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One answer, read William Forstchen's One Second After. It describes what happens to our society if a massive EMP attack hit the entire U.S. at once. Few people are affected, no buildings are damaged. No invasion, no change in global weather, no massive amounts of bodies decomposing everywhere.
It is just as well that we have paper books. At least much of the world's knowledge will be preserved.
Climate control would be an issue when attempting to preserve paper books for hundreds or thousands of years with minimal power.
On a purely statistical note, 0.1% of the current (estimated) population of the world would be ~700,000 individuals.
Genetically this would be ample for for the continuation of Humans as a species.The question of whether this number would be contained in a single population or as a collection of smaller aggregates throughout the world would obviously be dependant on what caused the loss of the other 99.9% of humanity.
I think, since electricity has become so crucial in our current society, that windmill generators, hydroelectric power plants and other electricity generating structures that do not require resources to be kept running will become the nuclei for communities after the apocalypse.