faster than light" if the distance between two nominated points is so great that the space between them is increasing faster than the time light takes to traverse it. In such cases light is "left behind" over these cosmic distances leading to Rindler Foliations.Here you will have to explain a little more Frame dragging how?

The expansion on the Universe may actually "drag" distant points away from each other "faster than light" if the distance between two nominated points is so great that the space between them is increasing faster than the time light takes to traverse it. In such cases light is "left behind" over these cosmic distances leading to Rindler Foliations.

The velocity of a galaxy could be expressed mathematically asv = H x dwhere v is the galaxy's radial outward velocity, d is the galaxy's distance from Earth, and H is the constant of proportionality called the Hubble constant.

And how do you see those Rindler Foliations.

All experience is an arch wherethroughGleams that untraveled world whose margin fadesForever and forever when I move. Tennyson, 1842