Do electrons rotate?

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Offline yor_on

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Do electrons rotate?
« Reply #50 on: 22/02/2010 06:05:39 »
Yes JP, I agree, it may be due to me not seeing the concept here. The idea seems to be to illuminate 'many paths' in some quantum way. But when thinking of those experiments where they produce an entanglement I've never seen anyone calling the light 'photons', only waves? Or am I thinking wrong there? Awh, but I still don't understand how you can use use both concepts simultaneously in a experiment? I will look at your link and hope for enlightenment :)
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Or maybe you can, after all it's the 'same' light ::))
Awwwhh, but the link is really nice JP.. Kudos for that one.
« Last Edit: 22/02/2010 06:34:28 by yor_on »
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Offline Farsight

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« Reply #51 on: 22/02/2010 10:39:46 »
Why would you post this? This obviously has nothing to do with electrons?
It has a lot to do with electrons. Read the article:

"Atom smasher shows vacuum of space in a twist
Ephemeral vortices that form in the vacuum of space may have been spotted for the first time. They could help to explain how matter gets much of its mass. Most of the mass of ordinary matter comes from nucleons – protons and neutrons. Each nucleon, in turn, is made of three quarks. But the quarks themselves account for only about 1 per cent of the mass of a nucleon. The remainder of the mass comes from the force that holds the quarks together..."


We don't talk of quarks in the context of an electron, but there is some kind of force that holds it together, and it does have mass. Light doesn't, and long wave radio tells us that light is "ephemeral" - a photon isn't a point particle. Setting gravity aside, it travels at c, in a straight line. After pair production this straight-line motion at c is no longer present, and instead we now see an electron and a positron. Let's imagine we're moving along with the electron to keep things simple. It has no discernible internal structure or surface, but it does have its wave/particle duality, and it does have some form of angular momentum or spin along with magnetic moment. And it also has mass.

The photon has no mass, but it does have energy / momentum, and delivers a "kick" as per Compton scattering. Now remember that motion is relative, so imagine that it was you moving instead of the photon. That momentum would now feel like inertia. There is a symmetry between these two measures - it's difficult to decelerate an object because of its momentum, and it's difficult to accelerate an object because of its inertia. At this juncture you might say that you can't make a photon not move at c. This is true. But after pair production, that straight-line motion at c has gone. The electron exhibits angular momentum and magnetic moment, so now the motion is circulatory, and there's no aggregate motion with respect to you, because in your reference frame the electron is at rest. So you have effectively "stopped" the photon, hence the momentum looks like inertia. Mass. Only we don't call it photon any more. We call it an electron.
 
So how does this explain the wavelike properties?
The electron is just a circulating photon. It's a soliton or "vorton". You could say it's an ephemeral vortex.

How can we take this answer seriously? If it's so easy, please demonstrate how your proposal produces the appropriate Stern-Gerlach magnet effects. It looks like you are merely trying to avoid answering the question, but surely that cannot be the case.
Take a look at my first post on this thread where I talked about two-dimensional spin. If something keeps changing its spin direction, you can only distinguish between two alternatives. It's all simple stuff, PhysBang, you should look into it properly.   

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Offline JP

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« Reply #52 on: 22/02/2010 11:31:40 »
How can we take this answer seriously? If it's so easy, please demonstrate how your proposal produces the appropriate Stern-Gerlach magnet effects. It looks like you are merely trying to avoid answering the question, but surely that cannot be the case.
Take a look at my first post on this thread where I talked about two-dimensional spin. If something keeps changing its spin direction, you can only distinguish between two alternatives. It's all simple stuff, PhysBang, you should look into it properly.  

Farsight, just because a proposed system has two different options it can choose from, doesn't mean that it actually has physical properties that match experiments.  Can you show any calculations that demonstrate how it gives rise to the various properties of the electron that are known from experiments?
« Last Edit: 22/02/2010 11:33:31 by JP »

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Offline Farsight

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« Reply #53 on: 22/02/2010 12:34:30 »
Yes, but they aren't mine, see http://www.cybsoc.org/electremdense2008v4.pdf

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Offline PhysBang

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« Reply #54 on: 22/02/2010 16:22:04 »
Yes, but they aren't mine, see http://www.cybsoc.org/electremdense2008v4.pdf
OK, but that paper has absolutely nothing to so with the earlier paper you linked to, a paper that has nothing to do with electrons. Just because two papers use the same word does not mean that they are using that word in even a remotely similar manner. What quarks do is central to the first paper and the construction of quarks is briefly mentioned in the second paper but never actually addressed. Nothing about what quarks do and how their mass is produced is discussed in the second paper. And this second paper does not give us any calculations relevant to the discussion here about the Stern-Gerlach magnets.

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Offline PhysBang

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« Reply #55 on: 22/02/2010 16:23:57 »
Take a look at my first post on this thread where I talked about two-dimensional spin. If something keeps changing its spin direction, you can only distinguish between two alternatives. It's all simple stuff, PhysBang, you should look into it properly.   
Since it is so simple, please give us the calculation.

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Offline Farsight

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« Reply #56 on: 22/02/2010 19:15:45 »
I don't know how offhand, Physbang. I'd have to spend a lot of time on it, and that would mean I wouldn't be able to chat with you. Maybe I'll put out the word with guys like David Hestenes, or maybe you should have a crack at two-dimensional spin yourself? Here, check out my first post on this thread then look at the Stern-Gerlach experiment on say wiki, and spot the non-sequitur:

"If this value arises as a result of the particles rotating the way a planet rotates, then the individual particles would have to be spinning impossibly fast. Even if the electron radius were as large as 14 nm (classical electron radius) then it would have to be rotating at 2.3×1011 m/s. The speed of rotation would be in excess of the speed of light, 2.998×108 m/s, and is thus impossible. Thus, the spin angular momentum has nothing to do with rotation and is a purely quantum mechanical phenomenon. That is why it is sometimes known as the "intrinsic angular momentum."

It's a trivial logical flaw, especially when you know about pair production and annihilation. The electron clearly isn't a tiny charged cannonball spinning like a planet. But to then say that its angular momentum and magnetic moment is nothing to do with rotation just doesn't follow. Ditto for scattering experiments that find no cannonballs down to 10-18 m and then consider this to be an upper size limit.

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Offline PhysBang

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« Reply #57 on: 22/02/2010 20:09:32 »
If your proposal cannot account for the operation of the Stern-Gerlach devices, then it does not explain the electron, end of story.

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Offline Farsight

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« Reply #58 on: 24/02/2010 23:08:15 »
It does. Two dimensional rotation offers only two alternatives.

Which way does a clock hand rotate? Clockwise? But go round the back, and it's anticlockwise. Keep going round, and it's clockwise then anticlockwise then clockwise then anticlockwise. You can't say which way it's going. But you can tell the difference if the hand is going backwards. 

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Offline JP

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« Reply #59 on: 25/02/2010 03:11:07 »
In their second paper, it's not two dimensional spin.  It's a higher dimensional spin of abstract quantities, but they do claim it only offers two alternatives.  I'm still not convinced the paper actually offers any predictions, since they're not very detailed in their mathematics.  Also, the paper describes the confinement of these photons by means of some extra energy term that they put in by hand so that it gets the right spin.  I'm still not convinced that actually describes the Stern Gerlach effect, again, because they're not very detailed in deriving electron properties in this paper, but at least they claim they get the right spin.

The big problem I have after browsing the paper is that the extra energy term is troublesome, because none of the current models or experiments have detected it.  It seems like it would essentially be giving a gravitation-like force that only applies to light (it attracts two waves together).  Proposing an extra force is going to cause problems because this force has never been observed, and I imagine it should show up in other processes involving either multiple photons or single electrons (beta decay, for example).  Maybe in future papers, the authors will come up with a more detailed analysis of this force and explain why it hasn't been seen before, but until then it isn't a very physically convincing model.

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Offline PhysBang

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« Reply #60 on: 25/02/2010 04:39:46 »
It does. Two dimensional rotation offers only two alternatives.
Then show us a calculation. Either your theory actually explains electrons, in which case it produces the same behaviour for electrons, or it doesn't. Since the experiment that throws the rotation of electrons into question is the Stern-Gerlach magnet experiment, it is a necessary thing to explain. Your continued evasions make you seem dishonest.

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Offline Farsight

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« Reply #61 on: 25/02/2010 12:06:40 »
It's tricky Physbang. For example http://www.electronspin.org/6.htm talks about "magnetic charge", and is employing assumptions that aren't supported by the creation of an electron and positron via pair production. The difficulty is perhaps related to "The mystery of the moebius strip", see http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2007/07/16/1979151.htm, with the added issue of being three-dimensional and dynamical.

Quote from: JP
In their second paper, it's not two dimensional spin. It's a higher dimensional spin of abstract quantities, but they do claim it only offers two alternatives. I'm still not convinced the paper actually offers any predictions, since they're not very detailed in their mathematics. Also, the paper describes the confinement of these photons by means of some extra energy term that they put in by hand so that it gets the right spin.
Granted. I didn't intend this paper to demonstrate the mathematics of two dimensional spin, but instead rotation as opposed to the "black box" called intrinsic angular momentum.

Quote from: JP
I'm still not convinced that actually describes the Stern Gerlach effect, again, because they're not very detailed in deriving electron properties in this paper, but at least they claim they get the right spin.
No, it doesn't mention it, sorry. Again, I intended this as some mathematics supporting the idea of rotation.

Quote from: JP
The big problem I have after browsing the paper is that the extra energy term is troublesome, because none of the current models or experiments have detected it. It seems like it would essentially be giving a gravitation-like force that only applies to light (it attracts two waves together). Proposing an extra force is going to cause problems because this force has never been observed, and I imagine it should show up in other processes involving either multiple photons or single electrons (beta decay, for example). Maybe in future papers, the authors will come up with a more detailed analysis of this force and explain why it hasn't been seen before, but until then it isn't a very physically convincing model.
I don't think it's new force, JP, I think it's "electromagnetic potential" like we see in the Aharanov-Bohm effect. There was maybe a related article about light beams attracting one another a few months back in PhysicsWorld I think, but I can't find it. I don't know if this helps any: http://physicsworld.com/cws/article/news/23984. I tried to say something about the geometry of electromagnetism on on another thread, but nobody picked up on it. 

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Offline JP

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« Reply #62 on: 25/02/2010 13:35:19 »
It's definitely an arbitrary force or energy term.  They even say it is.  The Aharanov-Bohm effect comes from existing theory.  The force/energy term here is just inserted by hand to make the equations take the form they want. 

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Offline PhysBang

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« Reply #63 on: 25/02/2010 18:19:46 »
It's tricky Physbang.
So first you say it's simple, now you say it's tricky. It seems that what you should have said from the start is that you have a supposition that is, so far, unsupported by empirical evidence.

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Offline yor_on

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« Reply #64 on: 26/02/2010 01:57:26 »
Let us go back to discussing electrons :)

I saw that an electron in a atom could be superpositioned and so have two orbitals simultaneously. That seems somewhat different from superimposed in that quantum logically you now have the possibility to store four numbers. That's due to that you can define the first orbital as .0. and the other as .1. Then you can combine those into 00, 01, 10, 11.

Should I see that as the same as superimposed, no i shouldn't, should I? And if I now imagine two electrons superpositioned in different orbitals like orbital 'A' having A1 and A0 (with different spins +1/2 and -1/2) and A0 is superpositioned with orbital 'B' while 'A1' is superpositioned with 'C'. Would that be possible?
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Offline Robro

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« Reply #65 on: 26/02/2010 09:48:40 »
The phase-locked photon model of the electron makes sense to me, so yes electrons do spin.
"Consciousness is the Universe viewing itself through a microscope."

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Offline Farsight

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« Reply #66 on: 26/02/2010 10:11:52 »
PhysBang: the empirical evidence is in the electron angular momentum, magnetic moment, et cetera. The lack of an adequate mathematical description for say pair production is something else.

JP: There's certainly a new term, but I whether it represents a force that has never been observed is debateable. But are we talking about the same thing? On page 8 where Williamson says "As can be seen, the invariant scalar adds terms both to the energy density and to the momentum density. It is these new terms which are the key to understanding how rectilinear photon propagation in the initial state may be transferred to rotational, vortex-like solutions..." I see that as related to the Aharanov-Bohm effect. I don't know if you know The Refractive Index in Electron Optics and the Principles of Dynamics by Ehrenberg and Siday. Figure 2 shows a rotation, and figure 3 shows the "Aharanov-Bohm" effect itself.

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Offline JP

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« Reply #67 on: 26/02/2010 10:48:42 »
Farsight, I don't think it can be akin to the Aharanov-Bohm effect.  That effect is derived from the basic equations of QED.  The term in the Williamson paper isn't derived from anything.  It's inserted to get the properties he wants.  How can they then be the same? 

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Offline Farsight

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« Reply #68 on: 26/02/2010 12:19:39 »
I'd say it's because that term and the Aharanov-Bohm effect both involve a rotation, JP. Maybe a newer version of the paper will give some justification. See the Aharanov-Bohm effect on wiki where it says "The Aharonov–Bohm effect, sometimes called the Ehrenberg–Siday–Aharonov–Bohm effect, is a quantum mechanical phenomenon in which an electrically charged particle shows a measurable interaction with an electromagnetic field despite being confined to a region in which both the magnetic field B and electric field E are zero". No problem if you can derive it from the basic equations of QED, but it was originally predicted via a different route in the Ehrenberg-Siday electron optics paper of 1948, see http://www.iop.org/EJ/abstract/0370-1301/62/1/303/. Some suggest it's evidence of "spooky action at a distance", but it I think it's better to say the space around the solenoid is affected when the current is turned on, and this deflects the electron path. If you can see figure 2, that depiction looks rotational, a little like the typical depiction of frame-dragging. There's a "field" there of sorts, even though it isn't an electric field and it isn't a magnetic field per se. I'm not sure what you call it, but note this from the wiki article: "With the addition of quantum theory, though, the electromagnetic potential A is seen as being more fundamental or 'real'; the E and B fields can be derived from the potential A, but the potential can not be derived from the E and B fields".

Yor-on: I don't know. It's tricky enough getting to grips with a single electron, and it gets even more complicated when you start looking at the behavour of electrons in atoms.  

Noted, Robro. "Intrinsic" doesn't satisfy me.   


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Offline PhysBang

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« Reply #69 on: 26/02/2010 16:28:54 »
PhysBang: the empirical evidence is in the electron angular momentum, magnetic moment, et cetera. The lack of an adequate mathematical description for say pair production is something else.
No, the lack of empirical evidence is on the side of you saying that the electron is some kind of mobius strip of photons. We know that the electron doesn't have angular momentum like collections of particles because of the empirical evidence. We also know that you don't have an explanation for the most important and foundational tests with regard to this matter. I do not care that pair production is yet another thing that you cannot explain, all I care to point out is that you haven't got an explanation for the electron and specifically for its spin.

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Offline Vern

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« Reply #70 on: 27/02/2010 02:19:25 »
From what I can see the electron only exists at its electromagnetic circumference. There is ample experimental evidence that it does exist there. There is no experimental evidence that it exists anywhere else.

This evidence suggests that the electron is the largest of the elementary particles.  The relative sizes are as in the square of the shells:

Calculator Source Code


The electron is comprised of one photon trapped in a resonant pattern spinning at the speed of light.
« Last Edit: 27/02/2010 02:25:43 by Vern »

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Offline yor_on

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« Reply #71 on: 27/02/2010 08:45:39 »
Any one care to answer my Q. ?
:)
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Offline Vern

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« Reply #72 on: 27/02/2010 13:41:45 »
Superposition? Superimposed?

I think superposition is a term used to describe a situation where an object can exist simultaneously in two mutually exclusive states. It's a theory. There is no experimental evidence to suggest that it is reality.

I'm not sure what is your understanding of superimposed. I don't know what that means.

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Offline JP

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« Reply #73 on: 27/02/2010 13:54:33 »
Vern, there's plenty of experimental evidence to support superposition.  The two slit experiment with electrons, for example.  The electron has to be described as passing through both slits in order for an interference pattern to emerge.

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Offline JP

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« Reply #74 on: 27/02/2010 13:59:39 »
I saw that an electron in a atom could be superpositioned and so have two orbitals simultaneously. That seems somewhat different from superimposed in that quantum logically you now have the possibility to store four numbers. That's due to that you can define the first orbital as .0. and the other as .1. Then you can combine those into 00, 01, 10, 11.
Do you have as source for that?  I can kind of see how it could work (you'd hit an atom with a photon that was 50% likely to be in one energy state and 50% in the other).

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Offline yor_on

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« Reply #75 on: 27/02/2010 15:39:43 »
Sure, but it was electrons orbitals and there are several references, the one I first saw the idea on was this site but if you Google there are several discussing and experimenting with the proposition. Here is another description, but it's a pay-site Toward a better understanding of the atom superposition and electron delocalization molecular orbital theory and a systematic test

And this one I think you will find informative. Superposition.

---Quote---

 The empirical support for the superposition principle outlined above validates its use for theoretical interpretation. For example, we can use the superposition principle to understand the electronic ground state of the hydrogen atom, which in atomic units is, < r | Y > = Y (r) = p -1/2 exp(-r). This equation says that the hydrogen atom's electron is in a weighted superposition of all possible distances, r, from the nucleus. It is not orbiting the nucleus in a circular orbit or an elliptical orbit, it is not moving at all in any ordinary sense. The electron does not execute a classical trajectory within the atom. This is why in quantum mechanics we say the electron is in a stationary state, and why, un-like moving charges, it does not radiate or absorb energy unless it is making a transition from one allowed stationary state to another.

The superposition principle also provides a simple interpretation of the covalent chemical bond. In H2+, for example, at the most rudimentary level of theory, we write the molecular orbital as a linear superposition of the 1s orbitals of the two hydrogen atoms: YMO = 2-1/2 (y1sa + y1sb). Adding the probability amplitudes, y1sa and y1sb, is equivalent to saying the electron is delocalized over the molecule as a whole, and just as in the hydrogen atom case it is not correct to think of the electron as executing a trajectory or hopping back and forth between the two atoms. Squaring YMO (the sum of two probability amplitudes) to obtain the probability density yields an interference term, 2y1say1sb, which leads to a build-up of charge in the internuclear region. Thus constructive interference associated with an in-phase linear superposition of atomic states provides an understanding of the mechanism of chemical bond formation..

--End of quote-- And very impressive, to me at least :)

Especially considering that his main interest is chemistry.
Real good paper that one.
« Last Edit: 27/02/2010 16:18:52 by yor_on »
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Offline JP

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« Reply #76 on: 27/02/2010 16:23:43 »
Cool.  Now I get what you're talking about.  I'm still a little confused about what you're asking.  If you have an atom that can be either "0" or "1," then when you measure it it's either "0" or "1," not both.  The advantage of quantum mechanics, as you posted, is that it's in 2 states at once until you measure it (but your measurement still requires that it choose one of those two states.)

I'm a bit lost about your asking if it's in four states. 

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Offline yor_on

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« Reply #77 on: 27/02/2010 16:45:11 »
I'm just playing with the concept :)
If 'one electron' can use two orbitals superpositioned and you can have two possible orbitals with 'oposite spin' in each orbital, I was wondering how far this chain of relations could go. A1 and B1 being in one orbital both superpositioned, each one to a different orbital than the other one, like a chain of possibly superluminal 'information', well not really but more of an 'entanglement', like some chain stretching all around the atoms electrons?

And I wanted us to discuss electrons again :)
I'm afraid it was me taking us of the subject somewhat..
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Offline Vern

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« Reply #78 on: 27/02/2010 19:07:07 »
Vern, there's plenty of experimental evidence to support superposition.  The two slit experiment with electrons, for example.  The electron has to be described as passing through both slits in order for an interference pattern to emerge.
That only means that there is something wrong with our concept of what an electron is. I can easily describe an electron that will behave that way and there is no experiment that can show that the electron so described is not reality.

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Offline PhysBang

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« Reply #79 on: 27/02/2010 20:27:12 »
Are you saying that you can reproduce the two-slit experiment with an electron without superposition?

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Offline Vern

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« Reply #80 on: 27/02/2010 20:48:58 »
Yes. When I am allowed to describe the electron.

Edit: It works with an electron but it is easier to understand in terms of a photon. This photon consists only of changing electric and magnetic fields. The fields saturate at two points, one positive and one negative. The fields around the points drive the points through space. Interaction is more likely to occur near the points of saturation.

The fields go through all slits and determine where the points go.
« Last Edit: 27/02/2010 20:57:08 by Vern »

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Offline JP

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« Reply #81 on: 28/02/2010 02:57:36 »
Vern, can you show the mathematics of exactly how it produces a 2-slit interference pattern for an electron?  An argument using words isn't sufficient, since there are plenty of arguments that can't be backed up with quantitative predictions.

Edit: I know you had a thread in new theories proposing this model, too, so if you just want to link to the post in that thread where you cover the mathematics, that's fine too.

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Offline Vern

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« Reply #82 on: 28/02/2010 11:20:15 »
The question is too important to relegate it to an obscure section. I did explain it in New Theories. But there is another question that we should be able to explore in a forum that deals with settled reality. (not settled theory)

Can we describe an electron that will behave as they are observed to behave in double slit experiments without resorting to superposition (new) theory?

The answer is yes. The maths are Maxwell's equations as they apply to adjacent points in space as Lorentz suggested.


Neutron Model from New Theories.
« Last Edit: 28/02/2010 11:28:24 by Vern »

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Offline JP

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« Reply #83 on: 28/02/2010 13:54:06 »
The answer is yes. The maths are Maxwell's equations as they apply to adjacent points in space as Lorentz suggested.

Can you show actual mathematics supporting that?  I'm very familiar with Maxwell's equations, but I can't see how you get from them to explaining the electron fully.

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Offline Farsight

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« Reply #84 on: 28/02/2010 16:55:41 »
For the record, I read Vern and associated material including http://photontheory.com/Kemp/Kemp.html in 2007 after reading material by other authors, and produced a "synthesis" that turned out to have a lesser contribution from me than I originally thought. Whilst I use somewhat different language, for example talking about geometry and a single electromagnetic field, I share Vern's sentiment. I agree with his statement The electron is comprised of one photon trapped in a resonant pattern spinning at the speed of light. Whatever your opinion on Vern's particular details or the adequacy of the mathematics, don't forget the evidence of pair production and annihilation along with angular momentum and magnetic moment. The bottom line is this: what else can the electron be?


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Offline PhysBang

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« Reply #85 on: 28/02/2010 17:33:45 »
Whatever your opinion on Vern's particular details or the adequacy of the mathematics, don't forget the evidence of pair production and annihilation along with angular momentum and magnetic moment. The bottom line is this: what else can the electron be?
But, of course, we must also remember that you have never provided any details about this magic process of yours, details that you alternately say are either simple or tricky. There is no choice but to conclude that you really have no complete theory and no evidence.

As it is now, an electron is an electron. If one wants to say otherwise, one has to demonstrate how saying otherwise actually captures the facts about the measured behaviour of electrons.

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Offline JP

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« Reply #86 on: 01/03/2010 02:30:11 »
The bottom line is this: what else can the electron be?

If you insist on knowing what an electron is made of, I'd say the most plausible answer is in using string theory.  Unlike the electron-as-photon models described here, string theory has mathematical details that quantitatively describe the electron and match current theories and also provide testable (albeit not in the foreseeable future) properties beyond the current models.

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Offline yor_on

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« Reply #87 on: 01/03/2010 08:26:14 »
JP, what testable qualities are you speaking of?
Like how the spin comes to be?

And what are the ideas for testing it?
Even if we can't do it now.
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Offline JP

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« Reply #88 on: 01/03/2010 09:02:47 »
As I understand it, spin in string theory has to do with ways in which the strings (which make up the particles) can rotate.  It is apparently a mathematically rigorous theory that does predict all the properties of the electron and other particles, although I don't understand it well enough to give you details. 

The problem is that it's not currently directly testable.  The smaller the object you want to look at, the more energy you need to do so.  The problem with strings is that they're so tiny, that no foreseeable experiment that I'm aware of will have enough energy to be able to see them.  There might be some signs of them at the LHC, but nothing to directly "see" strings.

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Offline yor_on

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« Reply #89 on: 01/03/2010 11:08:55 »
Okay :)
Good enough. Now for a new headache of mine
Electrons fundamental properties  Yep, it has a mass..

But in graphene you will apparently find 'Massless Dirac Fermions' aka, as I understands it, massless electrons? 

Superpositioned too?
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Offline Robro

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« Reply #90 on: 01/03/2010 17:36:34 »
Whatever your opinion on Vern's particular details or the adequacy of the mathematics, don't forget the evidence of pair production and annihilation along with angular momentum and magnetic moment. The bottom line is this: what else can the electron be?
But, of course, we must also remember that you have never provided any details about this magic process of yours, details that you alternately say are either simple or tricky. There is no choice but to conclude that you really have no complete theory and no evidence.

As it is now, an electron is an electron. If one wants to say otherwise, one has to demonstrate how saying otherwise actually captures the facts about the measured behaviour of electrons.
Please see the link above to Vern's published works, pay special attention to the part where it describes, in detail, the mathematical relationship of a photon with certain frequency to the electron. Use the yellow buttons at the top to navigate through the pages. Very interesting.
« Last Edit: 01/03/2010 17:46:35 by Robro »
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Offline Farsight

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« Reply #91 on: 01/03/2010 23:52:38 »
PhysBang: you still don't seem to have picked up on the fact that evidence isn't in mathematics, it's experimental.

Robro: nature's evidence is enough for me. It outweighs everything else. 

JP: quite. There is no evidence that the world is made of tiny vibrating strings, and no associated predictions. However, there is the undeniable evidence of pair production and annihilation. There's also Does the Inertia of a Body Depend upon it Energy content? where Einstein says If a body gives off the energy L in the form of radiation, its mass diminishes by L/c². Go back to Newton and he says Are not gross bodies and light convertible into one another?. So I'll stick with observable evidence and go with Newton and Einstein and E=mc².


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Offline PhysBang

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« Reply #92 on: 02/03/2010 00:06:01 »
PhysBang: you still don't seem to have picked up on the fact that evidence isn't in mathematics, it's experimental.
No, I have asked you repeatedly to show how your theories match even one experiment. You have never provided such a detail. Thus you fail to meet any standard of experiment. You constantly change your tune and shuffle around. In this thread, we have seen ample evidence of how you desperately try to avoid having to answer any direct question about experiment. I asked you about the Stern-Gerlach device experiments, the main experiment about electron rotation and, in between saying that it was easy for you and then that it was tricky, you failed to say anything about experiment.
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Go back to Newton and he says Are not gross bodies and light convertible into one another?.
Stop quoting Newton's alchemical ramblings and actually address an experiment. You'll soon see that your theory gets nowhere and you'll have a lot more time on your hands.

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Offline JP

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« Reply #93 on: 02/03/2010 00:28:51 »
This thread is going in circles, so I'm going to go ahead and lock it.  I think the relevant points have been discussed in plenty of detail.