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quote:Originally posted by MystericonWell there are 13 different states of matter. e.g beyond Solid and Gas
quote:Originally posted by ukmickyi've heard of Solids, liquids, gases, plasmas, Bose-Einstein whats leftMichael
quote:Originally posted by ukmickyIdeal Gas Ideal gasses (sometimes called perfect gases) refer to the behavior which gasses approach as the pressure nears zero. This behavior is described mathematically by the ideal gas law. Although no gas behaves exactly as an ideal gas, many substances come very close to ideal behavior at atmospheric pressure and most behave ideally at very low pressures.
quote:Liquid A liquid is a substance which takes the shape of it's container and has a fixed volume at a given temperature and pressure. A superfluid is a special type of liquid. Suspensions, colloids, liquid crystals and visceoelastic materials have properties intermediate between those of a liquid and a solid.Visceoelastic Some compounds such as natural rubber appear to be solid when they are stretched, bent or set on a table top. However, over a period of time these materials will slowly deform to take the shape of the container. Substances which act as solid on short time scales and act as liquids on long time scales are called visceoelastic materials.
quote:Superfluid At very low temperatures certain compounds such as 3He will show a superfluid state. In this state quantum mechanical effects will be visible on a macroscopic scale. For example, spinning a sample of superfluid will give two or four counter rotating vortices in order to conserve angular momentum in the fluid as a whole rather than just at the atomic level.Bose-Einstein Condensate Atoms which are bosons behave according to Bose-Einstein statistics. Unlike fermions, many bosons can occupy the same quantum state. A laser beam is a collection of photons, which are bosons, all in the same quantum state, thus giving perfectly coherent light. At very low temperatures, atoms can all occupy the ground state of the system thus giving a coherent matter analogous to the laser. This process is called Bose-Einstein condensation.
quote:The first liquid in which superfluidity was recognized was helium-4 back in 1938. It loses its viscosity below 2.12 K. At the time Fritz London suggested that the phenomenon was associated with Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC), which occurs when an assembly of bosons (particles with zero or integer "spin") is cooled below a critical temperature. In Bose-Einstein condensation a large fraction of all the particles in the assembly congregate in the zero-momentum ground state. Superfluidity was later discovered in liquid helium-3, which has a critical temperature of 2.4 mK - about 1000 times smaller than the temperature at which helium-4 becomes a superfluid. Since helium-3 atoms have a half-integer value of spin (i.e. they are fermions), the mechanism behind superfluidity in this system is somewhat different. At the critical temperature, the helium-3 atoms can link up to form Cooper pairs. Because each pair is a boson, the system can then undergo Bose-Einstein condensation like its cousin, liquid helium-4.
quote:Suspension A material in which small solid particles are mixed uniformly with a liquid. A suspension behaves as a liquid.