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... There is also a process called "crossover", where homologous DNA is swapped between DNA strands. giving far more combinations of DNA inside of the chromosomes, giving a greater variety of genes than even the parents had.
J Cell Sci. 2011 Feb 15;124(Pt 4):501-13.The choice in meiosis - defining the factors that influence crossover or non-crossover formation.Proteins that influence crossover outcomes The factors influencing DSB [meiotic Double-Strand Breaks] position are not yet well-understood, but a number of proteins that function downstream of DSB creation, to either promote or prevent crossover formation, have been characterised. Although it is not known exactly how the decision is made to form a crossover or non-crossover, many meiotic proteins influence whether or not a crossover can take place. Here, these proteins will be classified as having either pro-crossover or anti-crossover activities, although at least one of these proteins can be considered to fit into both categories, depending on the context of the protein activity or the model system in which it has been examined. A non-exhaustive list of these genes is presented in Table 1.
[crossover] control is even more complex than previously suspected.