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Of course bigger teeth also allow you to get away with less precision in the relative spacing of the gears, so sloppy/worn bearings or bent shafts will be more or less of a problem.
Smaller teeth can carry a lot less load, only a few teeth mesh at any time, and smaller teeth have less material per tooth in cross section, so they tend to chip. But you can get better gear ratios in a more compact space.
Wouldn't larger teeth increase friction? It must be best to opt for the smallest teeth for the load.
I think probably some of the 'patent' tooth-designs are made so that the teeth predominantly roll over each other rather than slide, hence reducing frictional losses and wear...
Have any gears been produced that incorperate rollers into the teeth it would seem to be a way to reduce sliding friction.
Don't forget the good old worm gear, although it has helical teeth too, so maybe it's a variation of the helical gear, but that's really a matter of a pinion.