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Heikki,For example, with vision, a photon enters the eye and interacts with one of 3 types of cone cells, or a rod cell. Then, if the light is of the proper wavelength, the rod or cone will send out an action potential down its axon. After the initial photon, each successive synapse takes an electrical pulse in an axon, releases chemical neurotransmitters which are received by the neighboring dendrite in the next cell, and initiates electrical changes in that cell. If it doesn't meet a threshold, nothing happens. If it does meet a threshold, an action potential is initiated in that cell's axon, and the process is propagated.