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Since the s orbital is spherically symmetric, there is no definable orientation for the electron cloud under any circumstances.
an atom can be thought of as seeking out a partner to bond with to lower the overall energy
gravity being everywhere at once with most of the wave functions cancelling out at the more remote points
[Gravity] being an inverse square [law] does not fit with theories of elementary particles
There are a few things that puzzle me here, Jeffrey. As I understand it:Quotean atom can be thought of as seeking out a partner to bond with to lower the overall energyMany types of atoms bond do with others to lower the energy, effectively completing their outer shell of electrons. But Helium (and all the noble gases) already have a complete outer shell of electrons, and so don't form many stable compounds at all.Quotegravity being everywhere at once with most of the wave functions cancelling out at the more remote pointsCoulomb forces from protons (+) and electrons (-) in neutral atoms do cancel out at long distances.However, as far as we know, there is no anti-gravity. Since gravity is only attractive, it does not cancel at long distances, and so it follows an inverse square law.This is similar to Coulomb forces from an unbalanced charge (eg an isolated electron or proton), which also follows an inverse square law and continues to infinity (in theory).The Coulomb force is separate from the wavefunction of an electron; the amplitude of an electron's wavefunction decays rapidly beyond the size of an atom (or the wavefunction of a proton, which decays rapidly beyond the size of a Helium nucleus). Quote[Gravity] being an inverse square [law] does not fit with theories of elementary particlesThere have been a number of attempts to unify quantum theory & gravitation.On larger scales you can just consider gravitation as an inverse square law, as described in General Relativity, and ignore Quantum effects.On smaller scales you can just consider Quantum Theory and ignore Gravity.On both scales, effects like time dilation apply.There are some pesky conditions like atomic-sized Black Holes and the edges of macroscopic black holes where we don't yet have a self-consistent theory, let alone a provably correct theory....