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Mike, it is a very crude picture but think of the electrons as though they were tiny particles orbiting a bohr atom.A hydrogen electron has a charge of -1 and it is orbiting a proton with a charge of +1, so the central force is 1 unit.The innermost electron of an iron atom is still -1, but its "sun" has a charge of +26, so its orbit will be much closer and much faster as it experiences a central force 26 times as large.OK -- with the new quantum theory of the atom this is a lousy description, but the same underlying principles will rule.(If you are interested in Philopsophy of science, this answer displays important differences between the ways that physicists think and the ways that chemists, like me, think).
An electron orbits the nucleus of an atom presumably at relativistic speed. As an electron has mass why does it not exhibit an increase in mass as would be expected from relativistic speed?