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Fig. 1Schematic of the experimental layout for generating entanglement between two diamonds. A pump pulse is split by the beamsplitter BS and focused onto two spatially separated diamonds. Optical phonons are created by spontaneous Raman scattering, generating the orthogonally polarized heralding Stokes fields sL, sR [see inset (A): |n〉 represents phonon number states in diamond]. Polarization beamsplitter PBS1 combines the spatial paths, and the half-wave plate HWP rotates and mixes the fields on PBS3, which are then directed into the single-photon detector Ds. A probe pulse, with programmable delay, coherently maps the optical phonon into the orthogonally polarized anti-Stokes fields aL, aR [see inset (A)], which are similarly combined and mixed on PBS2 and PBS4, and detected on the detectors Da+, Da−. The relative phase ϕa between the fields aL,R is controlled by a sequence of quarter- and half-wave plates (18). Rejected pump beams from PBS1,2 are used to stabilize the interferometer. Displacements of neighboring atoms from their equilibrium positions are anticorrelated in the optical phonon mode [see inset (B)], with a vibrational period of 25 fs in diamond. Inset (C) shows one of the diamond samples, with a coin for scale.