0 Members and 1 Guest are viewing this topic.
Typically in biology, one discusses cell mutation with respect to random, and unpredictable changes. It commonly occurs with radiation.Usually mutations cause small changes. In the case of cancer, a mutation can one cell line to take on characteristics of other cell lines of the same organism. For example lung cells taking on characteristics of macrophages.If the mutation occurs in the gametes, or early in the cellular replication of an organism, then unique characteristics might be expressed by the offspring. Enough successive changes, and it might be considered a different organism than its ancestors.Cloning research is based on artificially replacing 100% of the DNA in an egg cell with the DNA from another organism (usually from the same species, or perhaps a similar species).One can also inject DNA into an organism. For example, bacteria have been modified to produce "human" insulin that would be free from antigens from other animals, and free from human diseases.
Of course I should also mention that some point mutations are harmless due to the degenerate nature of the amino acid 'code', for example GCU, GCC, GCA and GCG all translates to the amino acid 'alanine'