Birth and end of universe

By Wan-Jiung Hu

Birth of universe

The current mainstream theory of universe creation is “Big Bang” theory. It is thought that our universe began with a great explosion and started to expand. This theory is supported by several observed facts. First, our universe is actually expanding. In fact, our universe expands acceleratedly. It suggests that the universe was started from a tiny point and it expands to current volume. It seems to keep on expanding in the future. Second, there is background cosmic microwave radiation. There is 2.73 K radiation in universe which is not related to earth or sun rotation. Based on calculation, there will be 3-5 k background black-body radiation if the beginning of universe has billions K temperature. Thus, it suggests that there was high temperature in the beginning of universe. According to these two major reasons, Big Bang theory is the most accepted universe creation theory. However, there are some unsolved problems in universe creation that is not explained by Big Bang. Since I propose that universal lightity (radiation pressure) is the actual cause of universe expansion, I will use this concept to further discuss universe creation.

In Stephen Hawking’s theory, he thought that universe is from a black hole evaporation. However, we still don’t know whether a black hole can evaporate. In addition, black hole ration should be a slow and mild process which is unlikely a huge explosive “Big Bang” effect. Third problem is that the energy inside the black hole could be infinite large. There is no energy limitation in the black hole creation theory. And, according to Hawking’s explanation, black hole evaporation is due to particle-antiparticle pair production in black hole’s event horizon due to uncertainty principle. He thought that the antiparticle fell into the black hole and the other particle escaped from the black hole. The anti-particle becomes virtual particle which has negative energy. Thus, the black hole appears to loss energy and emits one real particle. This theory has several defects. First of all, why should only anti-particle fell into black hole? If there is gravity singularity, both particle and anti-particle should fall into the black hole. The second problem is that there actual neither virtual particle nor negative energy based on my previous deduction. In addition, Hawking radiation will cause a black hole information paradox. It disobeys the Liouville's theorem. Thus, black hole evaporation is unlikely happening.

Then, what really happened in the beginning of universe? Here, I will propose a theory which is more likely. I call it “Ab Adam-Eve” theory. Our universe was actually created by avoiding black hole formation. “Ab” in Latin language means “from”. “Adam” and “Eve” are the first man and woman respectively created by God according to Bible. In order to explain my theory, I need to introduce the concept of plank scale here. My theory is there was a particle named “Adam” and an anti-particle named “Eve” in the beginning of universe. Both “Adam” and “Eve” are in the scale of Plank mass. If “Adam” or “Eve” exceeds the scale of Plank mass, gravity singularity will occur to form a black hole. Thus, there was a maximal mass allowed for “Adam” and “Eve”. In Chinese Taoism, the origin of nature is due to “Ying” and “Yang”. We can also call “Adam” as “Yang” or “Eve” as “Ying”. In the two primordial particles, “Adam” has positive charge and “Eve” has negative charge. In the Plank scale of the beginning minimal spacetime volume, “Adam” and “Eve” collided each other. Then, a great particle-antiparticle annihilation occurred. This process is the actual “Big Bang”. The great annihilation created the Plank scale of the maximal temperature. According to radiation pressure (universal lightity: P=kT4/c), the universe started to expand. The space-time began to expand.

The formula of Planck mass is:

Mp=(h'c/G)^0.5

It is due to the primordial mass size(radius) must exceed Schwarzchild radius to avoid black hole formation:

Thus, h'/2mc=2Gm/c^2

In addition, the primordial mass has Planck charge in this Planck epoch. Planck charge formula is:

Qp=(h'c/K)^0.5

=1.88*10-18Coulomb

We can say the Planck particle “Adam” has positive Qp and antiparticle “Eve” has negative Qp.

In addition, the Planck length is:

After the primordial particle-antiparticle pair annihilation, the mass energy totally transformed into radiation energy:

The Planck temperature is then:

KT=Mpc^2

The Planck time is defined by the duration that formed radiation passed the Planck length:

Lp=h'/mc

Planck time and Planck length are the smallest unit of our universe spacetime. And, Planck temperature is the maximal highest possible temperature in our universe. Due to Unruh effect and radiation pressure (universal lightity), the universe started to expand acceleratedly:

P=KT^4/c

T=h'a/2picK=h'c/2piKX

The cosmic inflation theory explains why our universe is flat, homogeneous, and isotropic. Due to the above formula, the highest Planck temperature caused the maximal acceleration to expand the initial universe. This period fulfills the inflation theory. When the universe started to expand, the universe radius x kept on increasing. Since the universe radius x is inverse proportional to temperature T, the acceleration caused by temperature could be lower. Thus, the inflation speed in early universe started to become lower. In addition, since the spacetime in the initial universe is so small, the chance of radiation head-on collision is very high to form all the mass and charge which are seen in our universe. Then, you may doubt who made the two primordial masses. The primordial masses can be made by particle-antiparticle pair production by using two radiations with 1.855*1043Hertz head-on collision. This radiation frequency is called Planck frequency which is the theological maximal possible radiation frequency. However, this is the maximal possible theological deduction. According to Godel’s incomplete theorem, we cannot completely deduct all the consistent laws. Thus, we need to assume that God’s hand involved in the creation of universe.

End of universe

After the discussion of the birth of our universe, we will discuss about the end of universe. The dominant factor deciding the fate of our universe is universal lightity (radiation pressure).

Combing the above two formula:

P=(1/960pi^2)(h'/tx^3)=KT^4/c

Currently, our background cosmic radiation is 2.73K. In the end of universe, the absolute temperature will be approaching zero temperature. Although absolute zero temperature is impossible to reach due to third law of thermodynamics, it is still highly possible that the universe will be near 0.0000001 K degree to approach so called “heat death” epoch. If it is true, then the spacetime of universe will be approaching infinite large due to the above formula:

Thus, there is no doom day for our universe. Our universe will approach near infinite large. Both space and time will be near infinite large. In addition, we need to exam if our universe will really approach “heat death”. We need to find out what causes galaxy to radiate first. Spiral galaxies are the dominant galaxies in our universe. Spiral galaxies have both charge and mass. Due to Larmor equation, charge will radiate if there is acceleration:

Power=a^2Q^2/6piEc^3

The gravity field is actually acceleration due to the relativity equivalence principle. Thus,

a=GM^2/R^2

Combing the above two formula, we can get:

Power=2KG^2Q^2M^2/3c^3R^4=4piR^2KT^4

In spiral galaxies, there is unlikely loss of charge and mass. The charge and mass will be conserved in spiral galaxies if the emitted radiation is due to the gravity acceleration of rest charge in galaxy center. If there is such mechanism, the radiation emitted from spiral galaxies will be lasting forever. Thus, there is no “heat death” for spiral galaxies. Based on the above two reasons, our universe will last forever to approach infinitely large.