Sorry about the delay, had been on holiday.

It’s one thing coming up with a theory which bucks conventional wisdom, but explaining it is a real challenge. You need to see my calculations workbook, and I also decided to flesh out my model of the hydrogen Atom, which has added a bit so I have re-posted it as “version 2”

http://www.hot-smoke.com/ghhughes/optffdv2.pdfhttp://www.hot-smoke.com/ghhughes/opcalcsv2.xlsYou may need the aspirin Steven – the large numbers are because I have been calculating to the maximum amount of accuracy allowed by the info from codata.

The key elements in the turgid dimensional analysis are firstly that 1/permittivity and Permeability are pressure and density in SI units, and secondly that the relativity equation needs two forces. Thus my elemental building block (the Planck Photon) has two potential energies, The electrical potential energy is measured by the “charge” of 6.626 x10^-34 Coulombs, and the gravity potential energy, is measured by the mass of 7.372 x 10^-51 Kg. REMEMBER these are the same quantity, using different “measures”, you must use one or the other. Thus the “displacement” of the Charge, and the “number” of the mass produce the Magnetic “Density” component. The Charge and mass are fixed values.

All the effects of describing the phenomena of “space” and “particles” arise from the variation in the density or magnetic component. These are the static values, to this we have to add the momentum (kg.m^3.sec^-1) which multiplied by the charge, m^3 =Kg.m^6.sec^-1 which is the dimensional value of the constant h. So energy as in E=hf is the momentum unit measured as charge x the Number of Photons flowing in one second. Similarly as mc^2 the momentum unit, measured as mass (kg.m^3.sec^-1) x the velocity c(m^3sec^-1). The gravity of matter arises from the sum of the Photon masses in “the closed vortices” making particles (section 4). Thus the Pauli principle applies, the charge, mass and displacement have to be quantum values, and there can only be one instance in any place and time.

The “algorithm” (sheet 2 of the workbook), is a read –off formula, or nomogram. Each line in the table is a presentation of the equivalences for the selected “wavelength” (not a dynamic transition). As in Para 3.4(table 1) the “displacement” of a photon is fixed on emission by the balance of electrical “pressure” and the magnetic “density”. Any alteration to this must arise from an exchange of momentum, which must be conserved. This is one of the fundamental calculations in the Algorithm.

And thus to your question of why can’t we see things if photons interact. The answer was already there at the end of Para 3.8 on Page 10. In the Algorithm, the “conservation of momentum” yields in column Z a “refractive index” for the Photon gas. The limitation on this is the precision of the constant “c” which is only defined to 8 significant figures. – I have stretched the definition by using c squared, but the consequence is that an index less than 1x10^-16 the variation in light speed cannot be calculated! The equivalent density for this comes at a wavelength of 7.9 x 10^-16 metres = 3.8 x 10^23Hz, which is way into the Gamma ray band. This is an average density, equivalent to a Black Body temperature of 1.8 x 10^13, which is not found in space, or laboratories! So as far as optical wavelengths are concerned ~10^-6, the refractive index of the photon gas is about 1 x 10^-47!. However with a large enough focal length the refraction in the photon gas can be observed in vacuum space- as I suggested by the variation in photon density around distant galaxies. The gravity component, although small, is always there. It is the “glue” which makes “space” a continuum of photons. (According to me!).

We already know that the refractive index works in “atomic” space, and the mechanism for this is described in Para 4.2.4 of the Version 2 document.

The new numerical, and scale drawings are interesting, look forward to your comments.

Graham