Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?

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Offline iko

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #50 on: 05/04/2007 18:46:54 »


Similar things were found
just about fifty years ago!

Antiparasitic action of dietary cod liver oil
upon Plasmodium berghei and its reversal by vitamin E.

GODFREY DG.

...article too old to get the abstract from PubMed...


Exp Parasitol. 1957 Nov;6(6):555-65.



« Last Edit: 07/04/2007 12:22:19 by iko »

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #51 on: 02/05/2007 15:30:23 »
Another historical note from the
same 'vintage' paper from Zoey:



When efficacy of cod liver oil began to be widely recognized,
cases of adulteration and fraud contributed to controlling the enthusiasm.
We must keep in mind that vitamin D had not been discovered yet:


Quote
 ...
  In each country, the experience was the same:  Cod liver oil was used by the fishing people and peasantry; then accidentally observed by some physician, tried by him, and so made known generally to the profession.  At first, it was used in chronic rheumatism and gout; then, naturally enough, in other bone and joint diseases, notably rickets, and osteomalacia (which was considered closely allied to gout); then finally in other forms of tuberculosis.  It is interesting that its use in tuberculosis should have been by the way of rickets  and gout.
  It is interesting too, that despite the fact that it was so effective in rickets and despite the fact that this efficacy had beeen observed and carefully recorded by reputable and well-known medical writers, it should have fallen into such widespread disuse.  It is well recommended and reported as late as the middle of the nineteenth century; but late in that century and early in this one the textbooks of pharmacology all speak of cod liver oil as being useful in tuberculosis and rickets because, and only because, it is easily digested and easily assimilated fat (Potter, 1902; Stevens, 1903; Penzoldt, 1904; Hare, 1907; Cushny, 1911 and 1915; Sollmann, 1917).  At the same time appear numerous notes as to the detection, in samples then on the market, of adulteration or substitution of other oils, and also clinical reports both of success and of failure in its therapeutic use.   Heubner, Salge, Baginsky, Biedert and Fishl found it of no use in rickets.  Vierordt, Stoltzner and Finkelstein mantained a vigorous defense of it, although they emphasized the importance of combining it with phosphorous.   From 1908 to 1912, Schabad published the much-discussed matabolism experiments, which indicated a specific effect in rickets not produced by other oils.  He pointed out certain pitfalls in relation to latent period and dosage.   In 1910, Rosenstern(12) wrote: "Cod liver oil is in the forefront of children's remedies.  For long it has been struggling against the scepticism of exact science."  He reported cures in cases of early rickets and tetany with cod liver oil alone, and considered the effect specific.  Czerny,(13) in 1912, asserted most positiviely that its only effect was due to easily assimilated fat.  No definite reports of its failure in actual use appeared in the literature in this country or in England.  However, pharmacologists and chemists were convincedthat its action was in no way specific, and certain noted pediatricians, whose influence was widespread, taught that it was of no particular value.  In the 1901 edition of Rotch's(14)"Pediatrics" he says:

  The treatment of rachitis is essentially dietetic and hygienic.  The infants should be kept in the open air as much as possible, and should live in rooms accessible to sunlight.  There does not seem to be any drug which produces specific effect upon the osseous chnages which take place in rachitis.  Phosphorus is considered by some observers to be a valuable adjunct in the general dietetic and hygienic treatment, but, according to our experience at the Children's Hospital, it has not proved to be of any special benefit.

    He makes no mention of cod liver oil.
    Still,(15) in his textbook, in 1912, notes the use of cod liver oil and give the dosage, and adds:

    There seems to be no specific virtue in cod liver oil, any other oil will do equally well, provided it can be taken without disturbing digestion or causing nausea by its taste.  At one time we used, at the Children's Hospital, Great Ormond Street, olive oil and pilchard oil and cotton seed oil, made into as palatable an emulsion as possible, and these seemed to be as useful as cod liver oil, except that they were more apt to cause nausea or digestive disturbance.

    Henoch, 1882;(16) Meiggs and Pepper, 1886;(17) Starr, 1894;(18) Holt, 1896;(19) Kerley, 1907,(21) in their general textbooks, advised the use of cod liver oil, and many physicians were impressed with its obvious benefit in rickets and continued its use.  Recently, well controlled experiments both in the rat and in the human infant have demonstrated beyond criticism the efficacy of cod liver oil in the cure and prevention of rickets, and attention may now be directed to the mechanism which brings about this effect.



from:  "The history of cod liver oil as a remedy"
          Ruth A. Guy  M.D.
          Dept. of Pediatrics, Yale University School of Medicine
          Am. J. of diseases of children    26; 112-116, 1923.
« Last Edit: 13/06/2007 23:24:22 by iko »

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #52 on: 03/05/2007 23:48:30 »
...from 1923 to 2007, a jump into the new century millennium!


CodPics...

Vitamin D3





An estimate of cancer mortality rate reductions in Europe and the US
with 1,000 IU of oral vitamin D per day.

Grant WB, Garland CF, Gorham ED.
Sunlight, Nutrition and Health Research Center, San Francisco, CA 94109-2510, USA.

Solar ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiance and/or vitamin D have been found inversely correlated with incidence, mortality, and/or survival rates for breast, colorectal, ovarian, and prostate cancer and Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Evidence is emerging that more than 17 different types of cancer are likely to be vitamin D-sensitive. A recent meta-analysis concluded that 1,000 IU of oral vitamin D per day is associated with a 50% reduction in colorectal cancer incidence. Using this value, as well as the findings in a multifactorial ecologic study of cancer mortality rates in the US, estimates for reductions in risk of vitamin D-sensitive cancer mortality rates were made for 1,000 IU/day. These estimates, along with annual average serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, were used to estimate the reduction in cancer mortality rates in several Western European and North American countries that would result from intake of 1,000 IU/day of vitamin D. It was estimated that reductions could be 7% for males and 9% for females in the US and 14% for males and 20% for females in Western European countries below 59 degrees. It is proposed that increased fortification of food and increased availability of supplements could help increase vitamin D intake and could augment small increases in production of vitamin D from solar UVB irradiance. Providing 1,000 IU of vitamin D per day for all adult Americans would cost about $1 billion; the expected benefits for cancer would be in the range of $16-25 billion in addition to other health benefits of vitamin D.

Recent Results Cancer Res. 2007;174:225-34.




« Last Edit: 06/05/2007 10:57:27 by iko »

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #53 on: 05/05/2007 15:45:47 »
Just found a recent report from Hungary about UV-B sunlight in seasons:

[Vitamin D forming effectiveness of ultraviolet radiation from sunlight
 in different months in Budapest, Hungary]
   [Article in Hungarian]


Bakos J, Miko P.
Fodor Jozsef Orszagos Kozegeszsegugyi Kozpont, Orszagos Frederic Joliot-Curie Sugarbiologiai es Sugaregeszsegugyi Kutato Intezete, Budapest. bakos@hp.osski.hu

INTRODUCTION: The vitamin D3 formation in skin is the most important natural source of vitamin D demands of humans. The key step of the phototransformation of provitamin D into previtamin D from which the vitamin D3 is formed by thermal conversion. According to studies run at the latitudes of Hungary the UV-B radiation in winter time is not satisfactory to ensure the need of the vitamin D, which can result in vitamin D 3 deficiency and increases risk of osteoporosis.
AIMS: The aim of this study was to verify whether in the Hungarian population the UV radiation from the Sun ensures the daily synthesis of 1000 IU vitamin D3, or Vitamin D deficiency could occur in the winter and spring months which are less favourable in terms of UV exposure.
METHODS: The data of UV-B radiation reaching the Earth's surface were used for the evaluation. These data based on regular measurements in Budapest. According to the average of UV-B radiation of each months the "best case scenario" of vitamin D3 production was estimated by using the most optimal conditions of vitamin D synthesis.
RESULTS: It was calculated, that the effective UV irradiance reaching the Earth's surface at noon in Budapest is the highest in July, while the lowest is in December. The difference between these two months is more than 35-fold for July. In the period between November and March more than 200 minutes have to be spent outdoor to ensure the production of satisfactory amount of vitamin D in skin. From one hand it is irrealisticaly long time because it exceeds the duration of maximum irradiation around noon which was the basis of our calculation. From the other hand if only the face and hands are uncovered then the required radiant exposure exceeds the 1 minimal erythemal dose, i.e. the skin should be burnt.
CONCLUSIONS: Based on our calculations it was found, that in Budapest more than 95% of yearly effective UV-B radiation is measurable in the period between March and October. Therefore it can be assumed that the UV-B radiation would not be sufficient in the period between November and February even if its efficacy would not be limited by the closed clothing and less time spent outdoor which are anyway characteristic and necessary in that part of year.

Orv Hetil. 2007 Feb 18;148(7):319-25.




Every year, after the Ratha-yatra in Budapest, Lord Jagganatha visits New Vraja-dham, reaches Vrindavana. Here devotees eagerly welcomes Him and have a half day program. Here are a few pictures about the festival:
Smiling faces, wonderful colours!   http://manorama.1108.cc/?cat=8


« Last Edit: 16/08/2007 22:24:23 by iko »

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #54 on: 08/05/2007 16:22:02 »
"Fishy news" from Norway:
Fish oils EPA & DHA (not Vitamin A & D!)
are better absorbed in the natural way.


Enhanced incorporation of n-3 fatty acids from fish compared with fish oils.

Elvevoll EO, Barstad H, Breimo ES, Brox J, Eilertsen KE, Lund T, Olsen JO, Osterud B.
Norwegian College of Fishery Science, Department of Marine Biotechnology, University of Tromso, Norway. edel.elvevoll@nfh.uit.no

This work was undertaken to study the impact of the source of n-3 FA(Fat Acids) on their incorporation in serum, on blood lipid composition, and on cellular activation. A clinical trial comprising 71 volunteers, divided into five groups, was performed. Three groups were given 400 g smoked salmon (n = 14), cooked salmon (n = 15), or cooked cod (n = 13) per week for 8 wk. A fourth group was given 15 mL/d of cod liver oil (CLO) (n = 15), and a fifth group served as control (n = 14) without supplementation. The serum content of EPA and DHA before and after intervention revealed a higher rise in EPA and DHA in the cooked salmon group (129% rise in EPA and 45% rise in DHA) as compared with CLO (106 and 25%, respectively) despite an intake of EPA and DHA in the CLO group of 3.0 g/d compared with 1.2 g/d in the cooked salmon group. No significant changes were observed in blood lipids, fibrinogen, fibrinolysis, or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tissue factor (TF) activity, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha), interleukin-8 (IL-8), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), and thromboxane B2 (TxB2) in whole blood. EPA and DHA were negatively correlated with LPS-induced TNFalpha, IL-8, LTB4, TxB2, and TF in whole blood. In conclusion, fish consumption is more effective in increasing serum EPA and DHA than supplementing the diet with fish oil. Since the n-3 FA are predominantly in TAG in fish as well as CLO, it is suggested that the larger uptake from fish than CLO is due to differences in physiochemical structure of the lipids.

Lipids. 2006 Dec;41(12):1109-14.



« Last Edit: 11/05/2007 18:45:54 by iko »

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #55 on: 22/05/2007 17:33:02 »

Golf Enthusiast (urging the merits of the game).
 "—and, besides, it's so good for you."

Unbeliever. "So is cod-liver oil."



http://www.classicistranieri.com/punch/1/6/2/8/16281/16281-h/16281-h.htm   
« Last Edit: 22/05/2007 17:58:34 by iko »

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #56 on: 22/05/2007 17:44:53 »
THE OLD AMERICAN RECIPE


King's American Dispensatory

by Harvey Wickes Felter, M.D., and John Uri Lloyd, Phr. M., Ph. D, 1898.

Oleum Morrhuae (U. S. P.)—Cod-Liver Oil.


Preparation.
—The principal process by which the oil is now prepared is to remove blood and impurities from the carefully sorted livers by repeated washings; then the gall-bladder is removed and the livers, as soon as practicable, are put into iron kettles and subjected to steam heat with constant stirring. The oil separates from the liver tissue, and, after decantation and filtration through a funnel, is drawn off into barrels. In the Newfoundland fisheries, the oil obtained by steam heat is exposed to intense cold until it is partly solidified; the mass is then put into bags and subjected to strong pressure. In this manner the American shore oil is obtained. The residual stearin is sold to soap-makers.

Description.
—Three kinds of cod-liver oil are usually met with in commerce: The white or pale-yellow, which is obtained from fresh and perfectly healthy livers (shore oil). It is the official oil and is described by the U. S. P. as "a pale-yellow, thin, oily liquid, having a peculiar, slightly fishy, but not rancid odor, and a bland, slightly fishy taste. Specific gravity, 0.920 to 0.925 at 15° C. (59° F.). Scarcely soluble in alcohol, but readily soluble in ether, chloroform, or carbon disulphide; also in 2.5 parts of acetic ether"—(U. S. P.). The second form is pale-brown, or brownish-yellow (straits oil); less care is exercised in the selection of the livers and the preparation of the oil. The third kind is dark-brown (banks oil), and is an inferior grade, being derived from putrefied livers; its odor is disagreeable, its taste acrid and bitter; and it has an acid reaction. The best grade is universally preferred in the United States.

Adulterations and Tests.
—Cod-liver oil is subjected to adulterations in several ways. One method is to bleach an inferior, dark oil, it is stated, by exposure to the rays of the sun. The addition of mineral oils can be recognized by saponification which leaves the adulterant unaffected. An oil that has undergone partial putrefaction may be judged by the quantity of free volatile acids in the oil. Such oils also absorb much less iodine than fresh cod-liver oil. Refined seal oil and seed oils are also used as adulterants of cod-liver oil. (For a more detailed consideration of this phase of the subject, see special works on analysis, e.g., A. H. Allen, Commercial Organic Analysis, Vol. II, Part I, 3d ed., 1899, p. 197.) The U. S. P. gives the following tests for the purity of cod-liver oil: "If 1 drop of the oil be dissolved in 20 drops of chloroform, and the solution shaken with 1 drop of sulphuric acid, the solution will acquire a violet-red tint, rapidly changing to rose-red and brownish-yellow. If a glass rod, moistened with sulphuric acid, be drawn through a few drops of the oil, on a porcelain plate, a violet color will be produced. Cod-liver oil should be only very slightly acid to litmus paper previously moistened with alcohol (limit of free fatty acids). When the oil is allowed to stand for some time at 0° C. (32° F.), very little or no solid fat should separate (absence of other fish oils, and of many vegetable oils). If 2 or 3 drops of fuming nitric acid be allowed to flow alongside of 10 or 15 drops of the oil, contained in a watch-glass, a red color will be produced at the point of contact. On stirring the mixture with a glass rod, this color becomes bright rose-red, soon changing to lemon-yellow (distinction from seal oil, which shows at first no change of color, and from other fish oils, which become at first blue, and afterward brown and yellow"—(U. S. P.). The presence of seal oil may also be detected by means of Amagat and Jean's oleo refractometer (see Proc. Amer. Pharm. Assoc., 1898, p. 888).

from:   http://www.henriettesherbal.com/eclectic/kings/gadus_oleu.html 





Quote



August 1998: The Portuguese tall ship CREOULA returns to St. John's harbour. 
The CREOULA, a Portuguese Navy training vessel, sailed from Lisbon (Lisboa) to St. John's to commemorate Portugal's cod fishery heritage.
The Creoula made 37 voyages to the Grand Banks. The Last was in 1973.
The Creoula could carry about 12,800 quintals of "Green Cod" (about 800 tonnes) together with about 60 tonnes of cod liver oil. PHOTO BY H. PINSENT 1998.

from "Terra Nova Greens":   http://www.infonet.st-johns.nf.ca/green/historicvessels.html

« Last Edit: 23/05/2007 11:44:41 by iko »

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #57 on: 04/06/2007 11:08:47 »
Outdoor activities and diet in childhood and adolescence
 relate to MS risk above the Arctic Circle.

Kampman MT, Wilsgaard T, Mellgren SI.
Dept. of Neurology, University Hospital of North Norway, P.O. Box 33, 9038, Tromsø, Norway.

BACKGROUND : A relationship between the latitude-related distribution of multiple sclerosis (MS) and exposure to sunlight has long been considered. Higher sun exposure during early life has been associated with decreased risk of MS.
OBJECTIVE : Since Norway is an exception to the latitude gradient of MS prevalence, we tested here whether sunlight exposure or vitamin D-related dietary factors in childhood and adolescence are associated with the risk of MS.
METHODS : Retrospective recall questionnaire data from 152 MS patients and 402 population controls born at and living at latitudes 66-71 degrees N were analysed by means of conditional logistic regression analysis accounting for the matching variables age, sex, and place of birth.
RESULTS : Increased outdoor activities during summer in early life were associated with a decreased risk of MS, most pronounced at ages 16-20 years (odds ratio (OR) 0.55, 95% CI 0.39-0.78, p = 0.001, adjusted for intake of fish and cod-liver oil).

A protective effect of supplementation with cod-liver oil was suggested in the subgroup that reported low summer outdoor activities (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.31-1.05, p = 0.072).

Consumption of fish three or more times a week was also associated with reduced risk of MS (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.33-0.93, p = 0.024).
CONCLUSION : Summer outdoor activities in childhood and adolescence are associated with a reduced risk of MS even north of the Arctic Circle. Supplemental cod-liver oil may be protective when sun exposure is less, suggesting that both climate and diet may interact to influence MS risk at a population level.

J Neurol. 2007 Apr;254(4):471-7. Epub 2007 Mar 21.



« Last Edit: 04/06/2007 14:29:35 by iko »

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #58 on: 09/06/2007 19:08:08 »
"Fishy news" from Norway:
Fish oils EPA & DHA (not Vitamin A & D!)
are better absorbed in the natural way.


Enhanced incorporation of n-3 fatty acids from fish compared with fish oils.

Elvevoll EO, Barstad H, Breimo ES, Brox J, Eilertsen KE, Lund T, Olsen JO, Osterud B.
Norwegian College of Fishery Science, Department of Marine Biotechnology, University of Tromso, Norway. edel.elvevoll@nfh.uit.no

This work was undertaken to study the impact of the source of n-3 FA(Fat Acids) on their incorporation in serum, on blood lipid composition, and on cellular activation. A clinical trial comprising 71 volunteers, divided into five groups, was performed. Three groups were given 400 g smoked salmon (n = 14), cooked salmon (n = 15), or cooked cod (n = 13) per week for 8 wk. A fourth group was given 15 mL/d of cod liver oil (CLO) (n = 15), and a fifth group served as control (n = 14) without supplementation. The serum content of EPA and DHA before and after intervention revealed a higher rise in EPA and DHA in the cooked salmon group (129% rise in EPA and 45% rise in DHA) as compared with CLO (106 and 25%, respectively) despite an intake of EPA and DHA in the CLO group of 3.0 g/d compared with 1.2 g/d in the cooked salmon group. No significant changes were observed in blood lipids, fibrinogen, fibrinolysis, or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tissue factor (TF) activity, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha), interleukin-8 (IL-8), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), and thromboxane B2 (TxB2) in whole blood. EPA and DHA were negatively correlated with LPS-induced TNFalpha, IL-8, LTB4, TxB2, and TF in whole blood. In conclusion, fish consumption is more effective in increasing serum EPA and DHA than supplementing the diet with fish oil. Since the n-3 FA are predominantly in TAG in fish as well as CLO, it is suggested that the larger uptake from fish than CLO is due to differences in physiochemical structure of the lipids.

Lipids. 2006 Dec;41(12):1109-14.




Is that the northern lights again IKO?? It is so beautiful.. I wish to see those one day!!!

"Life is not measured by the number of Breaths we take, but by the moments that take our breath away."

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #59 on: 09/06/2007 20:08:55 »
Yes Karen,

those "aurorae borealis" are just
astonishingly beautiful: I never
saw one, of course, but I think
that some perfect pics might even
be better than the original image!

We should go to Scandinavia next September and have a gander...



Aurora (astronomy)



An aurora (plural aurorae/auroras) is an electro-static phenomenon, characterised by a bright glow and caused due to the collision of charged particles in the magnetosphere with atoms in the Earth's upper atmosphere. An aurora is usually observed in the night sky, particularly in the polar zone. For this latter reason, some scientists call it a "polar aurora" (or "aurora polaris").
In northern latitudes, it is known as the aurora borealis (IPA /ɔˈɹɔɹə bɔɹiˈælɪs/), which is named after the Roman goddess of the dawn, Aurora, and the Greek name for north wind, Boreas. Especially in Europe, it often appears as a reddish glow on the northern horizon, as if the sun were rising from an unusual direction. The aurora borealis is also called the northern lights since it is only visible in the North sky from the Northern Hemisphere. The aurora borealis most often occurs from September to October and from March to April. Its southern counterpart, aurora australis, has similar properties. Australis is the Latin word for "of the South".

more From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aurora_%28astronomy%29
« Last Edit: 09/06/2007 20:14:43 by iko »

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #60 on: 09/06/2007 21:14:44 »
In my Dreams Iko.. Wouldn't that be fun...LOL..I cannot even imagine how beautiful they would be! I know little about them other then they are beautiful. Sorry I am really geographically challenged, so pardon me asking, is Scandinavia where one should go to see these beautiful lights?

You better be careful I might take you up on that! LOL

"Life is not measured by the number of Breaths we take, but by the moments that take our breath away."

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #61 on: 09/06/2007 21:41:58 »
In the polar zone of Scandinavia, the northern, the better...
Sweden, Norway: the first picture is actually from Thromso, Norway, home country for the cod liver oil fanatics!
Take care

ikod  [^]

« Last Edit: 09/06/2007 21:44:45 by iko »

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #62 on: 09/06/2007 23:34:15 »
Drive north 1000 miles or more probably.. then fly or take a plane from there! LOL...

"Life is not measured by the number of Breaths we take, but by the moments that take our breath away."

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #63 on: 10/06/2007 16:30:50 »
Thanks Karen,

You get a larger pic if you click down there, do you know?
It's a free picture for you from an italian friendo! [8D]
LOL x LOL !!!
Do you remember our triple misunderstanding with Neil?  [:D]
By the way, where is our friendo Neilepus?

ikod

I think he has been really busy... Forum is awful slow without him! I guess that's the way it goes..

I did not know about the picture I will click and see it..

Our triple misunderstanding are you referring to the first time you said, I am your friend.. LOL I remember that I was embarrassed! LOL

BTW i also posted in the a#z to try to get it going again ..LOL You did Good Iko! LOL

I will look at the picture and print it for me self! Thanks Iko!

"Life is not measured by the number of Breaths we take, but by the moments that take our breath away."

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #64 on: 10/06/2007 16:48:55 »
I am sorry I missed this post a long time ago.. but realize the questions could remain valid today...
Are we all thats left????

"Life is not measured by the number of Breaths we take, but by the moments that take our breath away."

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #65 on: 13/06/2007 22:38:10 »
More recent hints on vitamin D and TB protection.
Special antimicrobial peptides called "defensins"
are synthesized thanks to the hormone vitamin D:


IFN-gamma- and TNF-independent vitamin D-inducible
human suppression of mycobacteria: the role of cathelicidin LL-37.

Martineau AR, Wilkinson KA, Newton SM, Floto RA, Norman AW, Skolimowska K, Davidson RN, Sørensen OE, Kampmann B, Griffiths CJ, Wilkinson RJ.
Wellcome Trust Center for Research in Clinical Tropical Medicine, Division of Medicine, Wright Fleming Institute, Imperial College London, United Kingdom.

Vitamin D deficiency is associated with susceptibility to tuberculosis, and its biologically active metabolite, 1alpha,25 dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3)), has pleiotropic immune effects. The mechanisms by which 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) protects against tuberculosis are incompletely understood. 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) reduced the growth of mycobacteria in infected human PBMC cultures in a dose-dependent fashion. Coculture with agonists or antagonists of the membrane or nuclear vitamin D receptors indicated that these effects were primarily mediated by the nuclear vitamin D receptors. 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) reduced transcription and secretion of protective IFN-gamma, IL-12p40, and TNF in infected PBMC and macrophages, indicating that 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) does not mediate protection via these cytokines. Although NOS2A was up-regulated by 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3), inhibition of NO formation marginally affected the suppressive effect of 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) on bacillus Calmette Guérin in infected cells. By contrast, 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) strongly up-regulated the cathelicidin hCAP-18 gene, and some hCAP-18 polypeptide colocalized with CD14 in 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) stimulated PBMC, although no detectable LL-37 peptide was found in supernatants from similar 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3)-stimulated PBMC cultures. A total of 200 mug/ml of the active peptide LL-37, in turn, reduced the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in culture by 75.7%.
These findings suggest that vitamin D contributes to protection against TB by "nonclassical" mechanisms that include the induction of antimicrobial peptides.

J Immunol. 2007 Jun 1;178(11):7190-8.



« Last Edit: 13/06/2007 22:56:35 by iko »

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #66 on: 14/06/2007 22:43:46 »
Isn't there a certain amount of vitamine D we can get from the sunshine.. and isn't it rickets that can be improved with the sun because of the vitamine " D!"

"Life is not measured by the number of Breaths we take, but by the moments that take our breath away."

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #67 on: 15/06/2007 10:44:13 »
Isn't there a certain amount of vitamine D we can get from the sunshine.. and isn't it rickets that can be improved with the sun because of the vitamine " D!"

You are certainly right.  Cod liver oil helps with vitamin A and D plus 'therapic' fatty acids like omega-3 so good for brain and things.  Human skin exposed to sunlight is able to make vitamin D3 in a variable fashion, depending on subcutaneous tissues, age, pigmentation and other factors...

CodPics...

Vitamin D3





« Last Edit: 15/06/2007 10:50:46 by iko »

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #68 on: 15/06/2007 19:01:21 »
Thanks Iko..What else is a good source of A!hi

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #69 on: 23/06/2007 18:34:52 »


The photobiology of vitamin D--a topic of renewed focus.  [Article in Norwegian]

Moan J, Porojnicu AC.Avdeling for strålingsbiologi, Rikshospitalet-Radiumhospitalet, 0310 Oslo. johan.moan@labmed.uio.no

The sun is our most important source of vitamin D. Exposure to solaria, in sub-erythemogenic doses, also gives large amounts of this vitamin. The ultraviolet radiation in these sources converts 7-dihydrocholesterol to previtamin D3 in the skin. Furthermore, heat isomerization to vitamin D3 takes place, then transport to the liver and hydroxylation to calcidiol, which is transported to the kidneys and hydroxylated to the active hormone calcitriol. The vitamin D3 status of the body is supposed to be reliably imaged by calcidiol measurements. Calcidiol levels above 12.5 nmol/l prevent rickets and osteomalacia, but optimal levels are probably higher, in the range 100-250 nmol/l. A daily food intake of 100-200 microg vitamin D3 (50-100 g cod-liver oil), or a weekly exposure to two minimal erythemal doses of ultraviolet radiation (20 to 40 minutes whole body exposure to midday midsummer sun in Oslo, Norway), will give this level.
An adequate supply of vitamin D3 seems to reduce the incidence rates or improve the prognosis of several cancer forms, including prostate, breast and colon cancer, as well as of lymphomas.
Several other diseases are related to a low vitamin D3 status: heart diseases, multiple sclerosis, diabetes, and arthritis. The action mechanisms of vitamin D are thought to be mainly related to its known cell-differentiating and immuno-modulating effects. Even though most of the 250 annual death cases from skin cancer in Norway are caused by sun exposure, we should, in view of the health effects of ultraviolet radiation, consider modifying our restrictive attitude towards sun exposure and use of solaria.

Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2006 Apr 6;126(8):1048-52.



« Last Edit: 23/06/2007 18:38:47 by iko »

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #70 on: 23/06/2007 22:49:01 »
Crossing MS and vitamin D on PubMed Database
you find plenty of studies and experimental
data suggesting a positive effect in such a
chronic, long-lasting and highly debilitating
disease like multiple sclerosis.
Strangely enough, I could not find any clinical
study with vitamin D3 GIVEN to the patients...
I might have missed some report or trial, maybe.
It would not cost much, compared with all the
various expensive new drugs being tested on MS!
We seem to be quite late, approximately 2-3
decades behind with this.


A longitudinal study of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and intact PTH levels
indicate the importance of vitamin D and calcium homeostasis regulation in multiple sclerosis.

Soilu-Hanninen M, Laaksonen M, Laitinen I, Eralinna JP, Lilius EM, Mononen I.
University of Turku, Finland.

BACKGROUND: Past sun exposure and vitamin D3 supplementation have been associated with a reduced risk of multiple sclerosis (MS). There are no previous longitudinal studies of vitamin D in MS.
OBJECTIVES: To compare regulation of vitamin D and calcium homeostasis between MS patients and healthy controls. To study correlation of parameters of vitamin D metabolism with MS activity.
METHODS: We measured 25-hydroxyvitamin D, intact PTH, calcium, phosphate, magnesium, chloride, alkaline phosphatase, albumin and TSH in serum every three months and at the time of relapses during one year in 23 MS patients and in 23 healthy controls. MRI BOD and T2 activity was assessed every 6 months.
RESULTS: Vitamin D deficiency [S-25(OH)D </= 37 nmol/L] was common affecting half of the patients and controls at some time of the year. Seasonal variation of 25(OH)D was similar in the patients and in the controls, but the 25(OH)D serum levels were lower and the iPTH serum levels were higher during MS relapses than in remission.
All 21 relapses during the study occurred at serum iPTH > 20 ng/L (2.2 pmol/L)
, whereas 38% of patients in remission had iPTH </= 20 ng/L. MS patients had a relative hypocalcaemia and a blunted PTH response in the winter. There was no correlation between serum 25(OH)D and MRI parameters.
CONCLUSIONS: The endocrine circuitry regulating serum calcium may be altered in MS. There is an inverse relationship between serum vitamin D level and MS clinical activity. The role of vitamin D in MS must be explored further.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2007 Jun 19; [Epub ahead of print]



Maybe something is actually 'moving' !

http://www.msrc.co.uk/index.cfm?fuseaction=show&pageid=96


« Last Edit: 07/07/2007 10:58:37 by iko »

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #71 on: 25/06/2007 14:06:44 »
Link to Multiple Sclerosis Resource Center:

Vitamin D
Below is the latest Research into Vitamin D and MS available.
...





« Last Edit: 25/06/2007 14:20:43 by iko »

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #72 on: 02/07/2007 05:21:50 »
I like Escher! He has some really cool images!

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #73 on: 02/07/2007 23:15:23 »
Quote from: ROBERT
See what too much cod liver oil can do  [:)]

 


LOL Well I have not seen that piccy for a long while ! LOL! Good Day Iko!

"Life is not measured by the number of Breaths we take, but by the moments that take our breath away."

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #74 on: 21/07/2007 12:57:53 »
The "Vitamin D Tsunami" is definitely coming,
spinning out of the restricted scientific circuit.
Finally prof. Michael Holick is in the New England
Journal of Medicine...
and -as usual- lay press will follow pretty soon!



"...rickets can be considered the tip of the vitamin D-deficiency iceberg.  In fact, vitamin D deficiency remains common in children and adults."

Michael F. Holick "Vitamin D Deficiency" N Eng J Med 2007;357:266-81.

July 19, 2007 splendid review article in 'Medical Progress'
Unfortunately this one is not available in free full-text...you may go to last year paper published in J Clin Invest for similar refreshing good news:





As far as this topic is concerned, one thing should be noticed: the 'Shanghai Report' is not mentioned, probably because of its unconfirmed data and weak evidence. But decreased lymphoma incidence (40% reduced risk) due to proper sunlight exposure is reported, and a specific reference quoted:




Family history of hematopoietic malignancy and risk of lymphoma.

Chang ET, Smedby KE, Hjalgrim H, Porwit-MacDonald A, Roos G, Glimelius B, Adami HO.
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. ellen.chang@meb.ki.se

BACKGROUND: A family history of hematopoietic malignancy is associated with an increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), although the magnitude of the relative risk is unclear. We estimated the association between familial hematopoietic cancer and risk of lymphoma using validated, registry-based family data, and we also investigated whether associations between some environmental exposures and risk of lymphoma vary between individuals with and without such a family history. METHODS: In a population-based case-control study of malignant lymphoma, 1506 case patients and 1229 control subjects were linked to the Swedish Multi-Generation Register and then to the Swedish Cancer Register to ascertain history of cancer in first-degree relatives of patients with malignant lymphoma. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations with the risk of lymphoma.
RESULTS: A history of hematopoietic malignancy in any first-degree relative was associated with an increased risk of all NHL (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.2 to 2.5), common B-cell NHL subtypes, and HL. Relative risks were generally stronger in association with sibling hematopoietic cancer (OR for all NHL = 3.2, 95% CI = 1.3 to 7.6) than with parental hematopoietic cancer (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.1 to 2.3). A family history of NHL or chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was associated with an increased risk of several NHL subtypes and HL, whereas familial multiple myeloma was associated with a higher risk of follicular lymphoma. There was no statistically significant heterogeneity in NHL risk associations with environmental factors between individuals with and without familial hematopoietic malignancy.

CONCLUSIONS: The increased risk of NHL and HL among individuals with a family history of hematopoietic malignancy was approximately twofold for both lymphoma types. There was no evidence that etiologic associations varied between familial NHL and nonfamilial NHL.

J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005 Oct 5;97(19):1466-74.







Ultraviolet radiation exposure and risk of malignant lymphomas.

Smedby KE, Hjalgrim H, Melbye M, Torrång A, Rostgaard K, Munksgaard L, Adami J, Hansen M, Porwit-MacDonald A, Jensen BA, Roos G, Pedersen BB, Sundström C, Glimelius B, Adami HO.
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Box 281, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden. karin.ekstrom@meb.ki.se

BACKGROUND: The incidence of malignant lymphomas has been increasing rapidly, but the causes of these malignancies remain poorly understood. One hypothesis holds that exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation increases lymphoma risk. We tested this hypothesis in a population-based case-control study in Denmark and Sweden.
METHODS: A total of 3740 patients diagnosed between October 1, 1999, and August 30, 2002, with incident malignant lymphomas, including non-Hodgkin lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and Hodgkin lymphoma, and 3187 population controls provided detailed information on history of UV exposure and skin cancer and information on other possible risk factors for lymphomas. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by logistic regression. Statistical tests were two-sided.
RESULTS: Multivariable-adjusted analyses revealed consistent, statistically significant negative associations between various measures of UV light exposure and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. A high frequency of sun bathing and sunburns at age 20 years and 5-10 years before the interview and sun vacations abroad were associated with 30%-40% reduced risks of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (e.g., for sunbathing four times a week or more at age 20 versus never sunbathing, OR = 0.7, 95% CI = 0.6 to 0.9; for two or more sunburns a year at age 20 versus no sunburns, OR = 0.6, 95% CI = 0.5 to 0.8). These inverse associations increased in strength with increasing levels of exposure (all P(trend)< or =.01). Similar, albeit weaker, associations were observed for Hodgkin lymphoma. There were no clear differences among non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes, although associations were stronger for B-cell than for T-cell lymphomas. A history of skin cancer was associated with a doubling in risks of both non-Hodgkin and Hodgkin lymphoma.

CONCLUSIONS: A history of high UV exposure was associated with reduced risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The positive association between skin cancer and malignant lymphomas is, therefore, unlikely to be mediated by UV exposure.

J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005 Feb 2;97(3):199-209.



« Last Edit: 21/07/2007 14:20:45 by iko »

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #75 on: 10/08/2007 21:41:24 »
I received this exciting 'vitamin D newsletter'
and I thought I had to put it HERE right away!
Enjoy

ikoD  [^]



Quote
Vitamin D Newsletter
August, 2007
 
Dear Dr. Cannell:
 
I saw an article from a Toronto newspaper about autism and vitamin D.  I am currently searching for a vitamin D specialist in the Washington D.C. area to perform a medical work up on my daughter to look for vitamin D-related disorders.  The reason I am in search of a vitamin D specialist is that I believe I have stumbled upon a complex relationship in my daughter involving her foot pain, vitamin D, and her autism.
 
In April 2006, a few weeks after my 3-year-old profoundly autistic daughter began refusing her daily PediaSure drink, she began having excruciating foot spasms lasting from 10-30 minutes at a time, several times a week.  She would throw herself on the floor, curl her toes, slam her heels against the floor, and rub the tops of her feet against the carpet, all while screaming the entire time.  These were horrible for her to endure, and horrible for my wife and myself to watch.  This went on for a year.
 
From what I read, the symptom was perhaps like foot spasms associated with carpopedal syndrome or tetany.  But her blood work did not support that at all.  Calcium level was normal (10.2 mg/dL); 25-Hydroxy-vitamin D low (23.5 ng/ml); 1,25 dihydroxy-vitamin D normal (24.7).  Despite some vitamin D deficiency, I was assured by medical professionals that nothing supported a vitamin D cause of these particular spasms, so vitamin D was dismissed.  Because her calcium level was normal, they told me she did not have tetany, and vitamin D could not be the cause of the pain.
 
All medical consultants were stymied.  I made another research effort and found a 2003 article on WebMD that stated vitamin D has been found to have some link to basic, unexplained muscle and bone pain.  By chance, vitamin D was the next supplement we had at home to begin giving my daughter to treat her autism.  So, in April 2007 we began giving my 4 year-old profoundly autistic daughter Vitamin D supplements.  Her foot spasms which had plagued her for a year diminished within days and disappeared within three weeks.  She has not had a spasm in over two months.
 
In addition, we noted clear improvements in her autistic condition which appear to be from the vitamin D supplements.  Eye contact went from zero to fantastic.  Her vocalizations increased markedly (still only babbling; she remains completely nonverbal).  She appears even happier than previously (she has always been a somewhat happy child).  (Please note that my wife and I have tried many dietary supplements over the past 1.5 years guided by a doctor and dietician who both specialize in autism.  We honestly state that this is the only thing that has ever had a positive effect on my daughter.  We have seen nothing else work.)
 
My daughter and vitamin D have a complicated relationship.  By all counts, looking at her lab work and general condition, vitamin D should have played no role in those excruciating foot fits.  And yet it is apparently exactly what is involved in them.  And, my wife and I believe at the same time her autistic condition has improved from the vitamin D.  The foot fits and her autism appear linked; it was not just a coincidence that this autistic child has those mysterious foot spasms, and the link appears to be vitamin D.
 
And so I wonder if this is just the tip of the iceberg, if perhaps there is more to know about my child's relationship with vitamin D and what that might mean for her autism.  Does she have a specific vitamin D-related disorder?  If so, might direct treatment of it also improve her autism further?  These are the questions I would like to pose to a vitamin D specialist who could perform a medical work up on my daughter.  Please let me know if you know of anyone in the Northern Virginia/Washington DC area.  Also, where is the best place to get vitamin D?  Thank you for your time.
 
Sincerely,
Paul, Washington, D.C.
 
Dear Paul:
 
I know of no such specialist in the Washington area, indeed no vitamin D/autism expert exists in the world.  As far as a specific "vitamin D disorder," linking her spasms, autism, and vitamin D, the world's English language medical literature contains no description of such a disorder.  From your daughter's case, it sounds as if PediaSure was her only regular source of vitamin D.  If so, her spasms began two weeks after stopping the small amount of vitamin D contained in PediaSure.  The spasms continued for a year, ending a few days after you started giving her vitamin D again, this time in the form of a supplement.  Several weeks after restarting vitamin D, both you and your wife noticed an improvement in her autism.  To my knowledge, this "case report" - your daughter's - is the first ever published.
 
As no medical literature has ever been published on any of this, all you can do is give her enough vitamin D to get her 25-hydroxy-vitamin D, known as 25(OH)D, into high normal ranges and then wait and hope.  Vitamin D's extraordinary mass-action pharmacology implies that simply providing more substrate ([25(OH)D] will help children with low enzyme activity produce more activated vitamin D (calcitriol) in their brains.  The vitamin D theory of autism is not simply that vitamin D deficiency in gestation or early childhood causes the disorder.  Instead, the theory holds that a quantitative or qualitative abnormality exists in the enzyme system that activates vitamin D. 
 
It could as simple as the normal variation in the enzyme, an enzyme whose activity would vary in a normal or Gaussian distribution, much like height.  Some people are tall, some are short, most are in the middle.  The same may be true of the enzyme that forms activated vitamin D (calcitriol), some children have a lot of enzyme and some only a little; most are in the middle.  As the substrate [25(OH)D] the enzyme metabolizes fell over the last 20 years with sun-avoidance, more and more children on the low end of the enzyme curve are effected by marginally low 25(OH)D levels, explaining both its genetic basis and exploding incidence.
 
At this point, all your daughter needs is a physician willing to periodically measure her 25(OH)D.  Then you can safely supplement your daughter with doses higher than the current Upper Limit for children (2,000 IU/day).  You did not tell me your daughter's weight but, assuming she weighs about 30 pounds, even without 25(OH)D blood tests, you can safely give her 50 mcg/day which is 2,000 IU per day.  In fact, the U.S. government says this dose is safe for children over the age of one.  Life Extension Foundation sells 250 of the 1,000 IU capsules for about ten bucks with powdered vitamin D inside.  The powder is tasteless and dissolves easily in juice.  Bio Tech Pharmacal, of Fayetteville, Arkansas, told me they were going to be making a 1,000 IU capsule.  Or you can get 1,000 IU capsules in a pharmacy or at Costco and crush them.  A Canadian firm is now making vitamin D liquid, called Ddrops, with 1,000 IU per drop, but their mail order web site is not yet easily accessed.  Beware of cod liver oil; do not use it because vitamin A inhibits the actions of activated vitamin D, and due to the potential for low-grade vitamin A toxicity.
 
Remember, more and more researchers now believe autism is a progressive, inflammatory, disorder.  That is, the inflammation probably progressively destroys brain tissue as the child ages.  As I said in my recent paper, I think there is a chance that vitamin D may have a treatment effect in young autistic children if given in adequate doses, due to its anti-inflammatory properties, and its ability to upregulate glutathione, the master antioxidant that also chelates (binds) and then helps excrete heavy metals like mercury.  Unfortunately, I see no way, even if the vitamin D/autism theory turns out to be true, that vitamin D can regenerate brain tissue.  However, if it stops the inflammation, and cell death, the brain could then begin to develop and learn.  These are big ifs.  However, you have nothing to lose by trying, the worst that will happen is that it will not help and vitamin D will be added to the long list of false-hope treatments.
 
Actually, there is a worse possibility.  Say the parents of a three-year-old autistic child decide today that vitamin D is nonsense, another false hope, and that I'm a quack.  They decide not to give vitamin D supplement their autistic child, who is probably - like your child - vitamin D deficient.  Then, it turns out five years from now that scientific evidence shows vitamin D does indeed help.  By that time, the child will be eight and will have suffered additional, irreparable, brain damage.  In my mind, that is more tragic than another false hope.
 
Dear Dr. Cannell:
 
After that article appeared in the Toronto paper, I started my four-year-old son on 1,000 IU of vitamin D two weeks ago.  So far the only thing I noticed is that after about ten days, he didn't seem so miserable.  The thing that has always broken my heart is that look of sadness and suffering on his face.  After about two weeks of vitamin D, I noticed he seemed less miserable.  I wouldn't say he looks happy now but that look of misery seems to be gone.  Will it come back?  I'm not sure I can take it if it comes back.  What else might happen?  Also, last summer we noticed he seemed to get better, but then he got worse in the fall.  We never thought about it until we read about vitamin D.
 
Susan, Toronto, Canada
 
Dear Susan:
 
I don't know.  I think all parents have had their heart pierced by that look at one time or another.  I would advise increasing the dose to 2,000 IU per day, making sure it is cholecalciferol and not ergocalciferol, and having your doctor order a 25(OH)D every two months to see if he needs higher doses.  You want to get his blood level up to between 50 ng/ml and 80 ng/ml (In many countries outside of the USA, that would be reported as between 125 and 200 nmol/L.) and keep it there, summer and winter, and that may take more than 2,000 IU/day in the winter.  If vitamin D has a treatment effect, it will take many months to see its full effect.  As you noted, if the theory is correct, autistic children who spend time outdoors in the summer should show some seasonal improvements - if they don't wear sunblock and they expose enough of their skin to generate significant amounts of vitamin D.
 
Dear Dr. Cannell:
 
I resent you calling autism a tragedy.  My son is not a tragedy and I'm glad he was born and is in our lives.  He is our joy.  Autism is not a tragedy.
 
Emma, London, England.
 
Dear Emma:
 
I'm glad he is your joy and I believe you.  I'm new to the autism field and was not aware how much thought and speech control exists in the discussion of the disease.  Nevertheless, I have a few politically incorrect questions.  If autism is a joy, I assume you would like other parents to have an autistic child?  If autism is such a joy, why is there a huge industry forming to prevent and treat it?  At the risk of sounding insensitive - apparently one of the most serious charges leveled in the autism debate - autism is a tragedy.  As I pointed out in my paper, research shows that having an autistic child, puts the family under more emotional stress than having a child with a fatal illness.
 
Dear Dr. Cannell:
 
Who are you to write an article on autism?  You didn't even publish it in a medical journal.  You are not with a university.  You have not published very much.  You have no expertise on autism.  No autism experts support your theory.  There is no evidence to support the theory.  Shouldn't you leave this to experts before you give parents more false hopes? 
Mary, Trenton, New Jersey.

 
Dear Mary:
 
You are right, I am a nobody; just ask my ex-wife.  In the Toronto Globe, I explained why I have not yet submitted the paper.  As far as giving false hopes, I've thought about that charge.  Right now, regardless of what advocacy groups say, autism is rather hopeless.  That is, no treatment, including vitamin D, has been shown to materially affect the clinical course of autism.  As a psychiatrist, my observation is that people would rather live with a false hope than with no hope.
 
Furthermore, if autistic children began taking vitamin D, the worse that can happen is that a period of false hope will followed by dashed hopes and then parents will be back to hopelessness.  In the meantime, they will have made their child vitamin D sufficient.  Vitamin D deficiency is a serious problem in childhood. 
Postgrad Med J. 2007 Apr;83(978):230-5.

The Telegraph, Why is Vitamin D So Vital?
 
As far as the theory having no support from experts, Dr. Richard Mills, research director of the National Autistic Society in England, was quoted in the Telegraph article on the autism/vitamin D theory: "There has been speculation in the past about autism being more common in high-latitude countries that get less sunlight and a tie-up with rickets has been suggested - observations which support the theory."
 
Finally, you said there is no evidence to support the theory.  I assume you meant there is no proof.  The first statement is absolutely false, the second absolutely true.  As I detailed in my paper, there is a lot of evidence to support the theory.  In fact, if anyone can come up with an autism fact, that the theory cannot explain, I'd like to know about it.  Even the announcement of a link between television viewing and autism supports the theory.  Furthermore, the TV/autism link is actually evidence of a treatment effect.  That is, if autistic children who play outside in the sunshine more - watching less TV - have less severe illness, it may be due to the Sun-God, who bestows her precious gift of calcitriol into the brains of children playing outside in her sunlight but not into the brains of children watching TV inside in the darkness.
Natl Bur Econ Res Bull Aging Health. 2007 Winter;(18):2-3.
 
As far as proof the theory is true, there is, of course, none.  In medicine, proof means randomized controlled human trials, the gold standard for proof.  However, proof is the last step, not the first.  First comes evidence, then comes a theory, then comes researchers disproving those theories.  It works that way.  Sometimes we never get to the last step, proof.  For example, please point me to a single randomized controlled human trial proving cigarette smoking is dangerous?  Instead, the convincing evidence of smoking's dangerousness lies in epidemiological studies, not randomized controlled trials.  Proof, or disproof, of the autism vitamin D theory will take years, years during which young autistic brains will continue to suffer irreparable damage.  Perhaps vitamin D' powerful anti-inflammatory actions will help prevent that damage, perhaps not
 
It's something of a Pascal's wager, betting on vitamin D instead of the existence of God, risking your child's brain instead of eternal damnation.  "If you believe vitamin D helps autism and turn out to be incorrect, you have lost nothing -- but if you don't believe in vitamin D and turn out to be incorrect, your child will suffer irreparable brain damage." 
 
John Cannell, MD
The Vitamin D Council
9100 San Gregorio Road
Atascadero, CA 93422
 
This is a periodic newsletter from the Vitamin D Council, a non-profit trying to end the epidemic of vitamin D deficiency.  If you don't want to get the newsletter, please hit reply and let us know.  This newsletter is not copyrighted.  Please reproduce it and post it on Internet sites.   Remember, we are a non-profit and rely on donations to publish our newsletter and maintain our website.
« Last Edit: 10/08/2007 21:44:55 by iko »

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #76 on: 17/08/2007 17:44:07 »


Ultraviolet radiation exposure and risk of malignant lymphomas.

Smedby KE, Hjalgrim H, Melbye M, Torrång A, Rostgaard K, Munksgaard L, Adami J, Hansen M, Porwit-MacDonald A, Jensen BA, Roos G, Pedersen BB, Sundström C, Glimelius B, Adami HO.
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Box 281, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden. karin.ekstrom@meb.ki.se

BACKGROUND: The incidence of malignant lymphomas has been increasing rapidly, but the causes of these malignancies remain poorly understood. One hypothesis holds that exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation increases lymphoma risk. We tested this hypothesis in a population-based case-control study in Denmark and Sweden.
METHODS: A total of 3740 patients diagnosed between October 1, 1999, and August 30, 2002, with incident malignant lymphomas, including non-Hodgkin lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and Hodgkin lymphoma, and 3187 population controls provided detailed information on history of UV exposure and skin cancer and information on other possible risk factors for lymphomas. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by logistic regression. Statistical tests were two-sided.
RESULTS: Multivariable-adjusted analyses revealed consistent, statistically significant negative associations between various measures of UV light exposure and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. A high frequency of sun bathing and sunburns at age 20 years and 5-10 years before the interview and sun vacations abroad were associated with 30%-40% reduced risks of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (e.g., for sunbathing four times a week or more at age 20 versus never sunbathing, OR = 0.7, 95% CI = 0.6 to 0.9; for two or more sunburns a year at age 20 versus no sunburns, OR = 0.6, 95% CI = 0.5 to 0.8). These inverse associations increased in strength with increasing levels of exposure (all P(trend)< or =.01). Similar, albeit weaker, associations were observed for Hodgkin lymphoma. There were no clear differences among non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes, although associations were stronger for B-cell than for T-cell lymphomas. A history of skin cancer was associated with a doubling in risks of both non-Hodgkin and Hodgkin lymphoma.

CONCLUSIONS: A history of high UV exposure was associated with reduced risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The positive association between skin cancer and malignant lymphomas is, therefore, unlikely to be mediated by UV exposure.

J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005 Feb 2;97(3):199-209.





One thing about this report should be pointed out:
initially the aim of the research was to look for
an eventual INCREASE of lymphoma risk after longer
exposure to UV light...
...but the exact opposite effect has been found!
Talking about serendipity.

Instead of the predicted chain of events:

UV light -- DNA damage -- mutagenic effect -- abnormal clone -- LYMPHOMA

Surprisingly, fewer lymphomas were found in people more exposed to sunlight.
Consequently you may easily hypothesize:

UV light -- higher production of vitamin D -- immunomodulation
-- enhanced anti-infectious plus anti-mutagenic effect -- fewer lymphomas.

Neat!

ikod   [^]


"Il sole dona la vita, il sole se la riprende"  M.U. Dianzani, 1975.

Thank you Zoey,
for asking about my favourite quote.  Well, to explain it properly, in a short 'essay' in english... it will take me more than a few minutes!  But translating it is the easiest thing:

"The sun gives life, the sun takes it back"

These words concluded one of the best lectures I attended in my life. At the 3rd year of Medical school, General Pathology course, more than thirty years ago. Professor Mario Umberto Dianzani was our teacher, Dean of the Medical Faculty and a distinguished scientist, totally dedicated to his students.  Later on he has been Rector of the University of Turin for several years before retiring.
In those days biochemistry was 'the' thing: new cofactors and vitamins were deeply explored by medical research.
I'm sure I owe to his excellent lectures my following research interest in cofactors.

"Aging of cells and living organisms" was the subject of the lecture.
In less than one hour we went from the origin of life on our Planet to the present time.
Volcanoes and oceans plus UV light to catalyze the synthesis of organic compounds (Miller's experiment), then nucleic acid formation after million years of random combinations.
Primitive organisms, bacteria and algae.  Again the sunlight creates energy through photosynthetic processes and here come trees and forests! Different species of primitive life, unicellular, multicellular towards more and more complex forms of life thanks to spontaneous mutations, natural selection and evolution. For the whole 'biosphere' survival is always tightly bound to the origin, to the sunlight.
Sunlight and ultraviolet rays give energy and feed the whole system, nevertheless they are responsible -in the end- for lipid peroxidation and DNA damage.  A series of biochemical reactions lead to senescence in multicellular organisms too.
Complex systems are progressively deranged: skin, bones, muscles, nerves, glands and immune cells get older...diseases follow.
The sun itself puts an end to our lives.

Magic


... 


 
« Last Edit: 02/12/2008 22:56:38 by iko »

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Offline Karen W.

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #77 on: 18/08/2007 06:37:41 »
Thats beautiful Iko!

"Life is not measured by the number of Breaths we take, but by the moments that take our breath away."

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Offline iko

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #78 on: 18/08/2007 09:10:25 »
Thanks Karen,

uhm...do you mean the Lecture or the picture?

ikoD   [;D]
« Last Edit: 18/08/2007 13:18:37 by iko »

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #79 on: 18/08/2007 15:28:48 »
The picture is beautiful also, but your lecture seems to have a way of teaching which is beautiful. To be able to cover so much in one lecture and make it interesting and have your students come away having enjoyed and learned from the lecture is wonderful and not always an easy accomplishment. That in itself is beautiful!

"Life is not measured by the number of Breaths we take, but by the moments that take our breath away."

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #80 on: 17/09/2007 15:33:07 »
Origin of life





http://www.rogerwendell.com/images/evolution/dmns_life_in_a_lab_09-02-2006_thumb.jpg

Stanley Miller was a doctoral student working with Harold C. Urey at the University of Chicago, researching possible environments of early Earth. In 1953 he reproduced the early atmosphere of Earth by creating a chamber with only hydrogen, water, methane, and ammonia. Miller used an electric discharge to simulate lightning and, after just a week, had a residue Organic compounds settled in the system. 

Most notable of these compounds were the amino acids, the "building blocks of life," that had formed in Miller's system. Amino acids are necessary for the formation of proteins which form the structure of cells. Miller found glycine, alanine, aspartic, glutamic acid, and other amino acids in the system. Fifteen percent of the carbon from the methane had been combined into organic compounds. As amazing as his discovery of amino acids was, it was even more astonishing how easily they had been formed in the system!
Miller's work showed that compounds necessary for life could have been formed in an environment without free oxygen - similar to Earth's early atmosphere. The creation of amino acids from Earth's raw materials may been the beginning of evolution. Miller's results also suggests the possibility that similar amino acids could have formed elsewhere, in the Universe, since the Earth's early atmosphere was based on proportions of elements in the Universe...

more from:   http://www.rogerwendell.com/evolution.html   



Hey,
but even DNA structure was defined in 1953 by Watson & Crick!
Is not it a fascinating coincidence?

ikoD  [;)]



...even the origin of iko's life was in 1953!   [;D]
« Last Edit: 03/07/2011 22:43:42 by iko »

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #81 on: 22/10/2007 22:44:22 »
For the affectionate readers, here
I attach a free full-text article
about vitamin D and cod liver oil,
a precious historical perspective:




Vitamin D, cod-liver oil, sunlight, and rickets: a historical perspective.

Rajakumar K.
Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213-2583, USA. kumaravel.rajakumar@chp.edu

Rickets, a disease of vitamin D deficiency, is rarely confronted by the practicing pediatrician in the United States today. At the turn of the 20th century, rickets was rampant among the poor children living in the industrialized and polluted northern cities of the United States. With the discovery of vitamin D and the delineation of the anti-rachitic properties of cod-liver oil by the 1930s, it became possible to not only treat but also eradicate rickets in the United States. Rickets was a common disease in 17th century England. Frances Glisson's treatise on rickets published in 1650, a glorious contribution to English medicine, described the clinical and anatomic features of rickets in great detail. The exact etiology of rickets had been elusive until the 1920s. During the Glissonian era, rickets was a mysterious disease. By the late 19th and early 20th century, faulty diet or faulty environment (poor hygiene, lack of fresh air and sunshine) or lack of exercise was implicated in its etiology. Animal experiments, appreciation of folklore advocating the benefits of cod-liver oil, and the geographical association of rickets to lack of sunshine were all relevant factors in the advancement of knowledge in the conquest of this malady. In this article, the history of rickets pertaining to the discovery of vitamin D, cod-liver oil, and sunlight is reviewed.

Pediatrics. 2003 Aug;112(2):e132-5.





« Last Edit: 22/10/2007 22:54:23 by iko »

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #82 on: 25/10/2007 17:31:17 »
Nice old 'cody' pics here...
No reproduction allowed, so
check them by yourself:


For more pics you have to search for 'cod liver oil' from this very website






Quote
We may be paying a very high price for our rejection of parental wisdom to take our cod liver oil.

Krispin Sullivan 2002



     

Fish oil over time

1890s   Cod-liver oil is used as a home remedy to treat rickets, rheumatism, tuberculosis and other ailments.

1930s   Fish oil is used as a key ingredient in shortening.

1950s   Dale Alexander publishes a book touting cod-liver oil as an elixir for arthritis, earning him the nickname the "codfather."

1970s   Researchers find that Greenland's Inuit have low levels of heart disease, likely because of diets rich in fish.
               It is one of the first associations between omega-3 fatty acids and good health.

1990s   As studies increase on the benefits of omega-3s, more consumers start taking fish oil pills made from a variety of fish.

2000   Aquaculture demands more and more fish oil.
              Today Fish oil begins to be injected into bread and tamales, among other foods.
 



ikod
« Last Edit: 25/10/2007 22:34:27 by iko »

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #83 on: 26/10/2007 21:42:05 »
This is all VERY interesting.  [:)]I've read bitts and pieces in the press and here and there but having a thread like this to go through is really great. Cheers IKO.

Can I ask you though, about RDA's, established and proposed (reviewed?) and your take on that?

I've come across figures from anywhere between I.U. 200 (maintenance dose) to I.U. 1200, with also a mention that doses over I.U. 1000 can potentionally be dangerous.

What about people (e.g. like me) that have kidney problems and cannot convert Vit. D properly (or so I've read)?

[love the penguins!!!!! :D ]

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #84 on: 27/10/2007 09:26:20 »
Thanks for your appreciation Alandriel,
you may have a look at Michael Holick's JCI paper previously cited:


Free full-text, easy to read plus lots of references.

This is all VERY interesting.  [:)]I've read bitts and pieces in the press and here and there but having a thread like this to go through is really great. Cheers IKO.
Can I ask you though, about RDA's, established and proposed (reviewed?) and your take on that?
I've come across figures from anywhere between I.U. 200 (maintenance dose) to I.U. 1200, with also a mention that doses over I.U. 1000 can potentionally be dangerous.
What about people (e.g. like me) that have kidney problems and cannot convert Vit. D properly (or so I've read)?
[love the penguins!!!!! :D ]


I'll try to answer your questions:
RDA are being revisited and will eventually top to 1-2 thousand units per day.
Like with other cofactors, RDAs may represent only the dosage to prevent deficiency.
The amount needed for perfect health is obviously unknown for lack of clinical studies and because we all have slightly different enzymes and metabolic defects: the optimal daily dose of a specific cofactor needed for optimal metabolism may be consequently different from one person to another.

Toxicity is certainly a serious issue for a fat soluble hormone like vitamin D, so I would keep in mind a few practical recommendations:

- Get your serum vitamin D and calcium tested and talk to your doctor before
  taking 2000 I.U. per day; then recheck them after 1-2 months.

- Remember that vit D3 is almost 4 times more effective than vit D2 (cheaper).

You may forget about all this and enjoy a regular dose of cod liver oil every day, with its Vitamins A and D (+some E) plus nice omega-3 fatty acids. Historically safe, it works in the long run as a nutritional supplement of any diet all over the world.
In the evening, you may remind your kids to take some 'cod' too, even if they are perfectly healthy and will never hear the nasty word 'leukemia' in their entire life.

wisekod   [^]


P.S. :  maybe you already joined vitaminD newsletter at: http://www.vitamindcouncil.com




Quote
Cod liver oil is derived from cod livers. It is a nutritional supplement, in the past commonly given to children. Cod liver oil is one of the most effective providers of omega-3 fatty acids, and an excellent source of vitamin A and vitamin D. It is widely taken to ease the pain and joint stiffness associated with arthritis[1] but has also been clinically proven to have a positive effect on heart,[2][3] bone,[4] and brain[5] health, as well as helping to nourish skin,[6] hair, and nails.
...

« Last Edit: 29/11/2007 22:38:12 by iko »

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #85 on: 28/10/2007 22:58:32 »
Short note about daily recommended doses of vitamin D revisited:

Quote
Current recommended daily allowances are set at about 200 international units or I.U., yet a recent review in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition concluded that the upper limits should be increased to 10,000 international units.


more from:     http://abclocal.go.com/kabc/story?section=food_coach&id=5675695


ikodnote:

you cannot reach 10000 U.I. per day safely with cod liver oil.
You'd take a risk of getting too much vitamin A and being intoxicated in a few weeks.
A bit of sunlight (or UVA-lamp) plus 'cod' would probably be good and safe enough.





Quote

The UV Foundation is committed to funding educational efforts designed to increase the public awareness of the biologic effects of ultraviolet light.




Quote



« Last Edit: 26/12/2008 17:48:43 by iko »

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #86 on: 04/11/2007 10:26:43 »
Please allow me a Quote & Paste from the "vitamin supplement" thread:


Attention News/Assignment/Health Editors:

Vitamin D Deficiency Drains $9 billion From Canadian Health Care System
    Vitamin D Society Declares November 'Vitamin D Awareness Month' in Canada

    KELOWNA, BC, Oct. 31 /CNW/ - Research this year has left no doubt that
vitamin D deficiency - which affects an estimated 97 per cent of Canadians in
the winter - is nothing less than a Canadian crisis and a worldwide problem.
    This is why Canada's Vitamin D Society is recognizing the month of
November as the world's first Vitamin D Awareness Month.

...

        For more information on vitamin D visit:
    -  www.vitaminDsociety.org
    -  www.vitamindcouncil.com
    -  www.Direct-ms.org.
    -  www.sunarc.org
  

Up with Melinda1958 and her wonderful
vitamin D update...Oct.31!!!
It's gonna be tough anyway: vitamin D3
is cheap, already classified as a 'generic'
drug, even toxic when badly used, cod
liver oil seems a relic from the past
.


But new, wonderful and properly priced
vitamin D3 analogues are on the way...
it seems that we have to wait just a
minute for a real,"effective" and
powerful commercial DRUG.

Fortunately, old cod liver oil is still
commonly used as a nutrient for pets,
dogs, horses, iguanas ...lucky beasts!


ikod   [^]


...for your horses (if you have any):
Quote
BONE, HOOF, JOINT & MUSCLES


COD LIVER OIL

This non-heating oil for energy and mobility is high in fish Omega 3 & 6 essential oils (strictly speaking it is only suitable for carnivores as we do not often see horses fishing!) but it has been used for many years as an additive to equine feeds.  Any oil helps lubricate the joints of veterans of any species  and Cod Liver Oil also promotes a sleek coat and healthy skin as well as nutritional support for bones and hooves

Quality: ******* Health Cod Liver Oil is 100% pure and contains no heavy metals, it is important to find out if a cheaper version does.

Feeding: 10 to 20ml (20ml is about 1 tablespoon) per 100kg bodyweight (16.2hh is about 500kg) best divided between 2 feeds daily. Feed the lower rate for general maintenance and the higher for pregnant or lactating mares, breeding stallions, young stock and very hard working animals (eg. racehorses & highly competitive animals)  1Lt will last a general maintenance 500kg horse about 20 days and a high category 500kg horse about 10 days.






...and for the birds:
Quote

********* COD LIVER OIL is a high energy oil which is palatable to all animals. The oil is derived from a cod's liver (fish), making it a pure natural product. It contains two essential fatty acids and important stabilised vitamins A and D. It is also widely known for its nutritional and therapeutic value and is used extensively on thoroughbred studs, racing, trotting and greyhound establishments and for birds.

VITAMIN A is an essential nutrient for all horses, dogs and cattle. It is necessary for general growth, bone formation and for the formation of visual purple in the eye. A deficiency of it leads to drying of mucous membranes, which makes them more susceptible to bacterial invasion. This also results in increased susceptibility to diseases in the respiratory tract. For females, during gestation and lactation, there is an increased need for vitamin A. For animals that are fed a high concentration of dry, prepared diets, vitamin A is essential as it may be lost during the food processing.

Suggested Dose Rates:
Large Animals ie. horses, cattle Age Small Animals ie. dogs, cats
15 ml Baby 1 ml
30 ml Yearling 3 ml
60 ml Adult 5 ml

VITAMIN D is important for growth of bones and teeth and it ensures the bodies right utilisation of calcium and phosphorus. A daily intake of ******** COD LIVER OIL will provide your animal with a fine healthy coat and skin. Animals housed and rugged are not able to intake natural vitamin D derived from the sunlight. Cod Liver Oil with vitamin D and two essential fatty acids helps overcome this deficiency.








« Last Edit: 04/11/2007 18:57:36 by iko »

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #87 on: 01/12/2007 15:32:19 »
...It's for the birds,
and absolutely 'fishy'!



Lebistes reticulatus



DEFICIENCY DISEASES

 Except for vitamin D deficiency, very little is known about fish deficiency diseases.
The very nature of their natural food almost warrants they receive all the known vitamins, but under artificial conditions they could coceivably have a deficiency.  Mineral deficiencies are doubtless common, a fact we can determine knowing the inadequate diets often fed to guppies.

Rickets.
A disease caused by a deficiency of calcium or phosphorus or vitamin D; one, two or all three. A crooked spine and the resulting bend in the fish's body is the usual evidence, although the unfortunate humpback can live and even reproduce.  It is not a pleasant sight among the fishes of the aquarium.
 Proper lighting can prevent deficiency; the active rays affect ergosterol in the skin of the fish and change it to the irradiated form which is vitamin D.
Sometimes whole aquariums will show bent spines but generally only a few of the fishes are affected. There is no treatment; it is all a matter of prevention which is primarily a matter of proper feeding, i.e. feeding of a complete diet, especially frozen brine shrimp.

L.F. Whitney, P Hanhel. in: "All about Guppies" T.F.H.Publications, London. 1964ed.  pp 104-105.



« Last Edit: 01/12/2007 15:35:50 by iko »

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Offline Karen W.

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #88 on: 02/12/2007 11:33:37 »
I have had my omega -3 upped to 4000mg a day is that a safe dosage.. It seems like a lot to me?

"Life is not measured by the number of Breaths we take, but by the moments that take our breath away."

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Offline iko

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #89 on: 02/12/2007 15:46:57 »
I have had my omega -3 upped to 4000mg a day is that a safe dosage.. It seems like a lot to me?

Ask your doc: it could 'thin' your blood too much
giving easy bruising and tiny spots of bleeding
here and there...
But the anti-thrombotic effect is welcome anyway!
Cheers,

ikod

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #90 on: 02/12/2007 16:02:02 »
...This month's vit.D council newsletter
surely deserves to be posted right here:


Quote
The Vitamin D Newsletter


December, 2007
 

Does vitamin D prevent cancer?  If it does, will doctors who ignore the research end up with blood on their hands?  The press makes it easy for doctors to believe what they want to believe.  Below are six stories about the same scientific study; read the six different headlines.  According to your a priori beliefs, you can choose the story you want to believe and read that one.  Don't feel bad, we all do it.
As Walter Lippman once said, "We do not see and then believe, we believe and then we see."

Vitamin D cuts colon cancer death risk

Study Finds No Connection Between Vitamin D And Overall Cancer Deaths

Vitamin D protects against colorectal cancer

Vitamin D May Not Cut Cancer Deaths

Vitamin D protects against colorectal cancer
 

Scientists advise a vitamin D downgrade as there is no real proof ...

Another option is to read the study yourself.


Freedman DM, et al.  Prospective Study of Serum Vitamin D and Cancer Mortality in the United States. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2007 Oct 30; [Epub ahead of print]

What Dr. Freedman actually discovered is that when you take a very large group of people (16,818), some as young as seventeen, measure their vitamin D levels, and then wait about ten years to see who dies from cancer, you find 536 die and that a vitamin D level from ten years earlier is not a good predictor of who will die from cancer.  However, even a level drawn ten years earlier predicted that those with the lowest level were four times more likely to die from colon cancer, suggesting, as Ed Giovannucci has, that colon cancer may be exquisitely sensitive to vitamin D.  Furthermore, 28 women got breast cancer, 20 in the group with the lowest vitamin D level but only 8 in the highest.  The breast cancer findings were not statistically significant - even during a very long breast cancer awareness month - but can you imagine what critics at the American Cancer Society would be telling women if the numbers were reversed, if the 20 women who got breast cancer were in the high vitamin D group?



Another large epidemiological study appeared about breast cancer the very next day.  This time, the press passed on the story and the American Cancer Society was mum, no editorials by Dr. Lichtenfeld, their spokesman, in spite of breast cancer awareness month.
 

Abbas S, et al. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer - results of a large case-control study. Carcinogenesis. 2007 Oct 31; [Epub ahead of print]

In the above study, 1,394 women with breast cancer were case-controlled with a similar number of women without breast cancer.  The women with breast cancer were three times more likely to have low vitamin D levels.  That is a lot of women who may be dying during next year's breast cancer awareness month.

Both of the above studies were epidemiological, not randomized controlled trials.  Of course a randomized controlled trial has already shown a 60% reduction in internal cancers in women taking even a modest 1,100 IU per day of vitamin D.

 

Lappe JM, et al. Vitamin D and calcium supplementation reduces cancer risk: results of a randomized trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jun;85(6):1586-91.

What is interesting is the difference in the response of the Canadian Cancer Society and the American Cancer Society.  The Canadian Cancer Society has advised all Canadians to take 1,000 IU per day - not enough but a good first step - and for immediate additional large scale clinical trials.  The Canadians simply performed a risk/benefit analysis.  What is the risk of treating vitamin D deficiency versus what are the potential benefits?  They quote the American Food and Nutrition Board, which says 2,000 IU/day is safe for anyone over the age on one to take, on their own, without being under the care of a physician.  If there is little or no risk, then the next question is what are the potential benefits of treating vitamin D deficiency?  This is not quantum mechanics.

Cancer society calls for major vitamin D trial

The Canadians acted because the Canadian government knows it could save billions of dollars by treating vitamin D deficiency.

Vitamin D Deficiency Drains $9 billion From Canadian Health Care ...

If wide spread treatment of vitamin D deficiency became the rule, ask yourself, "Who would be helped and who would be hurt."  First ask yourself that question about Canada and then about the USA.  Remember, in Canada, the government directly pays for its citizen's health insurance; in the USA, private insurance is the norm.  In Canada, the government is realizing they could save billions if vitamin D deficiencies were treated.  In the USA, a large segment of the medical industry would be hurt, some anti-cancer drug manufacturers would have to close their doors, thousands of patents would become worthless, lucrative consulting contracts between industry and cancer researchers would dry up.
 
Both Canadians and Americans are shocked to think their doctors care about money, are in the illness business.  In some ways people think of their doctors like they do their local public schools.  They know medicine is a business and know doctors do things for money but they don't think their own doctors do.  Likewise they think public schools are in bad shape but think their local schools are above average. They think their doctor is above average, like their "Lake Woebegon" kids.
 
Lake Woebegon Effect
The fact is that doctors, hospitals, regional cancer centers, and the cancer drug manufacturers are all in business to make money and all of these businesses make money off the sick, not off the well.  Just a fact, but, as Aldous Huxley once observed, "Facts do not cease to exist because they are ignored."
 

Vitamin D will save the Canadian government enormous amounts of money but will cause widespread economic disruption in the USA.  Do the physicians leading the American Cancer Society have strong economic ties to the cancer industry in the form of patents, stock options, and consulting fees?  If so, what do you expect them to do?  What would you do?  It's simple.  You would believe what you have to believe, what you need to believe, that is, anything with the word "vitamin" in it is simply the latest Laetrile.  Look to Canada, not the USA, to lead the way.
 

Vitamin D may fight cancer
 
What about American physicians?  They are apparently waiting for the American trial lawyers to smell a tort.  After all, the case is quite simple.  Doctor, did you advise Mrs. Jones to avoid the sun?  Doctor, did you tell her the sun is the source of 90% of circulating stores of vitamin D?  Doctor, did you prescribe vitamin D to make up for what the sun would not be making?  Doctor, did you measure her vitamin D levels?   So you had no way of knowing if your sun-avoidance advice resulted in vitamin D deficiency?  Doctor, do you know our expert tested her vitamin D level and it was less than 20?  Doctor, did you tell her about any of the studies indicating vitamin D deficiency causes cancer?  Doctor, did you know Mrs. Jones has terminal breast cancer and will be leaving behind a loving husband and two young children?
 
And what about the American Cancer Society?  Dr. Lichtenfeld, their spokesman, quickly gave his opinion; from what I can tell the first time he ever commented on a vitamin D study.  That is, he has ignored the hundreds of positive epidemiological studies, ignored the incredible randomized controlled trial, but he jumped on this one:
 
Maybe Vitamin D Isn't The Answer After All
 
Dr. Lichtenfeld, implied the Canadian Cancer Society has acted precipitously in recommending that all Canadians take 1,000 IU of vitamin D daily.  He implied that Americans should placidly wait until more randomized controlled trials, such as Lappe JM, et al (above), accumulate before they address their vitamin D deficiency. That is, nothing should be done until more randomized controlled trials prove vitamin D prevents cancer, one randomized controlled trial is not enough; epidemiological studies are not enough, animal studies are not enough, multiple anti-cancer mechanisms of action are not enough?  If that is his position, I challenge him to point to one human randomized controlled trial that proves smoking is dangerous? 
 
If he cannot, then he must admit that the American Cancer Society's position on smoking is entirely derived from epidemiological studies, animal studies, and a demonstrable mechanism of action, not on human randomized controlled trials?  Vitamin D not only has hundreds of epidemiological studies, thousand of animal studies, and at least four anti-cancer mechanisms of action, vitamin D deficiency has something smoking does not have, it has a high quality randomized controlled trial.  If future randomized controlled trials fail to show vitamin D prevents cancer - and Dr. Lichtenfeld better hope they do - he can have the satisfaction of saying "I told you so."  If future randomized controlled trials confirm vitamin D prevents cancer, then he needs to look at his hands, the red he sees is the blood of needless cancer deaths.
 
John Cannell, MD

The Vitamin D Council

9100 San Gregorio Road

Atascadero, CA 93422

 

This is a periodic newsletter from the Vitamin D Council, a non-profit trying to end the epidemic of vitamin D deficiency.  If you don't want to get the newsletter, please hit reply and let us know. 

 

This newsletter is not copyrighted.  Please reproduce it and post it on Internet sites

 

Remember, we are a non-profit and rely on donations to publish our newsletter and maintain our website.  Send your tax-deductible contributions to:

The Vitamin D Council

9100 San Gregorio Road

Atascadero, CA 93422

Quote

Lake Wobegon effect

The Lake Wobegon effect is the human tendency to overestimate one's achievements and capabilities in relation to others. It is named for the fictional town of Lake Wobegon from the radio series A Prairie Home Companion, where, according to Garrison Keillor, "all the women are strong, all the men are good-looking, and all the children are above average."
In a similar way, a large majority of people claim to be above average; this phenomenon has been observed among drivers, CEOs, stock market analysts, college students, police officers and state education officials, among others. Experiments and surveys have repeatedly shown that most people believe that they possess attributes that are better or more desirable than average. The term is also used to describe a perceived tendency to treat children as "special" in order to boost their self-esteem, even though the children may only be average or even underperforming.[citation needed]


Studies
Surveying drivers, the Swedish researcher Ola Svenson found that 80% of respondents rated themselves in the top 30% of all drivers.[1] Asking college students about their popularity, Zuckerman and Jost (2001) showed that most students judged themselves to be "more popular than average".[2]

In 1987, John Cannell completed a study that reported the statistically impossible finding that all states claimed average student test scores above the national norm.

One College Board survey asked 829,000 high school seniors to rate themselves in a number of ways. When asked to rate their own ability to "get along with others," fewer than one percent — rated themselves as below average. Furthermore, sixty percent rated themselves in the top ten percent, and one-fourth of respondents rated themselves in the top one percent. Some have argued that more subjective traits like this may be more easily distorted.

The effect has been found repeatedly by many other studies for other traits, including fairness, virtuosity, luck, and investing ability, to name a few. It is similar and may be related to ingroup bias and wishful thinking. In contrast, the worse-than-average effect refers to a tendency to underestimate oneself in certain conditions, which may include self-handicapping behavior. It can be compared to the false consensus effect.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lake_Wobegon_effect

« Last Edit: 02/12/2007 16:53:13 by iko »

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #91 on: 02/12/2007 18:26:17 »
I have had my omega -3 upped to 4000mg a day is that a safe dosage.. It seems like a lot to me?
Shes the one that upped it.They took me off the lipitor and added the two extra omega three's! Thanks IKO! I am having a lot of bleeding from my gums .. which is odd for me.. I never bleed from there..

Ask your doc: it could 'thin' your blood too much
giving easy bruising and tiny spots of bleeding
here and there...
But the anti-thrombotic effect is welcome anyway!
Cheers,

ikod

"Life is not measured by the number of Breaths we take, but by the moments that take our breath away."

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #92 on: 02/12/2007 19:16:38 »

Shes the one that upped it.They took me off the lipitor and added the two extra omega three's! Thanks IKO! I am having a lot of bleeding from my gums .. which is odd for me.. I never bleed from there..


Bleeding gums?
Enough vitamin C in your diet?
Veggies, fresh fruits and so?
...I know you know it!  [;)]

ikod


Quote

...
What are the side effects or risks of omega-3 fatty acids?
Omega-3 fatty acids in fish oil dietary supplements are generally well tolerated, but some people may experience side effects. 
 
Some common side effects of fish oil supplements include digestive problems such as nausea, loose stools, stomach upset, and unpleasant "fishy" belching. Not all people will experience these side effects. 
 
Keep track of your caloric intake since the fish oils in supplements and in whole fish provide calories. If you have diabetes or are on a calorie-restricted diet, this is important to prevent undesired weight gain. 
 
No studies have examined the long-term safety of fish oil supplements, so regular use over a long time could pose a risk. 
 
Eating a diet rich in fish may have some associated risks. If you are pregnant or are thinking about becoming pregnant, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommends that you limit your consumption of certain fish. Some fish may contain high levels of mercury and other heavy metals that can be harmful to your child's nervous system development. Types of fish that may contain mercury include shark, swordfish, king mackerel, and tilefish. The FDA recommends that pregnant women avoid eating these types of fish during pregnancy. 
 
In some people, fish oils may reduce blood clotting and may increase the risk of bleeding.
 
 
Who may be at risk of bleeding?
The increased risk of bleeding may be observed in:

   people who take high doses -- more than 3 or 4 grams of omega-3 fatty acids per day.

   people who take "blood-thinning" medications, such as aspirin, warfarin (Coumadin), clopidogrel (Plavix),

   enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin or other related drugs.

   people who are at risk for certain types of stroke or bleeding disorders.
 
 
What can I do to minimize the risk of bleeding?
Take no more than 3 or 4 grams of fish oil supplements per day. In some cases, your physician may determine that a higher dose is right for you -- therefore, always follow your physician's instructions.
Watch for signs of bleeding while taking omega-3 fatty acids. Notify your physician if you notice nosebleeds, bleeding gums, unexplained skin bruising, or blood in your urine or stool.


more from:
  https://www.blueshieldca.com/bsc/pharmacy/askthepharmacist/browsethearchive/pharmacy_atp_browse_alt_med.jhtml
 
« Last Edit: 02/12/2007 19:26:14 by iko »

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Offline Karen W.

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #93 on: 02/12/2007 19:24:33 »
I have had some trouble with my appetite the last couple weeks.. am not very hungry.... vitamin c may be problem.. I'll try to boost it some but it seems that all the congestion I just don't have any appetite.. I ordered chicken last night with the coleslaw it tasted good but I couldn't hardly eat... I am sure once they get things treated my appetite will improve..Drinking plenty of liquids so maybe add some more juice.. and see .. I love my fruits and vegetables... just have no appetite for anything..

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Offline Andrew K Fletcher

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #94 on: 08/12/2007 09:12:44 »
A friend gave too much cod liver oil to her developing puppy, this became apparent when she went to the vets with her pup that at the time was experiencing some problems with a back limb. An x ray revealed that the bones on the rear of the dog were too soft for a good image. The vet had not come across this before and could not understand it. Eileen our friend asked my advice. I vaguely remembered two close friends of mine who were very short in stature having severely curved lower limbs telling me that they were told it happened because they were over dosed on cod liver oil when they were children by their mother, who believed at the time cod liver oil could be given in very large doses with no ill effects.

Putting two and two together, I asked if she had been giving the puppy cod liver oil. She said, yes, they puppy has been having plenty of cod liver oil. Asking how much, she was giving a tablespoon full every day.

Recommended dose ¼ teaspoon for a puppy. Interesting I thought, I wonder if cod liver oil could be preventing the bones from becoming solid enough to show an image in the xray?

Discontinued cod liver oil just in case it could be causing the problem and within a few weeks the problem went away. Now this could have been a normal event of a growing puppy but I doubt it was.

It could also be anecdotal evidence but I would hope anyone reading this will appreciate that it is an observation of events rather than an attempt to present a theory.

Regards

Andrew K Fletcher
Science is continually evolving. Nothing is set in stone. Question everything and everyone. Always consider vested interests as a reason for miss-direction. But most of all explore and find answers that you are comfortable with

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #95 on: 08/12/2007 09:52:38 »
Yes Andrew,

toxicity of cod liver oil is usually due to vitamin A overload.
Vitamin A, D and K are fat-soluble and do accumulate in the body.
It's a matter of proper amounts, like with any drug and...food itself!

Quote



Vitamin D As Treatment

How much vitamin D should one take if they have cancer? We don't know as the research is far from complete. Although vitamin D may help, it should only be taken in addition to standard cancer treatment. It should not be considered a first, or only, treatment but used in addition to regular chemotherapy or surgery. Oncologists and surgeons work miracles every day. Remember, vitamin D may be toxic in overdose, although one expert recently said, "worrying about vitamin D toxicity is like worrying about drowning when you are dying of thirst".
That said, many people think "if a little is good then a lot is better". This is definitely not true about vitamin D.


http://www.vitamindcouncil.com/cancerMain.shtml


...in the meantime, waiting for scientific confirmation, a little bit of 'cod' every day should work just fine. [;)]
Take care

ikod


...and be careful when you eat polar bear liver!  [;D]

Quote

Polar-bear liver

The liver of top predators, notably of the polar bear is unsafe to eat because it is extraordinarily high in vitamin A. This danger has been recognized since at least 1597 when Gerrit de Veer wrote in his diary that, while taking refuge in the winter in Nova Zembla, he and his men became gravely ill after eating polar-bear liver.[3]


References
^ Hussey GD, Klein M (1990). "A randomized controlled trial of vitamin A in children with severe measles". NEJM 323: 160-164. 
^ Ellison JB (1932). "Intensive vitamin therapy in measles". Br Medical J ii: 708-711. 
^ The New England Journal of Medicine : Hypervitaminosis A and Fractures.



 


Quote

Prevalence of Vitamin A DEFICIENCY


GREEN: Vit.A deficiency under control
LIGHT BLUE: No Data Available

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Vitamin_A_deficiency.PNG

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Retinol

...as you see, human beings take a higher
risk of vitamin A deficiency than overload.



ikod

« Last Edit: 13/04/2009 21:49:12 by iko »

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #96 on: 13/12/2007 22:28:36 »
...freshly published good news for diabetic rats!  [;D]
Cod liver oil supplementation improves cardiovascular
and metabolic abnormalities in streptozotocin diabetic rats.


Ceylan-Isık A, Hünkar T, Aşan E, Kaymaz F, Arı N, Söylemezoğlu T, Renda N, Soncul H, Bali M, Karasu C; (Antioxidants in Diabetes-Induced Complications) The ADIC Study Group.
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey.

Abnormalities in the metabolism of essential fatty acids and the results of increased oxidative stress have been implicated in cardiovascular disorders observed in diabetes mellitus. This study, therefore, aimed to investigate the effects of cod liver oil (CLO, Lysi Ltd, Iceland), which comprises mainly an antioxidant vitamin A, n:3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n:3 PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), on cardiovascular abnormalities in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats. Two days after single STZ (55 mg kg(-1), i.p.) or vehicle injection, diabetes was verified by increased blood glucose, and non-diabetic and diabetic rats were left untreated or treated with CLO (0.5 mL kg(-1) daily, by intragastric probing) for 12 weeks. Plasma glucose, triacylglycerol and cholesterol concentrations were significantly elevated in 12-week untreated-diabetic rats; CLO provided better weight gain, entirely prevented the plasma lipid abnormalities, but partially controlled the glycaemia in diabetic rats. In isolated aorta rings, diabetes resulted in increased phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction and isoprenaline-induced vasorelaxation, impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and unchanged responsiveness to sodium nitroprusside. CLO treatment completely prevented endothelial deficiency, partly corrected the phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction and did not affect the responses to isoprenaline and sodium nitroprusside in diabetic aorta. Diabetes also produced a marked decrease in the rate of spontaneously beating right atria and a significant increase in basal contractile force of left ventricular papillary muscle. The responsiveness of right atria to the positive chronotropic effect of isoprenaline was significantly decreased in diabetic rats, and was increased in CLO-treated diabetic rats. The positive chronotropic effect of noradrenaline was markedly increased in diabetic atria, but prevented by CLO treatment. Diabetes also resulted in an increased positive inotropic response of papillary muscle to both noradrenaline and isoprenaline, which were prevented by CLO treatment. CLO treatment also resulted in lower tissue sensitivity (pD(2)) to these agonists in diabetic papillary muscle. Ventricular hydroxyproline content was found to be unchanged among the experimental groups. The ultrastructure of diabetic myocardium displayed various degenerations (i.e. intracellular oedema, myofibrillar fragmentation, condensed pleomorphic mitochondria, thick capillary irregular basement membrane, swollen endothelial cells), which were partially prevented by CLO treatment.
We conclude that the supplementation with CLO is effective in preventing cardiovascular disorders observed in experimental diabetes.

J Pharm Pharmacol. 2007 Dec;59(12):1629-1641.



Now then, is this positive effect due to
vitamin A, vitamin D3, omega-3 fatty acids,
or to the combination of all these substances?

« Last Edit: 29/12/2007 13:34:52 by iko »

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #97 on: 08/01/2008 21:54:17 »
Happy New Year
CLOthread readers!   [8D]


Vitamin D as an immune modulator in multiple sclerosis, a review.


Smolders J, Damoiseaux J, Menheere P, Hupperts R.
Department of Neurology, University Hospital Maastricht, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

The role of vitamin D in calcium homeostasis is well known. More recently vitamin D has become a topic of interest in immune regulation and multiple sclerosis. The main reason for this is the observed geographical distribution of multiple sclerosis. Areas with high sunlight exposure, the principal inducer of vitamin D synthesis, have a relatively low prevalence of multiple sclerosis and vice versa. Furthermore, low levels of the principal vitamin D metabolite (25-hydroxy vitamin D) in the circulation are associated with a high incidence of multiple sclerosis. Other epidemiological evidence also supports the view that vitamin D metabolites have an immune and disease modulating effect in multiple sclerosis. Experimental research in vitro and in animal models has further clarified the interaction of vitamin D metabolites with the immune system. The evidence obtained from these studies strongly supports a model in which vitamin D mediates a shift to a more anti-inflammatory immune response, and in particular to enhanced regulatory T cell functionality. In the current review we link the basic knowledge on vitamin D and immune regulation with the vitamin D related observations in multiple sclerosis. We conclude that there is a sound basis on which to initiate double-blind placebo-controlled trials that not only address the effect of vitamin D on the clinical outcome of multiple sclerosis, but also on the regulatory T cell compartment.

J Neuroimmunol. 2008 Jan 3 [Epub ahead of print]


« Last Edit: 09/01/2008 08:39:12 by iko »

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #98 on: 11/01/2008 12:54:10 »
Vitamin D deficiency?
What a pain without 'cod'! [;)]

from:
Medical Progress:  Vitamin D Deficiency.
Michael F. Holick, N.Engl.J.Med.  357;3 July 19, 2007.

Quote
...
Osteomalacia can often be diagnosed by using moderate force to press the thumb on the sternum or anterior tibia, which can elicit bone pain. (7,40) One study showed that 93% of persons 10 to 65 years of age who were admitted to a hospital emergency department with muscle aches and bone pain and who had a wide variety of diagnoses, including fibromialgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, and depression, were deficient in vitamin D.(41)...

and here is reference number 41:

Prevalence of severe hypovitaminosis D
in patients with persistent, nonspecific musculoskeletal pain.

Plotnikoff GA, Quigley JM.
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minn, USA. gregory@sc.itc.keio.ac.jp

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in primary care outpatients with persistent, nonspecific musculoskeletal pain syndromes refractory to standard therapies. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 150 patients presented consecutively between February 2000 and June 2002 with persistent, nonspecific musculoskeletal pain to the Community University Health Care Center, a university-affiliated inner city primary care clinic in Minneapolis, Minn (45 degrees north). Immigrant (n = 83) and nonimmigrant (n = 67) persons of both sexes, aged 10 to 65 years, from 6 broad ethnic groups were screened for vitamin D status. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: Of the African American, East African, Hispanic, and American Indian patients, 100% had deficient levels of vitamin D (< or = 20 ng/mL). Of all patients, 93% (140/ 150) had deficient levels of vitamin D (mean, 12.08 ng/mL; 95% confidence interval, 11.18-12.99 ng/mL). Nonimmigrants had vitamin D levels as deficient as immigrants (P = .48). Levels of vitamin D in men were as deficient as in women (P = .42). Of all patients, 28% (42/150) had severely deficient vitamin D levels (< or = 8 ng/mL), including 55% of whom were younger than 30 years. Five patients, 4 of whom were aged 35 years or younger, had vitamin D serum levels below the level of detection. The severity of deficiency was disproportionate by age for young women (P < .001), by sex for East African patients (P < .001), and by race for African American patients (P = .006). Season was not a significant factor in determining vitamin D serum levels (P = .06).

CONCLUSION: All patients with persistent, nonspecific musculoskeletal pain are at high risk for the consequences of unrecognized and untreated severe hypovitaminosis D. This risk extends to those considered at low risk for vitamin D deficiency: nonelderly, nonhousebound, or nonimmigrant persons of either sex. Nonimmigrant women of childbearing age with such pain appear to be at greatest risk for misdiagnosis or delayed diagnosis. Because osteomalacia is a known cause of persistent, nonspecific musculoskeletal pain, screening all outpatients with such pain for hypovitaminosis D should be standard practice in clinical care.

Mayo Clin Proc. 2003 Dec;78(12):1463-70.


« Last Edit: 21/06/2008 09:36:38 by iko »

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #99 on: 27/01/2008 18:45:11 »

Quote
Could cod liver oil use prevent or reduce
incidence of mutations during pregnancy and later on?



Vitamin D compounds: clinical development as cancer therapy and prevention agents.

While 1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol (calcitriol) is best recognized for its effects on bone and mineral metabolism, epidemiological data indicate that low vitamin D levels may play a role in the genesis and progression of breast, lung, colorectal and prostate cancer, as well as malignant lymphoma and melanoma. Calcitriol has strong antiproliferative effects in prostate, breast, colorectal, head/neck and lung cancer, as well as lymphoma, leukemia and myeloma model systems.
Antiproliferative effects are seen in vitro and in vivo.
The mechanisms of these effects are associated with G0/G1 arrest, induction of apoptosis, differentiation and modulation of growth factor-mediated signaling in tumor cells. In addition to the direct effects on tumor cells, recent data strongly support the hypothesis that the stromal effects of vitamin D analogs (e.g., direct effects on tumor vasculature) are also important in the antiproliferative effects.
Antitumor effects are seen in a wide variety of tumor types and there are few data to suggest that vitamin D-based approaches are more effective in any one tumor type. Glucocorticoids potentiate the antitumor effect of calcitriol and decrease calcitriol-induced hypercalcemia. In addition, calcitriol potentiates the antitumor effects of many cytotoxic agents. Preclinical data indicate that maximal antitumor effects are seen with pharmacological doses of calcitriol and that such exposure can be safely achieved in animals using a high dose, intermittent schedule of administration. AUC and C(max) calcitriol concentrations of 32 ng.h/ml and 9.2 ng/ml are associated with striking antitumor effects in a murine squamous cell carcinoma model and there is increasing evidence from clinical trials that such exposures can be safely attained in patients. Another approach to maximizing intra-tumoral exposure to vitamin D analogs is to inhibit their catabolism. The data clearly indicate that agents which inhibit the major vitamin D catabolizing enzyme, CYP24 (24 hydroxylase), potentiate calcitriol killing of prostate tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. Phase I and II trials of calcitriol, either alone or in combination with carboplatin, taxanes or dexamethasone, as well as the non-specific CYP24 inhibitor, ketoconazole, have been initiated in patients with androgen-dependent and -independent prostate cancer and other advanced cancers. The data indicate that high-dose calcitriol is feasible on an intermittent schedule, no dose-limiting toxicity has been encountered, but the optimal dose and schedule remain to be delineated. Clinical responses have been seen with the combination of high-dose calcitriol + dexamethasone in androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC) and, in a large randomized trial in men with AIPC, potentiation of the antitumor effects of docetaxel were seen.

from: Trump DL et al.


Anticancer Res. 2006 Jul-Aug;26(4A):2551-6.




...the 'protective effect' of cod liver oil
versus childhood leukemia
suggested by the
Shanghai study in 1988 finds a support in
this more recent report about vitamin D:



Anticlastogenic potential of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in murine lymphoma.

Sarkar A, Saha BK, Basak R, Mukhopadhyay I, Karmakar R, Chatterjee M.
Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Calcutta, India.

Vitamin D3, having gained scientific interest for so long because of its role in mineral homeostasis, has now received great importance as a possible antitumor agent.
This study was undertaken in an attempt to visualize the possible anticlastogenic potential of the vitamin in an ascitic mouse lymphoma model namely, Dalton's lymphoma. Frequencies of structural type chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges and micronucleus assays have been chosen as the genotoxic endpoints in the proposed investigation. All these cytogenetic markers have been found to be markedly elevated during the progression of lymphoma in bone marrow cells.
Vitamin D3 effectively suppressed the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges in the lymphoma-bearing mice during the entire phase of tumor growth that significantly coupled with almost two-fold increase in survival time (37 +/- 2 and 68 +/- 2 days in lymphoma controls and vitamin D3-treated lymphoma-bearing mice, respectively), thus substantiating the antineoplastic efficacy of this secosteroid. The outcome of this study also is clearly reflected in the depletion of circulating (serum) vitamin D3 levels in the lymphoma control mice compared with normal (vehicle) controls while a still higher level was maintained in the VD3-treated lymphoma mice. This anticlastogenic property of the vitamin has so far been neglected and this is the first attempt to unravel the vitamin D3's effect in combating tumor development in vivo by limiting the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges and micronuclei at least in transplantable murine model studied herein.

Cancer Lett. 2000 Mar 13;150(1):1-13
.


...but an anti-mutagenic effect of vitamin A
had been previously reported by several investigators.
This is one example:



Antimutagenicity profiles of some natural substances.

Brockman HE, Stack HF, Waters MD.
Department of Biological Sciences, Illinois State University, Normal 61761.

Selected antimutagenicity listings and profiles have been prepared from the literature on the antimutagenicity of retinoids and the carotenoid beta-carotene. The antimutagenicity profiles show: (1) a single antimutagen (e.g., retinol) tested in combination with various mutagens or (2) antimutagens tested against a single mutagen (e.g., aflatoxin B1).
Data are presented in the profiles showing a dose range for a given antimutagen and a single dose for the corresponding mutagen; inhibition as well as enhancement of mutagenic activity is indicated. Information was found in the literature on the testing of selected combinations of 16 retinoids and carotenoids vs. 33 mutagens. Of 528 possible antimutagen-mutagen combinations, only 82 (16%) have been evaluated. The most completely evaluated retinoids are retinol (28 mutagens), retinoic acid and retinol acetate (7 mutagens each), and retinal and retinol palmitate (6 mutagens each). beta-Carotene is the most frequently tested carotenoid (15 mutagens). Of the remaining retinoids and carotenoids, 8 were evaluated in combination with a single mutagen and the other 2 were tested against only 2 or 3 mutagens. Most of the data on antimutagenicity in vitro are available for S. typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100. Substantial data also are available for sister-chromatid exchanges in vitro and chromosome aberrations in vitro and in vivo. This report emphasizes the metabolic as well as the antimutagenic effects of retinoids in vitro and in vivo.

Mutat Res. 1992 Jun;267(2):157-72
.



One, two, and three!
Vitamin D, vitamin A, and even
omega-3 fatty acids have an
anti-mutagenic capability.
A natural mix of rare and precious moleculae
in a cheap, smelly, light yellow oil...

Desmutagenic and bio-antimutagenic activity of docosahexaenoic acid
and eicosapentaenoic acid in cultured Chinese hamster V79 cells.

Kuroda Y, Shima N, Yazawa K, Kaji K.
National Institute of Genetics, Mishima, 411-8540, Shizuoka, Japan.

The antimutagenic activities of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were examined by studying their effects on induction of 6-thioguanine (6TG)-resistant mutations by ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) in cultured Chinese hamster V79 cells.
DRA had a remarkable inhibitory effect against the cytotoxicity of EMS, when cells were simultaneously-treated with EMS, showing a blocking or scavenging activity of DHA in reduction of surviving fraction of cells. DHA had not so significant effect, when cells were treated before and after treatment with EMS. On the other hand, EPA had marked inhibiting effects against cytotoxicity of EMS, when cells were treated with EPA, before, simultaneous and after treatment with EMS. Against the induction of mutations by EMS, an antimutagenic activity of DHA was found when cells were pre-treated, simultaneously-treated or post-treated with DHA. EPA was also effective in reducing EMS-induced 6TG-resistant mutations when the cells were treated using the three different treatment procedures described above.
The results suggest that in cultured Chinese hamster V79 cells, DHA and EPA may have both desmutagenic activity, which inactivates EMS chemically and/or enzymatically and bio-antimutagenic activity which suppresses mutation fixation after DNA is damaged by EMS.

Mutat Res. 2001 Oct 18;497(1-2):123-30.



One, two, and three...
and four! Cod liver oil contains
even vitamin E that has similar
antioxidant properties, and who
knows if this is the end of it...


Not long ago I read that those peculiar omega-3 so good for our brain (EPA & DHA) that
we get from sea creatures, mainly blue-fish, seem to be made by the ocean plankton itself.
Humans and even those fishlets are not able to synthesize them.
It is a wonderful hypothesis: those special unsaturated fatty acids represent a sort of vitamin
for all of us and come directly from where life originated million years ago on this Planet...
Our survival seems to be inevitably bound to the sea and the sunshine.



ikod



« Last Edit: 01/02/2008 22:57:31 by iko »