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Elon Musk "Mars Pioneer Award" Acceptance Speech - 15th Annual International Mars Society Convention.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PK0kTcJFnVk
As soon as simple cold fusion power plants and gravity shields are available.
Mars does not have an ozone layer. Ultraviolet components of sunlight that can rapidly and irreparably damage living things will need to be shielded out. Food crops and forests will need to be shielded with huge transparent domes, made of a material that will shield out UV light but transmit visible light, and that will not degrade or darken under intense UV radiation. Although the UV radiation reaching Mars will only be around one third of that reaching Earth, our ozone layer reduces the intensity of this radiation reaching the surface by roughly a factor of ten million.
I find it doubtful that Mars could support an O2 atmosphere due to the lower gravity. But, what about a thin O3 atmosphere? Or, at least filling all multi-paned windows with O3.