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... This is a feature already used in team shooting games where people carry IR transmitting guns and wear vests with detectors that, when "hit" remove a "life" and temporarily disable your own gun. In a disc (clay pigeon) it would be equally possible ...
a strong infrared source such as from a vehicle headlight or sunlight reflecting from a vehicle window can overload the chip with enough infrared energy to fool the electronics and cause a false alarm.
Infrared lasers are particularly hazardous, since the body's protective "blink reflex" response is triggered only by visible light. For example, some people exposed to high power Nd:YAG laser emitting invisible 1064 nm radiation, may not feel pain or notice immediate damage to their eyesight. A pop or click noise emanating from the eyeball may be the only indication that retinal damage has occurred i.e. the retina was heated to over 100 °C resulting in localized explosive boiling accompanied by the immediate creation of a permanent blind spot
I should also add that IR emitters with such codes can be sent out and detected from background at very low levels and well below that which would damage the eye.
I'm not sure what methods the team shooting systems use (one company was called Quasar - Q-Zar outside the UK), but I'm sure health and safety would have closed them down if there was a risk of eye damage.
CAUTION label be applied to all laser transmitters. It should state that invisible laser radiation is present and advise the user not to stare directly into the beam if within three meters of the equipment and not to use optical instruments (such as binoculars) within 20 meters.
Note: If the clay pigeon has a flight time of perhaps 5 seconds, it may be better to power it with a capacitor than with a battery - the recharge time is almost instantaneous.